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2019 | Book

Complex Systems Design & Management

Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management, CSD&M Paris 2018

Editors: Prof. Eric Bonjour, Daniel Krob, Dr. Luca Palladino, François Stephan

Publisher: Springer International Publishing


About this book

This book contains all refereed papers accepted during the ninth edition of the conference that took place at the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris on December 18-19, 2018.

Mastering complex systems requires an integrated understanding of industrial practices as well as sophisticated theoretical techniques and tools. This explains the creation of an annual go-between forum in Paris dedicated to academic researchers & industrial actors working on complex industrial systems architecture, modeling & engineering.

These proceedings cover the most recent trends in the emerging field of Complex Systems, both from an academic and a professional perspective. A special focus is put on “Products & services development in a digital world”.

The CSD&M Paris 2018 conference is organized under the guidance of CESAM Community ( CESAM Community has been developed since 2010 by the non-profit organization CESAMES Association to organize the sharing of good practices in Enterprise and Systems Architecture and to certify the level of knowledge and proficiency in this field through CESAM certification.

Table of Contents

Correction to: Systemic Design Engineering
Curriculum and Instructional Results
Jon Wade, Steven Hoffenson, Hortense Gerardo

Regular Papers

Formal Methods in Systems Integration: Deployment of Formal Techniques in INSPEX
Inspired by the abilities of contemporary autonomous vehicles to navigate with a high degree of effectiveness, the INSPEX Project aims to create a minaturised smart obstacle detection system, which could find use in a wide variety of leading edge smart applications. The primary use case focused on in the project is producing an advanced prototype for a device which can be attached to a visually impaired or blind (VIB) person’s white cane, and which, through the integration of a variety of minaturised sensors, and of the processing of their data via sophisticated algorithms, can offer the VIB user greater precision of information about their environment. The increasing complexity of such systems creates increasing challenges to assure their correct operation, inviting the introduction of formal techniques to aid in maximising system dependability. However, the major challenge to building such systems resides at the hardware end of the development. This impedes the routine application of top-down formal methods approaches. Some ingenuity must be brought to bear, in order that normally mutually hostile formal and mainstream approaches can contribute positively towards system dependability, rather than conflicting unproductively. This aspect is illustrated using two strands of the INSPEX Project.
Richard Banach, Joe Razavi, Suzanne Lesecq, Olivier Debicki, Nicolas Mareau, Julie Foucault, Marc Correvon, Gabriela Dudnik
Ontology-Based Optimization for Systems Engineering
Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques used with decriptive metamodel such as NAF, SysML or UML often fails to provide quick analyses of huge problem spaces. This is generally compensated by Operations Research technique supporting the resolution of constraint-based problems. This paper shows how both perspectives can be combined in a smooth continuous bridge filling the gap between the two universes whilst hiding the operations researchs complexity for the modelers and automating the exploration of a very huge problem space for the finding of optimized solutions.
Dominique Ernadote
On-Time-Launch Capability for Ariane 6 Launch System
For space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the launch rate fulfillment (turnover) and the launch delay reduction (avoid additional cost) are key parameters driving the launch cost. In addition, launching on-time is beneficial to the payload operator business model.
In Europe, Ariane 5 has demonstrated its unmatched reliability with more than 80 successful consecutive launches. Due to increasing competition worldwide for space transportation systems, Ariane 6 will have to achieve the same reliability but with twice the launch cadence.
This is the reason why, on Ariane 6, the On-Time-Launch capability has been taken into account since upstream development phases. Firstly, the main drivers for this performance have been identified (lessons learnt) on the complete life cycle. Based on cost approach, an allocation methodology has been defined, including risk severity and occurrence management. Then, mitigation actions and robustness to degraded cases have been deduced.
In the frame of CSDM 2018, the On-Time-Launch Capability for Ariane 6 Launch System and associated methodology is proposed to be presented during a 30 min talk.
Stéphanie Bouffet-Bellaud, Vincent Coipeau-Maia, Ronald Cheve, Thierry Garnier
Towards a Standards-Based Domain Specific Language for Industry 4.0 Architectures
Advances in research and development paved the way for a new revolution concerning industrial manufacturing, called Industry 4.0. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) contain methods for ubiquitous monitoring of information and synchronizing it with any other component on each hierarchical level participating in the value chain. Developing Industry 4.0 architectures for pointing out the structural cooperation of these Systems of systems (SoS) is a challenging task including a lot of different stakeholders. To bring together knowledge and experience, a common methodology is necessary. Regarding this, several German industrial associations created a suitable reference architecture, called Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 (RAMI 4.0). In this paper, a Domain Specific Systems Engineering approach using a Domain Specific Language (DSL) based on the results of this reference architecture is proposed and evaluated by a suitable case study.
Christoph Binder, Christian Neureiter, Goran Lastro, Mathias Uslar, Peter Lieber
Assessing the Maturity of Interface Design
It is widely accepted that the way the interfaces between subsystems are designed is a major aspect of system architecture. The task of designing interfaces is made difficult by the technical diversity of subsystems, of interfaces, of functional requirements and integration constraints. Change management processes have long been implemented by the industry to monitor and control interface design (see, e.g. Eckert 2009). In this paper, change request data from several projects completed by Naval Group is analyzed. The Change Generation Index is introduced and a heuristic formula is proposed to link the maturity of interface design with change request generation. This approach comes as a complement to existing results on change propagation patterns within large systems. A promising parallel is established between the design process of a large system and learning processes well known to the social sciences community.
Alan Guegan, Aymeric Bonnaud
Tracking Dynamics in Concurrent Digital Twins
The availability of machine-generated data for the management of complex systems enables run-time technologies for diagnosis, predictive maintenance, process control, etc. that find their apex in digital twins. Such model-based replica of cyber-physical assets represent system elements and their behavior within their environment, which is often dynamic. These dynamics of a system’s environment can render the underlying model unfit w.r.t. the changing reality and thus cripple the whole approach. We provide the means to detect such a transgression of the operational space of digital twins and similar technologies using a novel combination of probability-of-findings calculations with established process control methods and localize necessary updates to ensure efficient model maintenance.
Michael Borth, Emile van Gerwen
How to Boost the Extended Enterprise Approach in Engineering Using MBSE – A Case Study from the Railway Business
This paper presents an overview of why Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) is the mandatory solution to engineer complex railway systems and subsystems, giving some insights about the complexity and technical challenges. But its main focus will be on how MBSE can be a key enabler on the implementation of an extend enterprise approach in the engineering domain. The case study is on rolling stock systems and brake subsystems developed by the two companies Bombardier Transportation and Knorr-Bremse which are in a customer-supplier relationship.
Marco Ferrogalini, Thomas Linke, Ulrich Schweiger
Model-Based System Reconfiguration: A Descriptive Study of Current Industrial Challenges
System Reconfiguration is essential in management of complex systems because it allows companies better flexibility and adaptability. System evolutions have to be managed in order to ensure system effectivity and efficiency through its whole lifecycle, in particular when it comes to complex systems that have decades of development and up to hundreds of years of usage. System Reconfiguration can be considered and deployed in different lifecycle phases. Two significant phases are considered for configuration management and System Reconfiguration: design-time – allowing system performances by modifying the architecture in early stages – and run-time – allowing optimization of performances during the in-service operations. This paper gives an overview of a field research currently ongoing to capture the strengths and the shortages in the current industrial landscape. It also discusses possible future management strategies with regard to identified issues and challenges.
Lara Qasim, Marija Jankovic, Sorin Olaru, Jean-Luc Garnier
A Domain Model-Centric Approach for the Development of Large-Scale Office Lighting Systems
The high-tech system industry faces many challenges, such as continuously increasing system complexity, scale and customer demands. We address these challenges using a domain model-centric approach. This approach focuses on clear and formal system specifications, connected to a chain of automatic transformations for system analysis, including virtual prototyping, and system synthesis, e.g. code generation. We have applied the approach to the development of large-scale office lighting systems in order to reduce development effort and handle the complexity of system control.
Richard Doornbos, Bas Huijbrechts, Jack Sleuters, Jacques Verriet, Kristina Ševo, Mark Verberkt
Through a Glass, Darkly? Taking a Network Perspective on System-of-Systems Architectures
A system-of-systems architecture can be thought of as a complex network comprising a set of entities of different types, connected together by a set of relationships, also of different types. A systems architect might attempt to make use of the analytic tools associated with network science when evaluating such architectures, anticipating that taking a “network perspective” might offer insights into their structure. However, taking a network perspective on real-world system-of-systems architectures is fraught with challenges. The relationship between the architecture and a network representation can be overly simplistic, meaning that network-theoretic models can struggle to respect, inter alia, the heterogeneity of system entities and their relationships, the richness of their behavior, and the vital role of context in an architecture. A more mature conceptualization of the relationship between architectures and their network representations is required before the lens of network science can offer a usefully clear view of architecture properties.
Matthew Potts, Pia Sartor, Angus Johnson, Seth Bullock
Generation and Visualization of Release Notes for Systems Engineering Software
Designing complex systems such as satellites requires delivering design data with the associated list of updates regularly in a form of release notes. Creating release notes for system data delivery is challenging for system architects because it requires analyzing all resolved issues during a particular period of time and then summarizing them in a readable format for other architects. In this paper we present an approach for creating release notes. We performed an empirical study involving large amount of satellite projects data to categorize the content of release notes delivered by architects. We have identified the main patterns. We developed an algorithm that discovers these patterns given the history of project data. We applied our approach to system data managed in configuration.
Malik Khalfallah
Safety Architecture Overview Framework for the Prediction, Explanation and Control of Risks of ERTMS
The proposed framework includes modelling of interfaces between risk analysis, risk evaluation and scenario’s representing flows of safety information of the European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS). In this study, we propose a functional framework combining safety data generation, data processing and structuring, definition of interactions and finally, the creation of customized representations in order to predict, explain, and control risks. Through literature review and ERTMS applicability, we develop a safety architecture overview framework. The comprehensive overview of the safety architecture can illustrate the main interactions between government, regulations, company management, technical and operational management, physical process and activities, and environment. Explicit representation delivers insight, stimulates striving for completeness, and leads to consistency of the safety analyses.
Katja Schuitemaker, G. Maarten Bonnema, Marco Kuijsten, Heidi van Spaandonk, Mohammad Rajabalinejad
Formalization and Reuse of Collaboration Experiences in Industrial Processes
Collaboration is a key factor for carrying out activities in industrial processes and an efficient collaboration is essential to accomplish an overall improvement of any process. In this article, we introduce a collaborative process-modeling framework, which allows evaluating collaboration throughout all the activities of an industrial process. The proposed framework uses experience management notions towards the creation of a repository of collaboration experiences. This experience base facilitates the reuse of past experiences to support decision making for the organization and execution of future collaborations. The article concludes by discussing the contributions and limitations of the proposed collaboration model.
Diana Meléndez, Thierry Coudert, Laurent Geneste, Juan C. Romero Bejarano, Aymeric De Valroger
An MBSE Framework to Support Agile Functional Definition of an Avionics System
In avionics domain, there have been many efforts in recent years to build a MBSE methodology with tooling support. The main purpose is often to improve quality and efficiency of system definition, architecture and integration. Sometimes there is also an additional objective to ease system verification and validation. This paper introduces an additional challenge with the support of an agile development cycle to ease impact analysis and incorporation of late and changing requirements at different times. It presents key principles and requirements of an agile MBSE approach and presents associated modeling activities with illustration on an avionics case study.
Jian Tang, Shaofan Zhu, Raphaël Faudou, Jean-Marie Gauthier
Analyzing Awareness, Decision, and Outcome Sequences of Project Design Groups: A Platform for Instrumentation of Workshop-Based Experiments
Activity dependencies gain importance as engineering programs become more complex and global. We treat the planning of engineering programs and projects as a collaborative exercise by teams to design their shared project. An Awareness-Decision model and sensors for measurement were developed to correlate attentions and actions to outcomes during project design. A cloud-based platform allows teams to model projects and to simulate a project’s cost and duration. This approach enables efficient deployment of experiments with global project design groups. During experimental sessions, we captured attention allocation, project change and performance data across 38 groups at three global sites to explore their decision-making process and exploration of the cost-duration-tradespace. In this set of experiments, the groups that were stimulated to pay more attention to dependencies did not show a correlation with improved outcomes. Employing several sequence analyses, including return time distribution, proximity walk, element focus, and vision distribution, we attempted to draw insights on awareness and attention to dependence and overall outcomes. Based on our analysis results, we give recommendations for research to more completely expose the role of attention to dependence during project design.
Carl Fruehling, Bryan R. Moser
Systemic Design Engineering
Curriculum and Instructional Results
This paper describes a methodology, Systemic Design Engineering, that integrates systems thinking for sustainability, design thinking for human centricity, and systems and software engineering for implementation efficiency. Based on these operating principles, an integrated set of learning objectives for this approach are described. A supporting syllabus is presented which is suitable to a semester-long undergraduate or graduate design course. A pilot of this curriculum in a graduate level systems and software engineering design course has been conducted. The learning results from this pilot are presented. These results are compared and contrasted with the results from a similar, traditional systems engineering design course and a dedicated systems thinking course. Finally, conclusions and areas for further refinement and developments are described.
Jon Wade, Steven Hoffenson, Hortense Gerardo
Field Guide for Interpreting Engineering Team Behavior with Sensor Data
The design of complex systems is a challenge with many capabilities enabled by a recent generation of digital tools for modeling, simulation, and interaction. Relevant studies on teamwork from coordination science, learning, design, HCI, and serious games are briefly summarized. However, validation of resulting behavior and emergent outcomes given these much-needed new tools has been difficult. The recent availability of pervasive sensors may allow the creation of experiment platforms to increase empirical data from experiments, their scalability, and analyses towards reproducibility. This paper’s approach treats engineering teamwork as a sociotechnical system and proposes instrumentation of teamwork across problem, solution, and social spaces. A quasi-experiment was conducted, with experts in the maritime industry exploring options for transition to natural gas infrastructure and shipping. The experiment derives a narrative of the engineering teamwork both from ethnography and digital sensors to uncover teamwork behavior. Thus, this work integrates disparate data to create mapping rules from sensors to story. We find the approach promising for the generation of sensor-derived stories and the potential for deeper and scalable studies on engineering teamwork.
Lorena Pelegrin, Bryan Moser, Shinnosuke Wanaka, Marc-Andre Chavy-Macdonald, Ira Winder
A Review of Know-How Reuse with Patterns in Model-Based Systems Engineering
The increasing complexity of systems to be developed requires engineers to review their practices in order to improve the efficiency of engineering and meet the needs of a competitive market. That is why models supported by formal or semi-formal languages are preferred to avoid the understanding variability of natural languages. In this context, Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) made it possible to change the engineering paradigm by putting forward a unique, shared system model. To promote its adoption, a solution would be to allow reuse of knowledge and know-how, to encourage engineers seizing and adapting MBSE to their needs. This paper aims to review and evaluate the concept of patterns towards reuse in engineering, especially in a MBSE approach.
Quentin Wu, David Gouyon, Éric Levrat, Sophie Boudau


The Systems Engineering Concept
A Practical Hands-on Approach to Systems Engineering
Systems engineering includes a range of different processes defined by ISO 15288, which one can run depending on the requested needs. But ISO 15288 does not provide specific detailed instructions for the execution of these, and very often systems engineering will be performed by specialists responsible for systems engineering activities as an add-on to other project activities, rather as an integral part of the daily life of designers and engineers.
This white paper introduces a concept for systems engineering, The Systems Engineering Concept® (SEC), which can be used by all project participants and not just specialists. SEC is using selected processed from ISO 15288 and in addition IEC/ISO 81346, IEC 61355 and IEC 62023 standard series. Processes are determined by making reverse engineering on proven methods and use these in SEC.
Henrik Balslev
From Document Centric Approach to MBSE Approach: BPMN, UML, SysML and Wire Framing Implementation
Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) approach aims among other to achieve the business objectives for complex/critical systems. This approach is so intended to enhance understanding and quality. Several choices shall be made and shall allow to build a good model which means that is usable and understandable by all stakeholders in order to share and support complex system requirements, business analysis, architecture, design, and verification & validation activities.
To maximize number and various stakeholders, we though language(s) have to be rightly selected.
So, we will discuss an example of a framework implementation based on: BPMN, UML, SysML and wire framing in order to tempt to improve of collaboration, to improve impact assessments and to share the understanding in product development between teams for two different project: IT project (web software context) and a class III medical critical system (hardware and software context).
David Schumacher
Towards a Better Modelling and Assessment of Project Management Maturity in Industry 4.0
Companies are currently facing substantial challenges with regard to Industry 4.0. In order to adapt to this changing environment, companies are moving from operations-centered business to project-driven business. This change requires an evolution in project management. Researchers and practitioners, inspired by the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge), have created maturity models to compare and evaluate organizations, but they did not specify any methodology to create adapted models to face this technological change. Therefore, this paper proposes an approach to understand under on principles existing project management maturity models were based, and how it is possible to create a new project management maturity model applicable in the emerging framework of industry 4.0. Then, we illustrate the new approach with the construction of a project maturity model used to measure the planning capability. Finally, we define limitations of the model and future research directions.
Felipe Sanchez, Davy Monticolo, Eric Bonjour, Jean-Pierre Micaëlli
Integrated Framework for Design and Testing of Software for Automotive Mechatronic Systems
Today’s electrification and automation put a lot of pressure on automotive OEM’s. Vehicle functions are increasingly executed by complex mechatronic systems, feeding the need for high-efficiency multi-disciplinary teams. Numerous car recalls confirm that establishing these teams is an unobvious process. A framework facilitating design, testing, engineering asset management and planning is essential. This research presents such an envisioned framework with a central development management tool, integrated with different engineering tools to obtain vital information.
First, high level requirements are defined, whereof a software architecture can be deduced. Based on this architecture, requirements can be remapped, refined and implemented. In parallel, test cases are written, verifying a requirement’s implementation. Automatic test harness generation will reduce repetitive, time-intensive modelling. The testing status can later be centrally monitored. This status is the initiator for new engineering tasks, managed in a Kanban board providing a clear overview. Complete traceability through this process is ensured.
Nick Van Kelecom, Timothy Verstraete, Sam Silverans, Mathieu Dutré
Complex Systems Engineering Approach for Condition Monitoring for the Digital Transformation: Integration into Mining Industry Control Systems
The digital transformation of the Mining Industry is about to affect all organizational levels, from manufacturing to maintenance. This revolution would be impossible without a modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure. Maintenance management is a complex process requiring an effective combination of technical and economic expertise. This paper presents electromechanical systems condition-monitoring architecture, using the Systems Engineering Approach. The main function of the system is to extract and to identify physical parameters of the studied system for predictive maintenance strategy elaboration. The System’s architecture based on the operational, functional and constructional visions is fundamental to define the action scope and its features, leading to avoid production breakdowns, to improve maintenance management and to minimize the related intervention costs. We used SysML diagrams to model the solution and hence to materialize the System targeting maintenance in industrial environment.
Mariya Guerroum, Ali El-Alaoui, Laurent Deshayes, Mourad Zegrari, Janah Saadi, Hicham Medromi
Cyber Physical Systems Real Time and Interactive Testing and Governance
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) interconnects the cyber world of communication and computing with the physical via reliable and secure software’s. It asserts a critical challenge not only on development of complex systems but also on integration and validation of system of systems (SoS). This article develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing and defines a high level conceptual organization of test based engineering and validation. It introduces a real time and interactive co-execution platform that provides heterogeneous model integration, models validation and monitoring. It presents a generative approach for test variants management to assure dynamic changes and the flexibility in execution and test during the project life cycle. Further, it provides effective deployment domains.
Sara Sadvandi, Franck Corbier, Eric Mevel
Machine-Executable Model-Based Systems Engineering with Graph-Based Design Languages
Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) structures the design process in form of a V-Model. Along the V-Model, the tasks of model creation, editing and design change propagation to maintain model consistency requires manually much time, effort and cost. While formal languages such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML) or the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) are used already to represent the design process and behavioral product aspects, the UML/SysML-models are mostly still manually assembled and interlinked. Graph-based design languages on the basis of UML combine the advantage of a digital representation of the design process with the advantage of a rule-based execution. This combination of digital representation with machine-execution boosts MBSE towards a repeatable and machine-executable V-Model. This allows for a seamless transition from manual MBSE towards an automated and machine-executable MBSE. The poster will highlight some of the advantages of this fully digital and machine-executable MBSE in an automotive dashboard application.
Benedikt Walter, Dennis Kaiser, Stephan Rudolph
Cyber-Physical System Modeling Using a Case Study
The fad in today’s market for customer-specific products pushed the industry to renew itself and drive value creation initiative. In fact, companies are concerned not only about selling the product as a function, but also about selling the value as a solution. It is reasonable to think that the creation of these new business models involve building flexible manufacturing facilities, digitizing and integrating inter and intra-company systems into one intelligent data management structure which allow physical and software components to interact with each other in a myriad of ways that change with context, in spite of the different spatial and temporal scales they operate on. This synergic interaction can be fulfilled by accomplishing an industry 4.0 environment that aims to transcend mechatronic systems and move to cyber-physical systems (CPS).
In this paper, we present our methodology to model CPS. The results show promising research opportunity for implementing CPS in industry.
Sara Mallah, Khalid Kouiss, Oualid Kamach, Laurent Deshayes
The SERC 5-Year Technical Plan: Designing the Future of Systems Engineering Research
The Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC), a US University Affiliated Research Center, developed the 2014–2018 Technical Plan to provide the vehicle by which to align the SERC Vision and Research Strategy with the US Federal Government Sponsor’s top research priorities. This paper summarizes the SERC Vision, the Sponsor’s needs, and the SERC’s response to these needs. It then describes the objectives, approach and content of the original five-year SERC Technical Plan, and provides an overview of the results. Emerging systems challenges are noted along with the approach that is being used to ad-dress them in the upcoming Five Year Technical Plan. Finally, this paper de-scribes the status of the new plan and some of the opportunities and challenges that it provides.
Jon Wade, Dinesh Verma, Thomas McDermott, Barry Boehm
Understand Corporate Culture for a Better Steering Model
Unpredictability being the key-word, continuous transformation is obviously mandatory for most organizations. Transformation programs and projects are launched at an ever-increasing pace.
Most of these transformation programs and projects are focused on Operations, IT systems, processes and indicators, and do not take into account collective subconscious, unspoken thoughts and hidden facts: Corporate culture.
More surprisingly, this finding is also true for Steering model improvement projects. Consulting firms and IT companies are designing and building new reporting processes, Balanced Scorecards or Business Intelligence softwares without even trying to understand what makes any organisation different one from another: its values, its skills, its habits and behaviors.
Based on experience (of hundreds of Transformation projects), our belief is that understanding Corporate culture within a meta-model analysis is a pre-requisite for improving significantly the Steering model or to its components.
Paul Maitre, Jérôme Raby-Lemoine, François Videau
Complex Systems Design & Management
Prof. Eric Bonjour
Daniel Krob
Dr. Luca Palladino
François Stephan
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