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2015 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

11. Clustering

Author : Daniel Zelterman

Published in: Applied Multivariate Statistics with R

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

CLUSTERING is a nonparametric method of arranging similar observations together, often in a graphical display that can be used to detect patterns of grouping and outliers. The approach is usually considered nonparametric because there is no specified underlying distribution or model that we need to assume. R offers great flexibility in graphical capability that makes these methods possible. The largest difference between these methods and those considered in the previous chapter is that in this chapter we do not know group membership a priori, or whether in fact there are different groups at all. Similarly, part of the methods discussed here include estimates of the number of dissimilar groups present in the data.

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Footnotes
1
Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909). Mathematician and mathematical physicist, lived in Germany.
 
2
Paul Jaccard (1868–1944). Swiss professor of botany and plant physiology.
 
Literature
go back to reference Dunn JC (1973). A fuzzy relative of the ISODATA Process and its use in detecting compact well-separated clusters. Journal of Cybernetics 3: 32–57. Referenced on page 302. DOI:10.1080/01969727308546046. Dunn JC (1973). A fuzzy relative of the ISODATA Process and its use in detecting compact well-separated clusters. Journal of Cybernetics 3: 32–57. Referenced on page 302. DOI:10.1080/01969727308546046.
go back to reference Hartigan JA and Wong MA (1979). A k-means clustering algorithm. Applied Statistics 28:100–8. Referenced on page 295. Hartigan JA and Wong MA (1979). A k-means clustering algorithm. Applied Statistics 28:100–8. Referenced on page 295.
go back to reference Takahashi K, Yokota S, Tatsumi N, Fukami T, Yokoi T, and Nakajima M (2013). Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 272: 154–160. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2013.05.018. Referenced on page 295. Takahashi K, Yokota S, Tatsumi N, Fukami T, Yokoi T, and Nakajima M (2013). Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 272: 154–160. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2013.05.018. Referenced on page 295.
Metadata
Title
Clustering
Author
Daniel Zelterman
Copyright Year
2015
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14093-3_11

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