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About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2020, held in Bordeaux, France, in November 2020.

The 18 full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 22 submissions. The selected papers present orig-inal research results in areas related to the physical layer, communication protocols and standards, mobility and traffic models, experimental and field operational testing, and performance analysis.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Road

Frontmatter

Simulation of Cyberattacks in ITS-G5 Systems

Abstract
Connected vehicles bring new challenges for communication technologies. Vehicles become capable of performing actions depending on wireless V2X communications (ex: automatic emergency braking, crossing paths with other vehicles, handling platooning situations). Despite being essential in the case of industrial deployments, cybersecurity also acts as a scientific lock to secure the system from its conception. Facing with the increasing number of cyberattacks, but also with the increasing of the attack surface of vehicles, the securing of V2X communications is necessary. However, all existing attacks cannot always be tested with proper hardware. The simulation software approach allows us to free ourselves from this constraint. In this paper, we investigate the security vulnerabilities of ITS-G5 (European DSRC) communications in the presence of outside attackers. We considered 4 attacks: jamming, replay, falsification and network congestion. We used VENTOS platform to execute the different scenarios and demonstrated with it that these attacks have a real impact on vehicle’s driving.
Jean Cassou-Mounat, Houda Labiod, Rida Khatoun

Towards an Extensible Security Monitoring Architecture for Vehicular Networks

Abstract
Extensibility for security monitoring in 5G vehicular networks remains largely unexplored despite strong requirements for interoperability, to support multiple properties (e.g., security, privacy, trust, sustainability) and to reach trade-offs. We discuss ITS security monitoring challenges and propose an extensible monitoring architecture to meet them. We design and implement a sample security monitoring probe for CAM and DENM and demonstrate on simulations the probe capabilities on a cooperative collision detection use case.
Amir Teshome Wonjiga, Marc Lacoste

Anomaly Detection on Roads Using C-ITS Messages

Abstract
Cooperative Intelligent Transport Network is one of the most challenging issue in networking and computer science. In this area, huge amount of data are exchanged. Smart analysis of this collected data could be achieved for many purposes: traffic prediction, driver profile detection, anomaly detection, etc. Anomaly detection is an important issue for road operators. An anomaly on roads could be caused by various reasons: potholes, obstacles, weather conditions, etc. An early detection of such anomalies will reduce incident risks such as traffic jams, accidents. The aim of this paper is to collect message exchanges between vehicles and analyze trajectories. This analysis becomes difficult since a privacy principle is applied in the case of C-ITS. Indeed, each message sent is generated with an identifier of the sender. This identifier is kept only over a specified time interval thus one vehicle will have multiple identifiers. We first have to solve Trajectory-User Linking problem by chaining anonymous trajectories to potential vehicles by considering similarity in movement patterns. After that we apply various methods to check variations of trajectories from normal ones. When we observe some differences, we can raise an alarm about a potential anomaly. In order to check the validity of this work, we generated a large amount of messages exchanges by many vehicles using the Omnet simulator together with the Artery, Sumo plug-in. We applied various variations on some obtained trajectories. Finally, we ran our detection algorithm on the obtained trajectories using different parameters (angles, speed, acceleration) and obtained very interesting results in terms of detection rate.
Juliet Chebet Moso, Ramzi Boutahala, Brice Leblanc, Hacène Fouchal, Cyril de Runz, Stephane Cormier, John Wandeto

Leveraging GPS Data for Vehicle Maneuver Detection

Abstract
Due to the huge number of accidents, improving driving safety around the world is becoming a priority. Providing efficient and cost effective solutions to detect driving behavior is quite a challenging research topic worldwide. Exploring several technologies including big data, machine learning, data mining and data analysis in general can help researchers to track vehicles and monitor drivers, since several sensors and devices can feed us with a huge amount of data. In this paper, we propose a GPS based method to track vehicles and detect different driving events. The main idea consists on exploiting GPS data to recognize several vehicular motion and proving the feasibility and efficiency of using GPS data in the driving events detection; Obtained results for the proposed method are promising.
Abdallah Aymen, Jemili Imen, Mabrouk Sabra, Mohamed Mosbah

Analysis and Comparison of IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 802.11bd

Abstract
As the interest to improve road safety and traffic management is growing, a new generation standard for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) need to be defined to enhance the performances of the vehicular networks’ communications, in terms of reliability, latency, and throughput. Nowadays, the IEEE 802.11p related systems such as ITS-G5, are the most used C-ITS technologies in Europe. However, these radio access technologies (RATs) fall short of supporting many advanced vehicular applications’ communication requirements as high reliability, low latency, and high throughput. In this context, the IEEE 802.11bd is being defined as an amendment to IEEE 802.11p to fulfill these requirements. In this paper, we first analyze the introduced mechanisms in IEEE 802.11bd. Then, to assess its performances compared to the IEEE 802.11p, we propose a simulation-based approach by implementing this new RAT in the OMNeT++ simulator. This implementation will be tested and evaluated. We show that IEEE 802.11bd can enhance the network quality of service performance compared to IEEE 802.11p. This will allow improving road safety.
Badreddine Yacine Yacheur, Toufik Ahmed, Mohamed Mosbah

An Investigation of the Bits Corruption in the IEEE 802.11p

Abstract
Data rate management algorithms aim to perform a proper selection of the signal modulation and the coding rate to avoid the corruption of data bits. This paper describes a preliminary investigation on the bit corruption pattern related to the IEEE 802.11p standard. Measurements have been acquired with an experimental test-bed made up with a couple of software radios to perform white-box tests. Software radios are stationary and operate on the same channel without disturbances coming from concurrent communication. The aim of this experimental test-bed is to represent a static scenario where vehicles are stationary such as a crossroad situation. The data analysis shows that a data length reduction as an impact as much as a decrease of the data rate. A deeper analysis of the data bit corruption distribution highlights that some bits are more corrupted than others, rejecting the independent and identically distributed assumption for some situations. This opens a perspective to design algorithms dealing with multiple constraints, even if they are https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-030-66030-7_6/496189_1_En_6_IEq1_HTML.gif -complete.
Sébastien Bindel, Dorine Tabary, Soumia Bourebia, Frédéric Drouhin, Benoît Hilt

Measurements of Communication Channel in Different Scenarios with the Channel Characterization Tool System

Abstract
Nowadays, the wireless networks have an important role in the deployment of several means of transports, platforms and applications. In the particular case of roads and vehicle area, some ideas are starting gaining importance such as the autonomous vehicle. In order to reach this ambitious goal, the wireless networks are a strategic issue for the communication between vehicles (V2V) and between infrastructure and vehicles (V2I), generally known as vehicle-to-everything (V2X). In this current moment, the most deployed cellular network is LTE (Long Term Evolution), progressing to 5G technology. Because of this, this paper shows the measurement of the LTE technology and the phenomena that affects this technology at IP level. To reach this last goal, the on-site testing of a measurement system is needed allowing to quantify network impairments of a communication channel in a given road environment. In this paper, the system capable of measuring a communication channel is explained and it is shown how an on-site testing of the communication channel of a specific road has been measured in terms of the RTT network impairment. As well, the results of the measurement has been analysed and explained. Finally, some conclusions are presented.
Nerea Fernández-Berrueta, Iker Moya, Javier Añorga, Mario Monterde, Jaione Arrizabalaga, Jon Goya

Survey on Decision-Making Algorithms for Network Selection in Heterogeneous Architectures

Abstract
Access technologies are one of the fundamental assets of networking. Indeed, they are usually designed to optimize network performance in a given context and are therefore only well suited for targeted applications. Meanwhile, the paradigm of recent generation networks such as 5G is expected to revolutionize communication techniques by supporting a wide range of new applications that compel low latency and high data rates for both indoor and outdoor use cases. In this context, answering how should a user select an access technology at a given time while guaranteeing application needs, and leading to efficient utilization of network resources is an open research area. We survey in this paper decision-making algorithms for network selection in heterogeneous communication architectures. We also propose a taxonomy of these algorithms and carry out a discussion about common design challenges related to their applicability.
Ali Mamadou Mamadou, Mouna Karoui, Gerard Chalhoub, Antonio Freitas

Radio Access Technologies Selection in Vehicular Networks: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives for Autonomous Connected Vehicles

Abstract
Inter-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication is an active research field in Vehicular Network domain. Each application in these networks presents specific needs in terms of Quality of Service (QoS), reliability and security. Thus, it is important to select in a smart way the various radio access technologies (RAT) to be used to transfer information. In this paper, we present a state of the art related to this subject. Then we propose ideas for a smarter, multi-application, adaptable and secure selection solution of RAT. This approach is essential in the context of autonomous connected vehicle, where vehicles and users always send and receive data from diverse applications.
Sidoine Juicielle Kambiré, Hasnaâ Aniss, Francine Krief, Sassi Maaloul, Marion Berbineau

Toward the Integration of V2V Based Clusters in a Global Infrastructure Network for Vehicles

Abstract
Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an emerging research area that has received much attention over the recent years. One of the main challenges of VANET is the routing protocol and the development of reliable ad-hoc communications between vehicles. We proposed a cooperative scheme between V2I and V2V communications in the highway scenarios to extend V2I connection in the uncovered areas. The main focus of this primarily work is to evaluate the communication and structure stability of the ad hoc vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) Chain branch leaf clustering scheme (CBL) in an infrastructure network. The insertion of infrastructure components is materialized by the roadside units (RSU). The results show the adaptation of the vehicle ad hoc network clustering in the presence of roadside units (RSUs).
Sabrine Belmekki, Martine Wahl, Patrick Sondi, Dominique Gruyer, Charles Tatkeu

Train

Frontmatter

Integration of Antennas for Communication System on Complex Platforms

Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the antenna integration problem with an illustration of antenna integration for the next generation railway communication systems. The influence of integration on the basic antenna parameters is detailed and the challenges and constraints for integration are discussed. State-of-the-art antenna integration schemes are summarised and a novel approach for antenna integration based on the use of metamaterial inclusions and intermodal coupling analysis is proposed.
Naveen Kumar, Ozuem Chukwuka, Divitha Seetharamdoo

5G for Remote Driving of Trains

Abstract
Automatic Train Operation (ATO) is a new growing market in the railways sector since 2019. Several railways operators such as SNCF, DB, SBB and so on have launched deep transformation in their infrastructures and rolling stock in order to enter in digital era. One of this game changers is upgrading to autonomous train on existing or new infrastructure. Since autonomous train means the absence of train driver, there is a big need of uplinked information to supervise autonomous trains from the ground. This includes the need of remotely driving the train if it encounters a problem, e.g. a non-recognised obstacle, an infrastructure breakdown. Remote driving will be a new operation mode in the railways sector that will rely on a well-designed radio link provided by 5G. This paper presents preliminary results on test tracks with Long Term Evolution (LTE) and a simulation based comparison between LTE and 5G at physical layer using Non orthogonal Multiple Access.
Yamen Alsaba, Marion Berbineau, Iyad Dayoub, Emilie Masson, Gemma Morral Adell, Eric Robert

Sensing the Health of the Catenary-Pantograph Contact on Railway Vehicles with Radio Receivers: Early Results

Abstract
Overhead lines or catenaries are the most common method to supply electric energy to trains, at least in modern railway lines. Electric trains collect energy using a pantograph which is in physical contact with the catenary. However, this sliding contact is not perfect because of many factors: vertical displacements, wear of the contact strip, aerodynamic effects, geometry defects, etc. These imperfections may cause sparks and electric arcs which could seriously damage the pantograph, the catenary and increase the operational costs of the railway line. The usual approach to know the condition of this contact is installing video cameras in the top of the train to determine where, when and why sparks and arcs happen. Given that both sparks and arcs cause a significant EM interference, in this paper we propose a methodology to sense the health of the catenary-pantograph contact using radio receivers tuned in the frequencies where this interference appears. The objective of this measurement campaign is not to perform an academic characterization of the physical phenomenon but to begin working on a practical condition-based maintenance system. Moreover, some early results of this work are provided based on measurements from a Metro de Madrid train in Line 6 whose voltage is 600 V DC.
Juan Moreno, Julián Martín Jarillo, Sonsoles García-Albertos

Freight Telematics Systems: An Intelligent Wagon

Abstract
In order to reach the EU’s objectives with regards to developing rail freight in the future, an evolution of the freight train is required. For that, telematics technologies play a crucial role as an enabler for the intelligent freight train. This paper shows different freight train topologies and communications technologies. Moreover, representative use cases enable the intelligent train that has connectivity capabilities such as condition monitoring for train and cargo. Furthermore, an example of intelligent freight wagon architecture is shown.
Roberto C. Ramirez, Iker Moya, Imanol Puy, Unai Alvarado, Iñigo Adin, Jaizki Mendizabal

NEWNECTAR: A New gEneration of Adaptable Wireless Sensor NEtwork for Way Side objeCTs in rAilway enviRonments

Abstract
Efficient data collection from railway environment is crucial for railway infrastructure monitoring. Due to the various type of data to be collected from the environment, a large number of heterogeneous sensors are installed at different places on the railway infrastructure. These sensors are equipped with low-power wireless communication transceivers and grouped into Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) domains. Each WSN domain is configured to have one or multiple sink nodes (static or mobile, carried by vehicles such as trains or drones) responsible for collecting data and forwarding them outside the WSN to a cloud server. As the number of deployed WSN domains and sensor nodes rises with a high degree of heterogeneity, the tasks of data gathering, resource optimization and Quality of Service (QoS)-based service deployment become complex and highly challenging. In this paper, we propose a new generation of WSN for adaptive data collection and forwarding, called NEWNECTAR, based on the combination of both Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Software Defined Network (SDN) technologies at the sink node. NEWNECTAR defines a universal sink node thanks to the use of a programmable transceiver in forms of a General Purpose Processor (GPP)-based SDR platform, which enables the support of multiple wireless communication technologies in a single interface. Additionally, an SDN support is added to the NEWNECTAR to efficiently control the traffic forwarding from sink nodes to the cloud server and enhance its QoS profile (bandwidth, latency, reliability, etc.). Based on the proposed architecture, theoretical performance analysis of GPP-based SDR platform has been performed and its performance has been tested with varied train speeds. The result indicates that GPP-based SDR platform can collect information for trains having speeds upto 300 km/h.
Dereje Mechal Molla, Hakim Badis, Laurent George, Marion Berbineau

Air

Frontmatter

Allowing People to Communicate After a Disaster Using FANETs

Abstract
When a disaster occurs, during a long period of time people suffer to have no means to communicate with their relatives. The presented work aims at proposing a solution composed of a ground station located nearby the damaged area coupled with a swarm of drones. The ground station plays the role of a gateway between cellular networks, that are still up but out of reach of people, with drones that carry messages from and to people located in the disastered region. We analyze the possibility of deploying drones with fixed positions and a more flexible solution allowing drones to move but at the cost of intermittent communications, allowing only sms-like messages. We show that using the same number of drones, allowing drones to move improves dramatically the coverage of people with respect to a FANET in which drones stay at a fixed position. We also show that even for a very restricted number of drones, for reasonable communication ranges, almost all the people benefit from an important average connected time.
Frédéric Guinand, François Guérin, Pawel Łubniewski

Remote ID and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management

Abstract
This article presents the results of experiments on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications between two Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) and a ground control station conducted in conjunction with UAS Traffic Management (UTM) Technology Capability Level Four (TCL-4) flight tests. For V2V implementation, two UASs were equipped with Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) radios and experiments were conducted to assess the functionality, capabilities, and limitations of DSRC-based V2V communications. Remote ID is implemented using Globally Unique Flight Identifier (GUFI) assigned to each UAS by the UAS Service Supplier (USS). This article also summarizes the critical issues and recommendations to address them.
Ethan Murrell, Zach Walker, Eric King, Kamesh Namuduri

A Unified Smart Mobility System Integrating Terrestrial, Aerial and Marine Intelligent Vehicles

Abstract
Smart City is a new concept that relies on digital technologies in order to interact more effectively with its citizens, create new business opportunities and reduce operational costs and resource consumption, while respecting environmental factors and sustainability objectives. Transport of goods and people is at the heart of Smart City activities and influences all other aspects, including economy, tourism, health care, and so on. Great progress has been made in this area, which has led to the emergence of the Smart Mobility concept. However, the current vision of this concept does not adequately reflect the status of the advances perceived by the transportation field. In fact, it is limited only to the on road transportation. Moreover, as the concept of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is becoming more and more important, a common management of all the means of transportation is required. In this paper, we propose a more general vision of the Smart Mobility ecosystem, while specifying standardization bodies for cellular communication technologies for each domain and the directions of future research work towards a consistent deployment of such a wider vision. In future Smart Cities, a multi-modal service of mobility may combine not only classical means of road transportation, such as cars, bikes, buses, but also air transportation means like drones or marine transportation systems. Based on current technologies and standards, we present in this work a comparison between these technologies and discuss the main issues and challenges to have a unified integrated Smart Mobility system.
Chahrazed Ksouri, Imen Jemili, Mohamed Mosbah, Abdelfettah Belghith

Backmatter

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