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Chapter 3 shows how equations that have no real roots give rise to imaginary numbers that square to −1, which, in turn, lead to complex numbers. Definitions and examples are given for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing complex numbers. Further sections introduce concepts of the norm, complex conjugate, inverse and square-root of a complex number. Finally, it is shown how a complex number is represented as an ordered pair and as a matrix. The chapter summarises key formulae and contains some useful worked examples.
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go back to reference Descartes, R.: La Géométrie (1637). There is an English translation by Michael Mahoney: Dover, New York (1979). Descartes, R.: La Géométrie (1637). There is an English translation by Michael Mahoney: Dover, New York (1979).
- Complex Numbers
MTech, PhD, DSc, CEng, FBCS Professor John Vince
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- Springer London