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2024 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

7. Combustion Products from Fires

Authors : Haukur Ingason, Ying Zhen Li, Anders Lönnermark

Published in: Tunnel Fire Dynamics

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

Knowledge of the different species produced during fires is of great importance for estimating the toxicity of the fire gases. In this chapter, the main combustion products from different types of fires are presented. This includes carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), sulphur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total amount of hydrocarbons (THC) and soot/smoke, but yields also for some other species are presented. Results from measurement during fire tests in vehicles and tunnels are summarized and discussed. The importance of the ventilation conditions (equivalence ratio) on the productions of different species is described, and relations for different yields and ratios are given and discussed. The effect of fire suppression on combustion products is also discussed.

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Footnotes
1
See also Eq. 2.​13.
 
2
See also Eq. 2.​14.
 
3
See also Eq. 2.​17.
 
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Metadata
Title
Combustion Products from Fires
Authors
Haukur Ingason
Ying Zhen Li
Anders Lönnermark
Copyright Year
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-53923-7_7