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About this book

This textbook is intended for post-graduate students in mechanical and allied engineering disciplines. It will also be helpful to scientists and engineers working in the areas of combustion to recapitulate the fundamental and generally applied aspects of combustion. This textbook comprehensively covers the fundamental aspects of combustion. It includes physical descriptions of premixed and non-premixed flames. It provides a detailed analysis of the basic ideas and design characteristics of burners for gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. A chapter on alternative renewable fuels has also been included to bring out the need, characteristics and usage of alternative fuels. Review questions have been provided at the end of each chapter which will help the students to evaluate their understanding of the important concepts covered in that chapter. Several standard text books have been cited in the chapters and are listed towards the end, as suggested reading, to enable the readers to refer them when required. The textbook will be useful for students in mechanical, aerospace and related fields of engineering. It will also be a good resource for professionals and researchers working in the areas of combustion technology.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
In this introductory chapter, basic definitions relating to combustion phenomena are provided. A brief discussion of various types of fuels used in practical applications, along with their important characteristics, is presented next.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 2. Review of Combustion Thermodynamics and Kinetics

Abstract
In this chapter, basic concepts in combustion stoichiometry, chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics as they relate to combustion are reviewed. Stoichiometry deals with the calculation of the required amount of oxidizer for a given amount of fuel. Heat and temperature calculations are carried out using the first law of thermodynamics. Heat of reaction (heat released during combustion) and adiabatic flame temperature (the maximum temperature attained) are important quantities required in the design of combustion chambers. Chemical equilibrium has its basis from the second law of thermodynamics.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 3. Review of Combustion Phenomena

Abstract
In the first chapter, different modes of combustion were briefly discussed.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 4. Burners for Gaseous Fuels

Abstract
In the previous chapter, characteristics of premixed and non-premixed flames were presented. In general, premixed flames are seen to be shorter, cleaner and burn without much soot. By varying the composition of the reactant mixture, the flame temperature may be controlled. However, they are prone to instabilities such as lift-off and flashback due to the mismatches between reactant flow speed and laminar flame speed. Flashback is not only a stability problem but also a safety hazard. These issues restrict the useful operation range of a premixed flame burner. Moreover, under realistic operating conditions, the flames are very likely to be turbulent and turbulent premixed flames are more difficult to control owing to their increased complexity.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 5. Burners for Liquid Fuels

Abstract
As mentioned in earlier chapters, liquid fuels are either vaporized or atomized into droplets before they are injected into a combustion chamber. The vaporization and atomization characteristics of the liquid fuel, the required rate of burning including the turndown ratio that fixes the operation range and the possible dimensions of the combustion chamber are key aspects to be considered in the design of a liquid fuel burner. The important properties associated with liquid fuels were discussed in Chapter 1. The vaporization and burning characteristics of a liquid fuel droplet were discussed in Chapter 3. This chapter starts with a discussion of different types of liquid burners used for the combustion of highly volatile fuels that do not require atomization.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 6. Solid Fuel Systems

Abstract
Solid fuels were introduced in Chap. 1. In this chapter, aspects relating to the combustion of solid fuels are discussed. Commonly used solid fuels such as coal and biomass are heterogeneous materials.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 7. Alternative Fuels

Abstract
Fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products are depleting at a rapid rate due to the increasing consumption and decreasing availability. Therefore, alternative fuels, which can be a substitute to the fossil fuels, are becoming important.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Chapter 8. Numerical Modeling of Laminar Flames

Abstract
In order to understand the characteristics of a flame, sufficient details of its flow, temperature and species fields are required.
Vasudevan Raghavan

Backmatter

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