Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book

2021 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Climbing Energy Ladder or Fuel Stacking in Indian Households: A Multinomial Logit Approach

Author: Chetana Chaudhuri

Published in: Sustainable Development Insights from India

Publisher: Springer Singapore

share
SHARE

Abstract

There has been a significant increase in the use of clean fuels for cooking like LPG in India in past years, especially after the government started promoting LPG through different programmes. But it is often found that, in spite of the fact that some households who have LPG connectivity, are still continuing with the use of unclean fuels like biomass (fuelwood, dung-cake etc.) or kerosene in their households. The present study analyses whether the households are actually switching fuels or stacking multiple fuels though they have access to clean energy. The study highlights the role of socio-economic factors that influence a household’s probability of relying on a single fuel or multiple fuels simultaneously for cooking in India. The paper uses multinomial logit model to analyse their role in the choice between only biomass, biomass with other fuels, kerosene and no biomass, LPG and no biomass. The data is derived from Consumer Expenditure Survey of National Sample Survey Organization. The analysis is done for the rural and urban sectors separately. The model shows that in rural areas households prefer biomass or biomass with other fuels over LPG with larger number of household members, increase in the age of the household head, self-employed groups or even increase in education level of household heads in some occasions, while in urban areas LPG is the preferred choice of fuel.
Literature
go back to reference Adamu, M. B., Adamu, H., Ade, S. M., & Akeh, G. I. (2020). Household energy consumption in Nigeria: A review on the applicability of the energy ladder model. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 24(2), 237–244. CrossRef Adamu, M. B., Adamu, H., Ade, S. M., & Akeh, G. I. (2020). Household energy consumption in Nigeria: A review on the applicability of the energy ladder model. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 24(2), 237–244. CrossRef
go back to reference Arlington, L., Patel, A. B., Simmons, E., Kurhe, K., Prakash, A., Rao, S. R., et al. (2019). Duration of solid fuel cookstove use is associated with increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection among children under six months in rural central India. PLoS ONE, 14(10), e0224374. CrossRef Arlington, L., Patel, A. B., Simmons, E., Kurhe, K., Prakash, A., Rao, S. R., et al. (2019). Duration of solid fuel cookstove use is associated with increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection among children under six months in rural central India. PLoS ONE, 14(10), e0224374. CrossRef
go back to reference Baldwin, S. F. (1986). Bìomass stoves: Engineering design, development and dissemination, volunteers in technical assistance.  Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. Princeton University, Princeton NJ. Baldwin, S. F. (1986). Bìomass stoves: Engineering design, development and dissemination, volunteers in technical assistance.  Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. Princeton University, Princeton NJ.
go back to reference Chafe, Z. A., Brauer, M., Klimont, Z., Van Dingenen, R., Mehta, S., Rao, S., Riahi, K., Dentener, F. & Smith, K. R. (2014). Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to ambient PM2. 5 air pollution and the burden of disease. Environmental health perspectives, 122(12), 1314–1320. Chafe, Z. A., Brauer, M., Klimont, Z., Van Dingenen, R., Mehta, S., Rao, S., Riahi, K., Dentener, F. & Smith, K. R. (2014). Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to ambient PM2. 5 air pollution and the burden of disease. Environmental health perspectives, 122(12), 1314–1320.
go back to reference Cheng, C. Y., & Urpelainen, J. (2014). Fuel stacking in India: Changes in the cooking and lighting mix, 1987–2010. Energy, 76, 306–317. CrossRef Cheng, C. Y., & Urpelainen, J. (2014). Fuel stacking in India: Changes in the cooking and lighting mix, 1987–2010. Energy, 76, 306–317. CrossRef
go back to reference Choudhuri, P., & Desai, S. (2020). Gender inequalities and household fuel choice in India.  Journal of Cleaner Production, 121487. Choudhuri, P., & Desai, S. (2020). Gender inequalities and household fuel choice in India.  Journal of Cleaner Production, 121487.
go back to reference Choumert-Nkolo, J., Motel, P. C., & Le Roux, L. (2019). Stacking up the ladder: A panel data analysis of Tanzanian household energy choices. World Development, 115, 222–235. CrossRef Choumert-Nkolo, J., Motel, P. C., & Le Roux, L. (2019). Stacking up the ladder: A panel data analysis of Tanzanian household energy choices. World Development, 115, 222–235. CrossRef
go back to reference Danlami, A. H., Applanaidu, S. D., & Islam, R. (2019). Movement towards the adoption of non-traditional household lighting fuel energy in developing areas. Biofuels, 10(5), 623–633. CrossRef Danlami, A. H., Applanaidu, S. D., & Islam, R. (2019). Movement towards the adoption of non-traditional household lighting fuel energy in developing areas. Biofuels, 10(5), 623–633. CrossRef
go back to reference Davis, M. (1998). Rural household energy consumption: The effects of access to electricity—evidence from South Africa. Energy policy, 26(3), 207–217. CrossRef Davis, M. (1998). Rural household energy consumption: The effects of access to electricity—evidence from South Africa. Energy policy, 26(3), 207–217. CrossRef
go back to reference Ekholm, T., Krey, V., Pachauri, S., & Riahi, K. (2010). Determinants of household energy consumption in India. Energy Policy, 38(10), 5696–5707. CrossRef Ekholm, T., Krey, V., Pachauri, S., & Riahi, K. (2010). Determinants of household energy consumption in India. Energy Policy, 38(10), 5696–5707. CrossRef
go back to reference Epstein, M. B., Bates, M. N., Arora, N. K., Balakrishnan, K., Jack, D. W., & Smith, K. R. (2013). Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: The separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(5), 523–532. CrossRef Epstein, M. B., Bates, M. N., Arora, N. K., Balakrishnan, K., Jack, D. W., & Smith, K. R. (2013). Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: The separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(5), 523–532. CrossRef
go back to reference ESMAP. (1999). Household energy strategies for urban India, the case of Hyderabad.  Report of the Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program and the Indstitute of Energy and Environmental Studies, (214/99). ESMAP. (1999). Household energy strategies for urban India, the case of Hyderabad.  Report of the Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program and the Indstitute of Energy and Environmental Studies, (214/99).
go back to reference Foley, G. (1995). Photovoltaic applications in rural areas of the developing world. The World Bank. Foley, G. (1995). Photovoltaic applications in rural areas of the developing world. The World Bank.
go back to reference Gould, C. F., Urpelainen, J., & Sais, J. H. (2020). The role of education and attitudes in cooking fuel choice: Evidence from two states in India. Energy for Sustainable Development, 54, 36–50. CrossRef Gould, C. F., Urpelainen, J., & Sais, J. H. (2020). The role of education and attitudes in cooking fuel choice: Evidence from two states in India. Energy for Sustainable Development, 54, 36–50. CrossRef
go back to reference Gupta, G., & Köhlin, G. (2006). Preferences for domestic fuel: Analysis with socio-economic factors and rankings in Kolkata, India. Ecological Economics, 57(1), 107–121. CrossRef Gupta, G., & Köhlin, G. (2006). Preferences for domestic fuel: Analysis with socio-economic factors and rankings in Kolkata, India. Ecological Economics, 57(1), 107–121. CrossRef
go back to reference Hanna, R., & Oliva, P. (2015). Moving up the energy ladder: The effect of an increase in economic well-being on the fuel consumption choices of the poor in India. American Economic Review, 105(5), 242–246. CrossRef Hanna, R., & Oliva, P. (2015). Moving up the energy ladder: The effect of an increase in economic well-being on the fuel consumption choices of the poor in India. American Economic Review, 105(5), 242–246. CrossRef
go back to reference Heltberg, R. (2005). Factors determining household fuel choice in Guatemala. Environment and development economics, 10(3), 337–361. CrossRef Heltberg, R. (2005). Factors determining household fuel choice in Guatemala. Environment and development economics, 10(3), 337–361. CrossRef
go back to reference Herington, M. J., & Malakar, Y. (2016). Who is energy poor? Revisiting energy (in) security in the case of Nepal. Energy Research and Social Science, 21, 49–53. CrossRef Herington, M. J., & Malakar, Y. (2016). Who is energy poor? Revisiting energy (in) security in the case of Nepal. Energy Research and Social Science, 21, 49–53. CrossRef
go back to reference Hiemstra-Van der Horst, G., & Hovorka, A. J. (2008). Reassessing the “energy ladder”: Household energy use in Maun, Botswana. Energy Policy, 36(9), 3333–3344. CrossRef Hiemstra-Van der Horst, G., & Hovorka, A. J. (2008). Reassessing the “energy ladder”: Household energy use in Maun, Botswana. Energy Policy, 36(9), 3333–3344. CrossRef
go back to reference Hosier, R. H., & Dowd, J. (1987). Household fuel choice in Zimbabwe: An empirical test of the energy ladder hypothesis. Resources and energy, 9(4), 347–361. CrossRef Hosier, R. H., & Dowd, J. (1987). Household fuel choice in Zimbabwe: An empirical test of the energy ladder hypothesis. Resources and energy, 9(4), 347–361. CrossRef
go back to reference Hosier, R. H., & Dowd, J. (1988). Household energy use in Zimbabwe: An analysis of consumption patterns and fuel choice. Household energy use in Zimbabwe: An analysis of consumption patterns and fuel choice. 83–109. Hosier, R. H., & Dowd, J. (1988). Household energy use in Zimbabwe: An analysis of consumption patterns and fuel choice. Household energy use in Zimbabwe: An analysis of consumption patterns and fuel choice. 83–109.
go back to reference Hosier, R. H., & Kipondya, W. (1993). Urban household energy use in Tanzania: Prices, substitutes and poverty. Energy Policy, 21(5), 454–473. CrossRef Hosier, R. H., & Kipondya, W. (1993). Urban household energy use in Tanzania: Prices, substitutes and poverty. Energy Policy, 21(5), 454–473. CrossRef
go back to reference Hughes, G., & Dunleavy, M. (2000). Why do babies and young children die in India?. The World Bank: The role of the household environment. Hughes, G., & Dunleavy, M. (2000). Why do babies and young children die in India?. The World Bank: The role of the household environment.
go back to reference James, B. S., Shetty, R. S., Kamath, A., & Shetty, A. (2020). Household cooking fuel use and its health effects among rural women in southern India—A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 15(4), e0231757. CrossRef James, B. S., Shetty, R. S., Kamath, A., & Shetty, A. (2020). Household cooking fuel use and its health effects among rural women in southern India—A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE, 15(4), e0231757. CrossRef
go back to reference Joon, V., Chandra, A., & Bhattacharya, M. (2009). Household energy consumption pattern and socio-cultural dimensions associated with it: A case study of rural Haryana, India.  Biomass and bioenergy,  33(11), 1509–1512. Joon, V., Chandra, A., & Bhattacharya, M. (2009). Household energy consumption pattern and socio-cultural dimensions associated with it: A case study of rural Haryana, India.  Biomass and bioenergy33(11), 1509–1512.
go back to reference Jumbe, C. B., & Angelsen, A. (2011). Modeling choice of fuelwood source among rural households in Malawi: A multinomial probit analysis. Energy Economics, 33(5), 732–738. CrossRef Jumbe, C. B., & Angelsen, A. (2011). Modeling choice of fuelwood source among rural households in Malawi: A multinomial probit analysis. Energy Economics, 33(5), 732–738. CrossRef
go back to reference Karekezi, S., McDade, S., Boardman, B., & Kimani, J. (2012). Energy, poverty, and development. In T. B. Johansson, N. Nakicenovic, A. Patwardhan, & L. Gomez-Echeverri (Eds.), Global energy assessment—Toward a sustainable future (pp. 151–190). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Karekezi, S., McDade, S., Boardman, B., & Kimani, J. (2012). Energy, poverty, and development. In T. B. Johansson, N. Nakicenovic, A. Patwardhan, & L. Gomez-Echeverri (Eds.), Global energy assessment—Toward a sustainable future (pp. 151–190). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Leach, G., & Mearns, R. (1988). Beyond the fuelwood crisis: People, land and trees in Africa (pp. 23–40). London: Earthscan. Leach, G., & Mearns, R. (1988). Beyond the fuelwood crisis: People, land and trees in Africa (pp. 23–40). London: Earthscan.
go back to reference Liao, H., Chen, T., Tang, X., & Wu, J. (2019). Fuel choices for cooking in China: Analysis based on multinomial logit model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 225, 104–111. CrossRef Liao, H., Chen, T., Tang, X., & Wu, J. (2019). Fuel choices for cooking in China: Analysis based on multinomial logit model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 225, 104–111. CrossRef
go back to reference Maconachie, R., Tanko, A., & Zakariya, M. (2009). Descending the energy ladder? Oil price shocks and domestic fuel choices in Kano, Nigeria. Land Use Policy, 26(4), 1090–1099. CrossRef Maconachie, R., Tanko, A., & Zakariya, M. (2009). Descending the energy ladder? Oil price shocks and domestic fuel choices in Kano, Nigeria. Land Use Policy, 26(4), 1090–1099. CrossRef
go back to reference Masera, O. R., Saatkamp, B. D., & Kammen, D. M. (2000). From linear fuel switching to multiple cooking strategies: A critique and alternative to the energy ladder model. World Development, 28(12), 2083–2103. CrossRef Masera, O. R., Saatkamp, B. D., & Kammen, D. M. (2000). From linear fuel switching to multiple cooking strategies: A critique and alternative to the energy ladder model. World Development, 28(12), 2083–2103. CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, G., & Mobarak, A. M. (2013).  Gender differences in preferences, intra-household externalities, and low demand for improved cookstoves (No. w18964). National Bureau of Economic Research. Miller, G., & Mobarak, A. M. (2013).  Gender differences in preferences, intra-household externalities, and low demand for improved cookstoves (No. w18964). National Bureau of Economic Research.
go back to reference Modi, V., McDade, S., Lallement, D., & Saghir, J. (2005). Energy Services for the Millennium Development Goals.  Energy services for the millennium development goals. Modi, V., McDade, S., Lallement, D., & Saghir, J. (2005). Energy Services for the Millennium Development Goals.  Energy services for the millennium development goals.
go back to reference Murphy, J. T. (2001). Making the energy transition in rural East Africa: Is leapfrogging an alternative? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 68(2), 173–193. CrossRef Murphy, J. T. (2001). Making the energy transition in rural East Africa: Is leapfrogging an alternative? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 68(2), 173–193. CrossRef
go back to reference MHFW, N. (2015). Report of the steering committee on air pollution and health-related issues.  Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. MHFW, N. (2015). Report of the steering committee on air pollution and health-related issues.  Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi.
go back to reference Nansaior, A., Patanothai, A., Rambo, A. T., & Simaraks, S. (2011). Climbing the energy ladder or diversifying energy sources? The continuing importance of household use of biomass energy in urbanizing communities in Northeast Thailand. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(10), 4180–4188. CrossRef Nansaior, A., Patanothai, A., Rambo, A. T., & Simaraks, S. (2011). Climbing the energy ladder or diversifying energy sources? The continuing importance of household use of biomass energy in urbanizing communities in Northeast Thailand. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(10), 4180–4188. CrossRef
go back to reference O’Neill, B. C., Ren, X., Jiang, L., & Dalton, M. (2012). The effect of urbanization on energy use in India and China in the iPETS model. Energy Economics, 34, S339–S345. CrossRef O’Neill, B. C., Ren, X., Jiang, L., & Dalton, M. (2012). The effect of urbanization on energy use in India and China in the iPETS model. Energy Economics, 34, S339–S345. CrossRef
go back to reference Pachauri, S., & Jiang, L. (2008). The household energy transition in India and China. Energy policy, 36(11), 4022–4035. CrossRef Pachauri, S., & Jiang, L. (2008). The household energy transition in India and China. Energy policy, 36(11), 4022–4035. CrossRef
go back to reference Pandey, V. L., & Chaubal, A. (2011). Comprehending household cooking energy choice in rural India. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(11), 4724–4731. CrossRef Pandey, V. L., & Chaubal, A. (2011). Comprehending household cooking energy choice in rural India. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(11), 4724–4731. CrossRef
go back to reference Patel, R., & Chauhan, S. (2020). Risk of low birth weight and exposure to type of cooking fuel in India. International Journal of Pregnancy & Child Birth for MedCrave Group, 6(1), 8–11. CrossRef Patel, R., & Chauhan, S. (2020). Risk of low birth weight and exposure to type of cooking fuel in India. International Journal of Pregnancy & Child Birth for MedCrave Group, 6(1), 8–11. CrossRef
go back to reference Patel, S. K., Patel, S., & Kumar, A. (2019). Effects of cooking fuel sources on the respiratory health of children: Evidence from the Annual Health Survey, Uttar Pradesh, India. Public health, 169, 59–68. CrossRef Patel, S. K., Patel, S., & Kumar, A. (2019). Effects of cooking fuel sources on the respiratory health of children: Evidence from the Annual Health Survey, Uttar Pradesh, India. Public health, 169, 59–68. CrossRef
go back to reference Rahut, D. B., Das, S., De Groote, H., & Behera, B. (2014). Determinants of household energy use in Bhutan. Energy, 69, 661–672. CrossRef Rahut, D. B., Das, S., De Groote, H., & Behera, B. (2014). Determinants of household energy use in Bhutan. Energy, 69, 661–672. CrossRef
go back to reference Rao, M. N., & Reddy, B. S. (2007). Variations in energy use by Indian households: An analysis of micro level data. Energy, 32(2), 143–153. CrossRef Rao, M. N., & Reddy, B. S. (2007). Variations in energy use by Indian households: An analysis of micro level data. Energy, 32(2), 143–153. CrossRef
go back to reference Ravindra, K., Kaur-Sidhu, M., Mor, S., & John, S. (2019). Trend in household energy consumption pattern in India: A case study on the influence of socio-cultural factors for the choice of clean fuel use. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 1024–1034. CrossRef Ravindra, K., Kaur-Sidhu, M., Mor, S., & John, S. (2019). Trend in household energy consumption pattern in India: A case study on the influence of socio-cultural factors for the choice of clean fuel use. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 1024–1034. CrossRef
go back to reference Ravindranath, N. H., & Ramakrishna, J. (1997). Energy options for cooking in India. Energy policy, 25(1), 63–75. CrossRef Ravindranath, N. H., & Ramakrishna, J. (1997). Energy options for cooking in India. Energy policy, 25(1), 63–75. CrossRef
go back to reference Reddy, B. S. (2003). Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India’s household sector. Energy Policy, 31(11), 1117–1127. CrossRef Reddy, B. S. (2003). Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India’s household sector. Energy Policy, 31(11), 1117–1127. CrossRef
go back to reference Reddy, B. S. (2004). Economic and social dimensions of household energy use: A case study of India, In Ortega, E. & Ulgiati, S. (editors): Proceedings of IV Biennial International Workshop “Advances in Energy Studies”. Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil. June 16–19, 469–477. Reddy, B. S. (2004). Economic and social dimensions of household energy use: A case study of India, In Ortega, E. & Ulgiati, S. (editors): Proceedings of IV Biennial International Workshop “Advances in Energy Studies”. Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil. June 16–19, 469–477.
go back to reference Saghir, J. (2004). Energy and poverty: Myths, links, and policy issues. Energy Sector Notes. Energy and Mining Sector Board, 4.  World Bank, Washington, DC. Saghir, J. (2004). Energy and poverty: Myths, links, and policy issues. Energy Sector Notes. Energy and Mining Sector Board, 4.  World Bank, Washington, DC.
go back to reference Sehgal, M., Rizwan, S. A., & Krishnan, A. (2014). Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India. Global Health Action, 7(1), 25326. CrossRef Sehgal, M., Rizwan, S. A., & Krishnan, A. (2014). Disease burden due to biomass cooking-fuel-related household air pollution among women in India. Global Health Action, 7(1), 25326. CrossRef
go back to reference Sharma, D., Ravindra, K., Kaur, M., Prinja, S., & Mor, S. (2020). Cost evaluation of different household fuels and identification of the barriers for the choice of clean cooking fuels in India. Sustainable Cities and Society, 52, 101825. CrossRef Sharma, D., Ravindra, K., Kaur, M., Prinja, S., & Mor, S. (2020). Cost evaluation of different household fuels and identification of the barriers for the choice of clean cooking fuels in India. Sustainable Cities and Society, 52, 101825. CrossRef
go back to reference Uhunamure, S. E., Nethengwe, N. S., & Musyoki, A. (2017). Driving forces for fuelwood use in households in the Thulamela municipality, South Africa. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 28(1), 25–34. CrossRef Uhunamure, S. E., Nethengwe, N. S., & Musyoki, A. (2017). Driving forces for fuelwood use in households in the Thulamela municipality, South Africa. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 28(1), 25–34. CrossRef
go back to reference Van der Kroon, B., Brouwer, R., & Van Beukering, P. J. (2013). The energy ladder: Theoretical myth or empirical truth? Results from a meta-analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, 504–513. CrossRef Van der Kroon, B., Brouwer, R., & Van Beukering, P. J. (2013). The energy ladder: Theoretical myth or empirical truth? Results from a meta-analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, 504–513. CrossRef
go back to reference Viswanathan, B., & Kumar, K. S. K. (2005). Cooking fuel use patterns in India: 1983–2000. Energy Policy, 33(8), 1021–1036. CrossRef Viswanathan, B., & Kumar, K. S. K. (2005). Cooking fuel use patterns in India: 1983–2000. Energy Policy, 33(8), 1021–1036. CrossRef
go back to reference Warwick, H., & Doig, A. (2004). Smoke–The killer in the kitchen. London: ITDG. CrossRef Warwick, H., & Doig, A. (2004). Smoke–The killer in the kitchen. London: ITDG. CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Climbing Energy Ladder or Fuel Stacking in Indian Households: A Multinomial Logit Approach
Author
Chetana Chaudhuri
Copyright Year
2021
Publisher
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-4830-1_10

Premium Partner