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2018 | Book

Closing the Gap Between Practice and Research in Industrial Engineering


About this book

This book presents the proceedings of the XXII International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, International IIE Conference 2016, and International AIM Conference 2016.

This joint conference is a result of an agreement between ADINGOR (Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Ingeniería de Organización), ABEPRO (Associação Brasileira de Engenharia de Produção), AIM (European Academy for Industrial Management) and the IIE (Institute of Industrial Engineers), and took place at TECNUN-School of Engineering (San Sebastián, Spain) from July 13th to 15th, 2016.

The book includes the latest research advances and cutting-edge analyses of real case studies in Industrial Engineering and Operations Management from diverse international contexts, while also identifying concrete business applications for the latest findings and innovations in operations management and the decisions sciences.

Table of Contents


Strategy and Enterpreneurship

Innovative Spillovers and Efficiency in the Brazilian Industry

Given that a fraction of the output is not explained by variations in traditional inputs, public innovative spillovers effects may represent important implications on industrial efficiency. This study aims to identify the factors and characteristics that determine the technical efficiency of the Brazilian industry, using the DEA and logistic regression model. The results pointed that investments in non-traditional inputs are efficiency drivers. Regarding to public investments and technological intensity, no innovative spillover effects were found to contribute to technical efficiency for the analyzed Brazilian industries.

B. D. Yamashita, H. F. Moralles, N. B. Santana, D. A. N. Rebelatto
Supply Chain Sustainability in Spanish Major Retailer Through Strategic Alliances and Lean Practices

Sustainability within the supply chain is an issue that appeared and has been widely studied in the last decade of the twentieth century, but it is only now reaching the maximum level of interest among academics and business executives. In this paper, authors analyze if some specific practices linked to lean operations, superior alliances management integration and people involvement are really supporting sustainability in the largest and most successful Spanish retailer. It was a standard retailer for years, till it changed its company strategy, from price-based competition (based on squeezing suppliers and low wages) to integral supply chain waste reduction and quality improvement, “for life” alliances with its main top suppliers and labor relations based on permanent contracts, polyvalence and employee motivation. Another important aim of this study is to understand to what extend the alliances developed with its top suppliers, have incorporated and replicated the practices developed by this Spanish retailer, thus creating an excellence/amplification mechanism that supports long-term supply chain sustainability.

Jesús Morcillo-Bellido, Alfonso Duran
The Executive’s Personal Characteristics Influences on the Strategic Decision-Making Process: Does the Mental Model Matter?

The strategy concept has no definitive concepts and models, and it is not without controversy. Its approaches sometimes seem to oppose, sometimes seem to complement each other. In this way, researchers have long been attempting to understand the concepts of strategic choice and decision. This issue may be approached through the executive’s mental model, the characteristic models of perceiving, processing and using gathered information. The relationship between executive’s mental model and strategic choices and decisions is done theoretically by examining the mental model under temperament proposition. Author concludes that the executive’s mental model—operational or strategic—may explain their strategic choices and decisions. This understanding of mental model can prevent biases in the strategic analysis and promote a best strategic choices and decisions

Flávio Bressan
Components to Construct a Business Model Innovation Under a Product-Service System Approach in the Aerospace Industry Through Analytical Hierarchy Process

This paper uses Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology to perform a pairwise comparison between the components of a business model aiming to select which of them are the most important to innovate a business model from a manufacturing to a product-service system approach in the aerospace industry. The results indicate Value, Strategy and Organization as the most important components in order of importance, followed by Sustainability, Process, Resources and Stakeholders.

Maria Fernanda Barbato Salomon, Carlos Henrique Pereira Mello, Eduardo Gomes Salgado, Mauricio Bitencourt
Depicting Big Data: Producing a Technological Profile

Emerging Technologies are having a huge impact in the income statement of current enterprises and therefore they must be adopted as soon as possible. Thus, any attempt to introduce the characteristics and evolution of this kind of technologies is helpful for decision makers. In this sense, this paper aims at depicting Big Data, one of these cutting edge technologies, by obtaining a complete profile of it and generating the bases for a valid forecast. The approach is made within the Information Structuring and Technological Forecasting fields, with the application of several methods, namely: Text Mining and Natural Language Processing, Visualization Techniques and Trend Analysis.

Iñaki Bildosola, Rosa Rio-Bélver, Ernesto Cilleruelo, Gaizka Garechana
Management, Innovation Capacity and Fear of Failure in a Sample of Spanish Firms

The management of error is considered a source of learning and its main barrier is the fear of failure that is present in all human beings and therefore influences in the activity of any organization, in its performance, in its capacity for innovation and in other related variables such as leadership and climate. Then the paper objective is to analyse through the behaviours of a sample of directors of Spanish companies the relationship among performance, fear of failure and the innovation capacity in accordance with the organizational assessment model proposed by Stuart-Kotze. The importance of this work is due to determines a new and a wider field of academic study and at the same time a lookout for managers to monitor the influence of fear of failure in their organizations.

Antonio López Ramos, Carlos Rodriguez-Monroy, Félix Calvo-García
Sustainability Assessment of Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Companies

Sustainable manufacturing is becoming increasingly important with substantial social, environmental and economic benefits, thus companies show more tendency to adopt this concept. Recognizing the benefits of sustainability, manufacturing companies need to measure how sustainable they perform. However, sustainability can be thought as an abstract issue which is difficult to measure and also assess. Measuring sustainability is a continuously evolving research area which generates various sustainability indicators to assess companies’ production activities. Practically, while evaluating the sustainability performance of a manufacturing system, various indicators should be considered simultaneously. This study focuses on the usage of sustainability indicators to assess the sustainability of a production company from a multi-criteria decision making point of view. As a case study, the sustainability performances of an international beverage company which produces non-alcoholic drinks were evaluated. TOPSIS method was adopted as an assessment method with the use of several conflicting indicators simultaneously.

S. Ozmehmet Tasan, B. Felekoglu, E. Ozmehmet
Application of Innovation Management Techniques in SMEs: A Process Based Method

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are facing harsh market conditions that threat their survival, what has increased their awareness that business as usual is no longer sufficient and that their future depends on their ability to offer innovative products and services, innovate and improve their value propositions and associated business models. Changing market conditions thus force smaller firms to adapt or reinvent their business through new technologies or unique value propositions. At the same time, a major liability of SMEs is that small firms lack the required resources, knowledge and technical capabilities to develop structured innovation processes based on innovation management techniques and tools (IMTs), and therefore one main challenge refers to SMEs capability to innovate. A process based method ch for innovation based on IMTs is presented in this paper. Precisely, this paper explains the processes, tools and outcomes of the application of this process based innovation method in several small SMEs, as long as the lessons learned and proposals for SMEs approaching this challenge.

J. I. Igartua, L. Markuerkiaga
Assessing an Incubator Model in a Technological Centre: The Importance of the Spin-Off’s Origin

This paper proposes an assessment framework for a university incubator using eight criteria. This framework has been used with eight high-tech spin-offs incubated in CEIT (Spanish Technological Centre that was created by the University of Navarra), taken into account the point of view of their CEOs with interviews and a questionnaire. The results achieved can provide some useful indications to managers of University Business Incubators (UBIs). The incubator’s services demanded by the spin-off depend on several parameters, but the promoter profile of the new firm (a single person or the university itself) is a critical parameter.

Antonio González, Mikel Arcelus

Operations Research, Modelling and Simulation

A Novel Project Selection Scheduling Model

In this paper, the optimal selection of portfolio of projects is addressed. The problem is examined at operational level where every project has several jobs with certain costs, profits and due dates. The duration of each job is affected by learning effect and its setup time is dependent on the sequence and processing times of the jobs prior to it. Any profit gained from the completion of a job is reinvested in the portfolio and the time horizon is assumed flexible. The objective is to maximize the total revenue of the selected projects. A mixed integer model is presented and analyzed to address this problem.

H. Amirian, Rashed Sahraeian
Resolving Product Configuration Conflicts

The main objective of this paper is to propose an approach to resolve product configuration conflicts based on the previously developed framework for product component modelling in terms of mass customization and original matrix method, by which it is possible to determine the number and structural designs of all relevant product configurations.

Vladimir Modrak, Slavomir Bednar, Zuzana Soltysova
Forecasting Dynamics of Daily Commuting to Work to Other Municipality in the Case of Changing Taxation Policies

The forecasting of dynamics of trips to work is an important indicator for planning transportation in regions. The impact of changing property taxation on daily commuting of human resources is studied here using normalised and extended gravity model with the acronym NE_SIM. The taxation model is included in the NE_SIM gravity approach. The results for Slovenia are presented as a case study. The regression analysis of the linearized model implemented in Slovenia shows the following: if the property tax in the biggest city would increase so that the difference between interest rate and taxation rate would fall from 3% to 1% while other parameters would not change, then the daily commuting would increase by nearly 24%. The same approach can be used for forecasting the changes of in-flows in any spatial unit of a certain state, which would enable better planning of inter-municipality’s transport infrastructure and logistics.

P. Janež, S. Drobne, M. Bogataj
Public-Private Partnerships for Trade Facilitation: A Theoretical Model

Trade Facilitation (TF) is a response to the observed growth in international trade over the last few years. Part of the solution to today’s problems has been provided by Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). This type of partnerships became known as one of the alternatives to increasing the effectiveness of investments and improvements. Since TF involves a relation between public and private agents, alternatives to solutions within the international trade field fall on this kind of partnerships. However, simply establishing a relation between both agents does not insure that all the benefits of TF will be reached. The objective of this research is to propose a theoretical model which can contribute to the measurement of the factors which mostly influence TF oriented PPPs. Such model derives from the theory of PPPs and presents a relationship matrix between Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and the perceived/expected performance of a TF oriented PPP. The relationship between each variable and the performance of a partnership was tested in order to quantify its strength. In order to validate the proposed theoretical model, we use the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method. The research is dedicated to answering the following research problem: which factors influence the success of TF oriented PPPs the most? Data was gathered both at national and international level, focusing on professionals from the private and public sectors and academia that either work with TF within their regular functions, or have an understanding about it. Results have shown that the variables of “macro-environment”, “micro-environment” and “abilities of parties” presented, in that order, the most influence over TF oriented PPPs.

M. L. de Campos, C. Morini, G. H. S. M. de Moraes, E. Inácio Jr
Capacitated Lot-Sizing and Scheduling Problem for Second-Tier Suppliers in the Automotive Sector

This paper extends Gupta and Magnusson’s (Comput Oper Res 32:727–747, 2005) original proposal for the single machine Capacitated Lot-sizing Scheduling Problem (CLSP) with sequence-dependent setup costs to adapt it to a second-tier supplier in the automotive sector. We propose an extended mixed-integer program for the single machine CLSP that addresses raw material requirements and inventories, stock coverages, holding space limitations and overtime costs. Our proposal also contemplates scheduling plans with demands defined in units and capacities defined in units per period, which is very common in the automotive sector. Finally, a real-world description of the problem is considered as the basis of this work, although the validation model is carried out with a simple numerical example of Gupta and Magnusson (Comput Oper Res 32:727–747, 2005).

M. Diaz-Madroñero, J. Mula, B. Andres, R. Poler, S. Sanchis
A Generic Decision Support Tool for Lot-Sizing and Scheduling Problems with Setup and Due Dates

Decision support tools are essential to help in the management of industrial systems at different levels: strategic, to design the system; tactical to plan activities or assign resources; operational to schedule activities. In this paper, we present a generic and modular decision support tool to solve different planning, assignment, scheduling or lot-sizing problems. To the best of our knowledge, such generic tool does not exist. The methodology is illustrated by solving a real world lot-sizing and scheduling problem from a plastic injection company.

Cristovao Silva, Nathalie Klement, Olivier Gibaru


Application-Oriented Optimization of Internal Milk-Run Systems

The optimization of already designed, real Milk-run Systems has hardly received any attention in the scientific literature yet, despite its substantial potentials. The hereinafter presented method allows for the first time the individual evaluation of Milk-run Systems by means of a system of performance indicators, the automatic sensitivity analysis of the input variables and the systematic optimization by means of a decision tree procedure. By using a modular MS Excel-Tool, a fast and comprehensible identification of the optimization paths is possible. A case study illustrates the potential benefits of the method and the tool for the user.

Andreas Martini, Tobias Mauksch, Ulrich Stache
Analysing the Fit Between Innovation Strategies and Supply Chain Strategies

Drawing on the concept of strategic fit, this conceptual paper seeks to clarify the relationship between innovation strategies and supply chain management strategies. This work seeks to propose a conceptual framework to help advance research in this area. A literature review was conducted as a basis for developing a unified framework which best reflects the relationship and fit between the different strategies in each area, something which has been clearly under researched from the strategic fit perspective. The findings can be used to guide the decision making of managers in the areas of innovation and supply chain. Additionally, they can serve as a reference for helping coordinate with other areas of the business, in order to ensure the correct fit between activities and strategies.

Ricardo Augusto Zimmermann, Luís Miguel Domingues Fernandes Ferreira, António Carrizo Moreira
On the Impact of Undershoots at Order Point in the Fill Rate Estimation in Continuous Review Policies for the Lost Sales Case

The fill rate is usually computed by using the traditional approach, which calculates it as the complement of the quotient between the expected unfulfilled demand and the expected demand per replenishment cycle. However, when dealing with continuous review the common derivation of the order point, order quantity (s, Q) policy simplify the computation of the expected unfulfilled demand per replenishment cycle by means of neglecting undershoots at order point s. This paper shows, by means of some illustrative examples and using simulation, how neglecting undershoots at s introduces a significant bias on the estimation of the fill rate. The fill rate is systematically overestimated by the traditional approach. Practical implication of this performance leads to design policies that are less protected than managers may expect. This paper focuses on the lost sales case and discrete demands.

E. Guijarro, E. Babiloni, M. Cardós
The Importance of Measurement Systems in the Search for Suitable Packaging Options

Packaging is one element that can promote improvements in sustainable and efficient management of supply chains. The main aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly, to identify the main systems for measuring and selecting packaging alternatives based on literature review. Secondly, to carry out a study in 70 Spanish Toy Manufacturers in order to identify if the adoption of these systems contributes to improve competitiveness and sustainability. The methodology used in this empirical analysis was an electronic questionnaire.

Jesús García-Arca, A. T. González-Portela Garrido, J. C. Prado-Prado
How to Do Road Transport More Sustainable? A Literature Review

This paper presents a structured compilation of best practices for road transport. This study is the result of research on the concepts of “sustainability”, “road transport” and “supply chain”. It was found that the environmental aspect has a meaningful presence, while social and economic are pushed into the background. This literature review collects and organises sustainable initiatives and practices in order to fill a gap in transport field.

P. Domínguez-Caamaño, B. Olmedo, M. Rodríguez-García, J. C. Prado-Prado
Total Cost of Ownership in the Context of Supply Chain Management: An Instructional Case

This paper presents and discusses an in-class exercise on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). TCO can be included within the Supply Chain Cost Management (SCCM) framework, being essentially a tool that aims to determine the true cost of buying from a specific supplier. Case studies and instructional cases are important from an instructional perspective and they can be also used as experiments to know more about the effectiveness of TCO in a real context. The case presented here represents an original instrument for the understanding and dissemination of TCO. The case design and materials used are explained and discussed. This case has been applied in the format of short course but it can also be used in class in a program of several weeks. The results obtained demonstrate that this in-class exercise can be used to involve students or practitioners in a dynamic process of learning and discussion on supplier cost management thus, offering several opportunities for experimental research.

Paulo Sérgio Lima Pereira Afonso
Tourist Route Planning with a Metaheuristic Approach

Tourist route planning is encountered in decisions regarding touristic activities. All destination points in the related problem are desired to be visited, but cost is an important factor while making a travel route. The problem is known as the orienteering problem, and several solution procedures are studied in the related literature. In this paper, genetic algorithm is applied as a solution method for the problem, and a case study about tourist route planning is implemented. Results showed that popularity of the touristic destinations have a clear effect on selection of the touristic points to be visited in the route.

Çağla Cergibozan, A. Serdar Tasan
A Feasible Nurse Routing Plan for the Elderly: Quality and Spatial Trade-Offs

The aim of this paper is to promote links between researchers and practitioners of planning and operations scheduling in eldercare, where the logistics of nursing and other services at home for seniors should be optimally scheduled. Our goal is to create a feasible routing plan, minimize transportation costs while keeping in mind the seniors’ personal preferences. As suggested by researchers in delivery activities, the service level is ensured or further enhanced by fixing appointment times or at least narrowing the time windows, in which the service shall be started. We examined the impact on tour length of introducing fixed appointment times in care delivery for seniors, in order to avoid variability of it due to the uncertainty of traffic. The results confirmed our presupposition that fixed appointment times will make the tour longer and the number of required employees higher, in dependence of the time window. Higher the time window more certainly the appointment will be realised in-time as previously determined. The case study on the real data of a Care Centre for the Elderly in one of the Hungarian municipalities shows that the fixed appointment time policy, which would increase the satisfaction of seniors, would require the employment of one nurse in excess at a given spatial dispersion of seniors under regular care. As we quantified the capacity perspective, a trade-off situation emerged between improving the service quality and reaching more patients’ locations.

Norina Szander, Lorenzo Brian Ros-McDonnell, Marija Bogataj


Minimizing Lost-Work Costs in a Mixed-Model Assembly Line

Mixed-model assembly lines present two issues due to differences in processing times from product types; these issues are the work overload or unfinished work and the useless time or unproductive time. Within this context, we present, in this paper, a new mathematical model for the mixed-model sequencing problem. This model minimizes the costs by lost production and idle productive time. The model also allows processors carry out their workload with a factor activity greater than the normal, in order to reduce the work overload if it is necessary. Obviously it is also considered to provide economic compensation to workers based on their level of activation. Finally, the model is evaluated by a computational experience linked to a real case from the automotive industry.

Joaquín Bautista, Rocío Alfaro-Pozo, Cristina Batalla-García
Comparative Models for Minimizing Ergonomic Risk in Assembly Lines

We present a new mathematical model for the assembly line balancing problem with the objective of maximizing the line comfort to operators. Besides minimizing discrepancies between the ergonomic risks of workstations, balancing is subject to temporal and spatial conditions for the workstations. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, we compare it with other mathematical model whose objective is minimizing the maximum ergonomic risk of a mixed-model assembly line. To compare the models, a case study linked to Nissan’s engine plant in Barcelona (NMISA, Nissan Motor Ibérica—BCN).

Joaquín Bautista-Valhondo, Cristina Batalla-García, Rocío Alfaro-Pozo
Time-Based Conditions for Synchronized Procurement in Douki Seisan

This paper introduces the synchronous manufacturing philosophy (douki seisan) devised by Nissan, and relates it to “Just in Sequence”, a common technique in current automotive industry. Literature is full of case studies, and the advantages and drawbacks of JIS have been reported. However, no attempt to model the necessary relations to make this system work has been found. In this paper, the necessary conditions concerning the lead times and cycle times of the different activities are deduced, and even the moment when they should take place. They allow us to define a strongly synchronous system. For practitioners, each condition shows opportunities for process improvement. For researchers, lack of compliance with such conditions, gives rise to maximum satisfiability problems.

Joaquín Bautista-Valhondo, Jordi Fortuny-Santos
An Overview of Optimization Models for Integrated Replenishment and Production Planning Decisions

This paper presents a summary of a review of optimization models for integrated production and replenishment planning decisions. To deal with this research, current approaches addressing replenishment and production planning are reviewed, and compared with the enterprises requirements, willing to collaboratively perform both processes. This research is embedded in the H2020 C2NET research project. The enterprises requirements are extracted from the industrial Pilots participating the C2NET project. This paper will provide researchers and practitioners a starting point for optimization models in the replenishment and production area in the collaborative context.

Arturo Orbegozo, Beatriz Andres, Josefa Mula, Matthieu Lauras, Carlos Monteiro, Miguel Malheiro
Optimization Models to Support Decision-Making in Collaborative Networks: A Review

Enterprises, especially SMEs, are increasingly aware of belonging to Collaborative Networks (CN), due to the competitive advantages associated to deal with markets globalization and turbulence. The participation in CN involves enterprises to perform collaborative planning along all the processes established with the CN partners. Nevertheless, the access of SMEs to optimisation tools, for dealing with collaborative planning, is currently limited. To solve this concern, novel optimisation approaches have to be designed in order to improve the integrated planning in CN. In order to deal with this problem, this paper proposes a baseline to identify current enterprise needs and literature solutions in the replenishment, production and delivery collaborative planning, as a part of the H2020 Cloud Collaborative Manufacturing Networks (C2NET) research project. The main gaps found between the literature reviewed and the enterprises’ needs are presented and discussed.

Beatriz Andres, Raul Poler, Leila Saari, Joseba Arana, Jose-Vicente Benaches, Javier Salazar
Petrobras’ Investment Projects in Brazil Under Checkmate: The Ghost Refineries Case

Brazil’s oil production has been growing steadily. In 2005/2006 it was publicly claimed that Brazil had reached its self-sufficiency. Currently, we know that it refers to volumetric self-sufficiency, considering the absolute figures of supply and demand. Broad self-sufficiency also requires the adjustment of Brazilian refineries to oil that is 100% national, and this is where the refining sector comes in. The main goal of this article is to analyze the alleged self-sufficiency regarding petroleum products for Brazil, considering a hypothetic scenario on which all of the investments planned by Petrobras in 2014 for the refining sector are 100% operational. Economic growth projections related to oil production and demand curves, in addition to the technical characteristics of the national refining park, allow us to evaluate the actual status of a wider self-sufficiency. On this hypothetical scenario, self-sufficiency is reached, in volumetric terms, by 2018, through projections made by OPEC and Petrobras. However, the start of operations of four huge investments announced in 2014 (Rnest, Comperj, Premium I and Premium II) is not enough to reach the self-sufficiency in oil derivatives, even in the most conservative scenario, with low economic growth rates. This shortcoming will affect mostly gasoline, which curiously has no part on the investments planned by the company on the coming years. The current outlook, added to the projections, suggests the possibility of the existence of a strong technological downgrade on the oil sector. We conclude with a warning about the urge for new investments on the national refining sector, aiming the production of high value-added products.

Raíssa Fernandes Yabiko, Gustavo Medeiros Pereira, Rosemarie Bröker Bone

Quality and Product Management

Relationship Between Operational Performance and Help Chain Critical Success Factors

One of the main pillars of Lean Manufacturing (LM) is the capacity to stop processes whenever problems are identified, correcting them before they move downstream; which is called jidoka. Within the concept of jidoka, one of the practices of control and elimination of waste is the help chain (HC). Few evidences have been found in the literature with regards to HC implementation, and the existent ones poorly describe how to operate, systematize and manage the HC in companies undergoing a LM implementation. In this paper we propose an instrument for assessing the relationships between the critical success factors (CSF) that promote HC, providing means to enhance operational efficiency and quality performance in companies undergoing LM implementation. The aforementioned relationships were determined and validated through a survey carried out with 50 Brazilian companies. Identifying relevant relationships between CSF and performance indicators may contribute to specify the context in which problems are expected to occur. Additionally, the study focuses on two contextual variables: (i) size of the company and (ii) time of lean implementation. Our results show that these size of the company and CSF have a significant relationship with quality. However, for efficiency, time of lean implementation seems to be significantly important to predict its performance.

Guilherme Tortorella, Diego Fettermann
An Alternative Test of Normality for Improving SPC in a Portuguese Automotive SME

In the context of a worldwide market competition, the current economic framework defies organizations with numerous challenges. Nowadays is no longer enough to produce. The modern production values are based on quality as a condition for achieving productivity and competitiveness. However, quality is not static, it is constantly being changed, and since customers are increasingly demanding, any industrial organization that aims to be competitive it is compelled to innovate. In such competitive environment the organizations increasingly seek to produce with the best quality at the lowest possible cost, to ensure their own survival. One tool to achieve the aforementioned targets is the Statistical Process Control (SPC)—a powerful management method which allows for both quality improvement and waste elimination. In this paper a case study of a Portuguese automotive small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) where SPC is implemented is analysed. The normality test used at the SME in question is Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S). In this case the SPC method shows that the process is centred and meets the acceptance criteria and the K-S shows that the recorded data follow a normal distribution. However, when the K-S test is replaced by the Shapiro-Wilk test the results show that the tested data are not from a normally distributed population. In this paper the results and the consequences of the Shapiro-Wilk test are analysed and discussed and a solution is proposed to improve the utilized SPC tool at the SME.

Radu Godina, Eduardo M.G. Rodrigues, João C.O. Matias

Knowledge and Project Management

Definition of a Project Performance Indicators Model: Contribution of Collaborative Engineering Practices on Project Management

Monitoring and controlling the progress of project activities are important processes for managers, because allow them identify the limits which may compromise the project progress, comparing the current situation with elaborate planning and consequently assisting the managers to balance the project activities and put them according to the initial plan. To support the needs of project monitoring and controlling, the PMI—Project Management Institute—indicates a process set described on the PMBok—Project Management Body of Knowledge—which assists the project managers during their activities. Not all activities described in the PMBoK relates in a collaborative way all the involved in a project (collaborators, stakeholders, providers). Considering the need for collaboration, this work intends to contribute to answer to the following questions: how to create conditions to collaboration among the involved in projects through of project management? What techniques and tools can be used to create conditions of collaborative engineering inside of projects? Therefore, in this paper tools and techniques for monitoring and controlling of project management practices are compared with collaborative engineering practices based on systematic literature review. Furthermore, supported by this comparison a project performance indicators model approach for monitoring and controlling of project performance is presented.

Marcelo Silva Pereira, Rui M. Lima
The Characteristics of Workers as Mediators in Knowledge Sharing Within a Company

The importance of knowledge sharing to a company is such that it can, to a large extent, determine the success or failure of the competitiveness and survival of the organisation. One of the problems facing the management of knowledge, to ensure its application in the company, is the existence of barriers or impediments to effective exchange. Some of these impediments are due to the personality and personal circumstances of the employee, as well as certain management decisions, which have an influence on the willingness of workers to share their knowledge. The aim of this paper is to look at individual strategies that people employ so as not to share knowledge, as well as to identify certain management decisions and behaviour which may hamper this exchange. As far as the empirical work is concerned, a survey has been prepared, aimed at employees, unemployed workers and students in their final year at university, which was completed by a total of 1088 people. Some of the most pertinent results point to initial proactive attitudes towards knowledge exchange that weaken, depending on a person’s age, their professional situation, type of contract, their salary, and their level of motivation. Similarly, the management decisions that contribute most to the success of knowledge sharing are ensuring good organization, a suitable organizational culture and climate, compatible leadership styles and fair recruitment, pay, and promotion policies in the eyes of employees.

Lourdes Sáiz-Bárcena, José Ignacio Díez, Miguel Ángel Manzanedo, Ricardo del Olmo
Project Management Success Factors in Basque Companies

Project management discipline has undergone significant changes in the past decades (Hanisch and Wald in Project Management Journal 42(3):4–22, 2011). The project management influencing factors have been the subject of empirical studies. This paper examines the link between some of these factors and project success, through a survey with the participation of 121 project managers in the Basque Country in Northern Spain. The most important result of this study is the relevance of project manager skills and characteristics, and their influence on project success.

N. Zabaleta, M. Ruiz, U. Elorza
Integration of Constructability and Project Risk Management

The research concerns the EPC world and Mega-Projects. The focus is on two disciplines: Risk Management and Constructability. An innovative integration model is proposed, aiming to bridge the existing gaps, to support a structured decision-making process and to facilitate the integration of the two disciplines characterised by different approaches and competences, but with a common target: the megaproject success. The validation of the model is carried out by mean of a cost/benefit analysis on four case studies of an EPC contractor (Saipem SpA).

L. Farina, E. Danesi, A. Travaglini, Mauro Mancini, P. Trucco

Service Systems

Sustainability Leveraged by Energy Service Projects (ESCO) in Spain: Analysis 2010–14

Sustainability is currently a common term, although in many cases it has been used not in the proper way and sometimes even inappropriately. Currently, both academics and business executives broadly understand the sustainability as a challenge that involves not only environmental aspects, but as an integrative concept including economic, environmental and social aspects that should be the basement to build the pillars of the most competitive companies in the twenty first century. Authors of this study have done a detailed and deep study on a sample of two hundred “Energy Service” or ESCO projects in Spain in order to understand if they got visible sustainability improvements in a comprehensive point of view (from economic, environmental and social angles). Being these projects those in which two companies make collaborative arrangements to implement energy efficiency improvements, and both companies results are based on integral saving sharing.

Jesús Morcillo-Bellido, Bernardo Prida-Romero, Javier Martínez-Belotto

Industry 4.0

Pushing the Limits of Lean Thinking–Design and Management of Complex Production Systems

This paper presents an approach for handling variability in production systems. A classification for variability which includes a differentiation in non-value adding and value adding variability is proposed and indicators for their quantification are derived. It is shown that classical Lean methods fail in make-to-order production because of the misconceived influence of value adding variability. Consequently, different approaches from Data Mining and Factory Physics are applied.

Jochen Deuse, Christoph Heuser, Benedikt Konrad, David Lenze, Thomas Maschek, Mario Wiegand, Peter Willats
Industry 4.0: A Classification Scheme

One of the most novel concepts that has been applied to companies in recent years is “Industry 4.0”. This is a wide term that implies a drastic change in the way companies operate. This paper reviews some of its existing literature in order to give an accurate definition of such a concept. A classification scheme based in two main pillars, on one hand the features which characterize that term and on the other hand the technologies and concepts that support their development is also defined. All results are based on a structured literature review.

David Pérez Perales, Faustino Alarcón Valero, Andrés Boza García
Framework for a New Wave of IT-Enabled Business Process Transformations

Consolidation of disruptive techonologies such as 3D printing, Big Data, Cloud Computing, the Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems have led to the advent of the Industry 4.0 revolution. As a consequence, a new wave of automation and IT-enabled process transformations is coming. We find Business Process Reengineering/Redesign (BPR) remaining as a conceptual reference for fundamental rethinking and redesign of business processes. Stemming from the identification of the insufficiencies of reference frameworks to characterize the different types of business process changes, we propose a new conceptual framework: the IT-Enabled Business Process Transformation Matrix. The horizontal axis of the matrix represents the scope of the change, whereas the vertical axis represents the degree of transformation. Some examples illustrate its practical interest and flexibility to incorporate a great variety of process transformations based on technological innovations.

Miguel Gutierrez, Francisco Sastron


Development of a Lean Assessment Tool for Small and Medium Sized-Enterprises

Despite the existence of a wide variety of measures for numerous aspects of lean production in the literature, many researches and studies have proved that the use of measures in lean implementation in SMEs (small to medium sized enterprises) is very limited. The main reason behind this situation is that most of these measures are designed and tested in large companies without any focus on SMEs. Moreover, SMEs cannot imitate in total the models developed for large enterprises. In this scheme, the present paper aims at developing a new tool adapted to SMEs for lean assessment. The aim of this tool is to provide an effective measure of the leanness level of SMEs in order to drive efforts towards the achievement of lean transformation. Compared to existing lean measures, the proposed tool is simple with a minimum number of indicators that are confirmed as suitable to SMEs. Through the proposed tool, SMEs will be able to define easily and effectively “how lean they are” in order to focus lean change efforts.

Amine Belhadi, Fatima Ezzahra Touriki, Said El fezazi
Project-Based Learning as a Bridge to the Industrial Practice

It is expected that engineering students develop both technical and transversal competences for the professional practice during their initial training period. The development of such competences can benefit from the interaction with real industrial contexts. Since project-based learning is an educational approach in which teams of students can tackle a given problem related to their future professional practice, this will be an outstanding opportunity to bring them together with industrial engineering professionals throughout the whole degree period and not only at its end. In this way, teachers will facilitate the development of the expected professional competences. This work aims to analyse a project-based learning approach that has involved six teams of students dealing with real industrial problems and challenges, and to evaluate the results based on the proposed technical solutions, as well as on the perception of five companies’ representatives. Most of the proposed solutions were centred on Lean applications and ergonomic improvements of the analysed workplaces. Companies were very pleased with the developed projects and are willing to continue the interaction with the university in this context.

Rui M. Lima, José Dinis-Carvalho, Rui Sousa, Pedro Arezes, Diana Mesquita
Wiki as an Activity Learning

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the design of an activity based on wiki technology in a Higher Education environment, specifically in engineering studies. The issues proposed here are based on the previous experience of the authors by developing a wiki activity in the field of industrial engineering. Wiki is considered a type of Web 2.0 technology that enables users to work together on the Web. The research literature reports a number of experiences with wiki-based collaborative writing in education. However, to enable all the advantages as far as possible, a clear specific description of the activity is mandatory for both students and teachers. This work confers guidelines as to how wikis will be developed and evaluated. Regarding developing wikis, the content of this task is specified in collaboration with the instructor. Regarding assessments, the quality of the wikipage and possible competences developed should be considered. The methodological design presented herein intends to act as a basis for the wiki-based collaborative writing approach. In addition, a list of assessment indicators that can be the basis for a future research line related to an automated tool for evaluating wiki is provided.

Pilar Isabel Vidal-Carreras, Jose Pedro Garcia-Sabater, Julio Juan Garcia-Sabater, María Rosario Perello-Marin
Closing the Gap Between Practice and Research in Industrial Engineering
Elisabeth Viles
Marta Ormazábal
Alvaro Lleó
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