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Climate change presents a multidimensional challenge for the Arab region, deeply impacting energy transitions, economic diversification and socioeconomic resilience. This chapter examines climate change policies in a multi-level, comparative setting in four Arab countries: the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, which are net oil-exporting rentier economies; and Egypt and Morocco which are net oil importers boasting the region’s largest renewable energy capacities. Examining climate change policies at the domestic and international levels, the chapter answers three questions. Why are recent changes in domestic policy not reflected at the international level? Are there discernible differences in policy choices by oil exporters versus non-oil-exporting countries? Is a convergence of domestic rhetoric and policy and international policy positions on the horizon? The chapter finds Arab countries have made significant, even if still inadequate, progress in domestic climate policies and governance frameworks. At the international level, they are far from a unitary group, and several misalignments exist between their domestic and international-level policies and between rhetoric and action. Domestic energy diversification strategies currently act as the major driver of domestic climate policies, and multi-stakeholder governance models and a strong strategic vision offer most hope for more ambitious policies going forward at both levels.