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Chapter 5. Intelligent Interaction in Accessible Applications

Advances in artificial intelligence over the past decade, combined with increasingly affordable computing power, have made new approaches to accessibility possible. In this chapter we describe three ongoing projects in the Department of Computer Science at North Carolina State University. CAVIAR, a Computer-vision Assisted Vibrotactile Interface for Accessible Reaching, is a wearable system that aids people with vision impairment (PWVI) in locating, identifying, and acquiring objects within reach; a mobile phone worn on the chest processes video input and guides the user’s hand to objects via a wristband with vibrating actuators. TIKISI (Touch It, Key It, Speak It), running on a tablet, gives PWVI the ability to explore maps and other forms of graphical information. AccessGrade combines crowd-sourcing with machine learning techniques to predict the accessibility of Web pages.

Sina Bahram, Arpan Chakraborty, Srinath Ravindran, Robert St. Amant

4. Überlegungen zur Ausgestaltung von Personalentwicklungsprogrammen

Ein Blick in den Verwaltungsalltag zeigt, dass die „Chefs in der Amtsstube“ über ihre Ausbildung hinaus qualifiziert werden. Führungskräfteentwicklung findet regelmäßig und flächendeckend statt. Diese Praxis ist zum einen das Ergebnis freiwilliger Leistungen von Verwaltungen. Sie erfolgt mit dem Ziel, Führungskräfte im Haus einfach „besser“ zu machen. Gleichzeitig ist sie direkte Folge des geltenden Tarif- und Beamtenrechts (§ 5 TVöD für den Bereich Verwaltung und Landesbeamtengesetze bzw. Laufbahnverordnungen). Beinah „klassisch“ sind beispielsweise Seminare zum Thema Kommunikation, zur Konfliktlösung oder zum Stressmanagement. Fortbildungsabteilungen und Studieninstitute bieten ganze Führungskräftereihen an (u. a. im Rahmen der Modularen Qualifizierung) oder vereinzelt Coaching. Hinzukommen Mitarbeitergespräche, Mitarbeiterbefragungen zum Führungsverhalten oder Potenzialanalysen. Auch sie werden genutzt, um Führungskräften Rückmeldungen zu geben und sie anschließend zu qualifizieren.

Christina Winners

Leisure Industry and Hotels: The Importance of Wellness Services for Guests’ Well-Being

In the last decades, the wellness industry has experienced a real economic boom worldwide. Wellness centres within hotel complexes have become one of the most important components in the development of the leisure industry. Aside from the standard offering that wellness centres include (hydrotherapy, cosmetic treatments, massage, fitness, meditation, nutritive balanced menus, etc.), one of the frequently neglected functions of wellness centres is certainly their educational nature—the spreading of the wellness philosophy with an accent on a healthy lifestyle. Such a holistic approach of applying the wellness concept can have a positive impact on the subjective feeling of well-being among the visitors of wellness centres. Wellness tourism, and wellness as a lifestyle, are certainly a part of modern trends that hotels have to adjust to for the sake of financial success and the achievement of competitive advantage in the market. Thus, a critical approach to the literature in this field would represent a useful theoretical base, both for the managers of hotels and for their customers. The results could be of interest to all stakeholders in the hotel and leisure businesses, since they could be applied when setting future standards in the fields of the leisure industry and wellness tourism.

Milica Rančić Demir, Marko D. Petrović, Ivana Blešić

Cross-level Co-simulation and Verification of an Automatic Transmission Control on Embedded Processor

This work proposes a method for the development of cyber-physical systems starting from a high-level representation of the control algorithm, performing a formal analysis of the algorithm, and co-simulating the algorithm with the controlled system both at high level, abstracting from the target processor, and at low level, i.e., including the emulation of the target processor. The expected advantages are a smoother and more controllable development process and greater design dependability and accuracy with respect to basic model-driven development. As a case study, an automatic transmission control has been used to show the applicability of the proposed approach.

Cinzia Bernardeschi, Andrea Domenici, Maurizio Palmieri, Sergio Saponara, Tanguy Sassolas, Arief Wicaksana, Lilia Zaourar

Impact of Demonetization on Textile and Apparel Industry

Demonetization drive has directly or indirectly affected the entire Indian textile and apparel industry, but the major impact of demonetization on Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) and the unorganized sector is evident. MSME sector of the textile industry is majorly driven by the contractual labor as well as a daily wager. Due to the cash crunch, textile and apparel industry was unable to pay wages and meet daily expenses for running their mills. The negative effects of demonetization are workforce layoff, closure of small units, reduction in manufacturing activities, increase in production cost, rise in raw cotton prices in some areas. The positive outcomes are that cashless transaction has been increased significantly and around 5 lakhs bank accounts have opened in the major textile clusters like Tirupur, Surat, Ludhiana and Bhiwandi. The major objective of this review is to study the impact of demonetization drive on the textile and apparel supply chain.

Anju Choudhery, Kiran Choudhery, Varinder Kaur, Parambir Singh Malhi, Sachin Kumar Godara

5. When and Where Does Genocide Occur?

This chapter is designed to be a brief history of the concept of genocide. This chapter is designed to introduce students to critical thinking about cases of genocide that might have occurred before the word/crime existed.Case studies include the Herero genocide, the Armenian genocide, the Bangladesh genocide, Darfur, and the Rohingya genocide. The case studies are designed to explore the history that led to the genocide. In this way similarities and differences can be analyzed in order to create potential warning signs of impending genocide.

William R. Pruitt

4. Who Commits Genocide?

This chapter explores the question of who commits genocide. It may not seem obvious that the “state” in many cases is committing the act. To understand this concept, it is presented by showing that the “state” does not exist by itself, it is a collection of individuals. When their work turns to crime or genocide, the state is responsible for the action.Essentially, this chapter is looking at how perpetrators can be at the macro-level (state) and the micro-level (individuals). At the micro-level, there are many reasons people commit genocide from ideology to fear to duress. These motivations also affect their personal liability for the crime. Who commits genocide is more than just “crazy” murderers; it includes the state itself and individuals.

William R. Pruitt

2. How Can We Understand Genocide?

Trying to understand why genocide occurs is crucial to a full understanding of the crime and hopefully its prevention. There is no single reason why genocide might occur; there are many reasons and many possible explanations for it. This chapter looks at the different academic explanations for genocide from a variety of disciplines. Ideally, after exploring the myriad theories one can look for common factors among the disciplines that might help explain how we understand genocide.These understandings come from different disciplines but feed into the recent criminological theories of genocide. Since criminology is an interdisciplinary field it is easy to connect these diverse fields to criminology and explain what aspects of these fields could be incorporated into a general criminological theory of genocide.

William R. Pruitt

6. How Do We Respond to Genocide?

This chapter is designed to explain the methods available to respond to genocide. This can include military or political intervention during an ongoing genocide or a legal response after a genocide has occurred. By exploring the Rwandan and Kosovo situations we understand that the UN response to genocide is not enough to prevent its occurrence. Following the disastrous response to the Rwandan genocide much work was put into what became known as R2P—the responsibility to protect.A discussion of how individuals can respond to genocide includes simple actions one can take when confronted with genocide. The goal of this chapter is to explore how to respond to genocide and not whether we should respond.

William R. Pruitt

Chapter 14. One River and 40+ Dams: The China Factor in the Amazonian Tapajós Waterway

The recent surge in exports of Brazilian soybeans to China and Beijing’s strong interest in securing control of international energy sources have emboldened the Brazilian agribusiness and energy sectors to pressure the government to open the Tapajós River for navigation, with the goal of decreasing logistics costs in the export of commodities. In order to make the Tapajós River navigable by large barge convoys, the Tapajós Waterway requires the construction of over 40 hydroelectric dams and the completion of the Tapajós Hydroelectric Complex in a river basin the size of France. This will result in the flooding of 18,700 hectares of land currently inhabited by Munduruku Indigenous communities and the clearing of up to 950,000 hectares of forest. Chinese companies have recently acquired many hydropower plants in Brazil with financing from Chinese banks, which have also offered oil-backed loans for infrastructure development in the country. This chapter discusses how the growth in Brazilian soybean exports to China, the construction of private ports in the Amazon by logistics groups, and recent Chinese direct investment in Brazilian hydropower assets have intertwined to make the Tapajós Hydroelectric Complex—and the social and environmental damages involved—increasingly inevitable.

Ricardo Andrade

Chapter 11. China’s Hydro-Hegemony in the Mekong Region: Room for Improvement

Freshwater resources do not respect political boundaries and are frequently shared among countries, making water management an issue of international concern in many places. Worryingly, the number of conflicts between riparian neighbours in international river basins has, overall, been on the rise. In the light of this situation, the role of the most powerful riparian countries, the so-called hydro-hegemons, takes centre stage, as their large power capabilities are arguably accompanied by the responsibility to provide good water governance. In the Asian context, China readily comes to mind as a hydro-hegemon due to its favourable geographical upstream position and superior material power. But how has China made use of these and related assets? Simply put, has China been a good or bad hydro-hegemon? To answer this question, this chapter will apply the framework of hydro-hegemony as introduced by (Zeitoun and Warner in Water Policy 8:435–460, 2006) to China’s performance in the Mekong region. The chapter’s main argument is that China could still do much more to be a better hydro-hegemon in this particular river basin, providing more positive leadership and sharing the Mekong’s resources in a more cooperative way.

Sebastian Biba

Chapter 6. Social Stability, Migrant Subjectivities, and Citizenship in China’s Resettlement Policies

This chapter rethinks citizenship and migrant subjectivities in the context of dam development in China. In detail we answer the following questions: How have the rationalities put forth by Chinese dam resettlement policies changed since the 1980s? Which new practices have evolved that are used to form dam migrant subjects? And which types of citizenship are produced as a consequence? Building upon previous studies that have shown how China has applied a graduated citizenship approach towards internal migrants and national minorities, we argue that post-resettlement support schemes such as ‘Constructing a Beautiful Home’ (meili jiayuan jianshe) introduce new forms of social citizenship that further differentiate society. This scheme builds on pastoral and benevolent technologies of government aimed at reducing the perceived risk of social instability by reintegrating affected households into the Chinese national development narrative. In doing so, the scheme establishes a neo-socialist governmentality that further marginalises dam migrants. We show that new programmes implemented in dam resettlement villages are designed to create self-responsible and docile migrant subjects that are proud of their new identity rather than contesting it.

Sabrina Habich-Sobiegalla, Franziska Plümmer

The Future of Think Tanks: A Brazilian Perspective

Carlos Ivan Simonsen Leal, President and Marlos Correia de Lima , Executive Director of Fundação Getúlio Vargas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, explores the Future of Think Tanks and Policy Advice around the World.

Carlos Ivan Simonsen Leal, Marlos Correia de Lima

Data Is a Powerful Assistant but the Think Tanker Is Still in Charge

Pascal Boniface, Director of the French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS) in Paris, France, explores the Future of Think Tanks and Policy Advice around the World.

Pascal Boniface

Chapter 8. Conclusion: Contributions, Impacts and Recommendations for Future

This chapter summarises the study findings for each main task stated in Introduction chapter. The chapter includes four main sections, justification of how the main tasks are delivered, contributions to knowledge, implications on the practice, and recommendations for the future work.

Saleh Seyedzadeh, Farzad Pour Rahimian

Meta-modeling of Space Probe On-Board Computing Complexes

The study of small bodies of the Solar System (SBSS) is a real and important scientific problem. It demands a space probe landing onto SBSS surface. At the same time, modern space-probe landing procedures make ever-increasing requirements for on-board computing complexes (OBCC). One of the main requirements is an adaptability to the specific mission tasks. It is necessary to reduce the cost of developing the on-board computing complexes with a regard to the growing number of missions to the small bodies in the Solar System. We assume that a meta-modeling is a key to the problem for designing and modeling the on-board computational complexes. The paper describes a meta-modeling and interpretation of a spacecraft on-board hardware and software complexes intended for researching and landing onto small bodies of the solar system. An original approach that could be implemented as a CASE-technology for a full life cycle of OBCC is proposed. The approach is based on a combination a visual algorithmic modeling, a programming language and the SADT methodology. It is designed to meet the requirements of the OBCC ergonomics. The developed meta-model makes it possible to implement modeling of both hardware and software subsystems. Also, it is possible to construe the models automatically into a source code under the meta-data and metalanguage rules. The interpretation is shown in C# programming language. The approach proposed in the paper could significantly optimize the process of spacecraft OBCC design and creation. A hierarchical decomposition of the functional schemes is intended to describe in more detail both the interaction between individual elements and specific submodules of the space probe computational complexes.

Alexander Lobanov, Natalia Strogankova, Roman Bolbakov

Chapter 2. Building Energy Performance Assessment Methods

Buildings are responsible for a vast amount of GHG emission. Therefore, most countries have set regulations to decrease the gas emission and energy consumption of buildings. These regulations are diverse targeting different areas, new and existing buildings and usage types. This paper reviews the methods employed for building energy performance assessment and summarise the schemes introduced by governments. The challenges with current participates are discussed and solutions will be recommended.

Saleh Seyedzadeh, Farzad Pour Rahimian

Chapter 1. Understanding Micro and Small Enterprises

This chapter discusses significant factors that elaborate the entrepreneurial environment in the context of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). The business environment and entrepreneurial ecosystem are central to the discussion in this chapter, which emphasizes on micro- and macro-economic factors affecting the entrepreneurial process and performance. In addition, innovation and technology, and marketing strategies, have been discussed in this chapter. The chapter also focuses on the shifts in organizational design and governance in reference to the different types of organizational structures, work culture, social effects on entrepreneurship, and organizational behavior and decision-making.

Ananya Rajagopal

Toward a Low-Carbon Economy: The Clim’Foot Project Approach for the Organization’s Carbon Footprint

The EU Emission Trading System (ETS) represents an essential part of the European policies on Climate Change, targeting the most polluting organizations, which cover 45% of the GHG emissions. However, no common framework has been proposed yet for “non-ETS organizations.” The reduction of direct emissions in most of the cases is not enough for significantly tackling climate change, but an approach that encompasses also indirect emissions should be adopted, as promoted in the Carbon Footprint of Organisations (CFO), for achieving the ambitious targets set in the European Green Deal. The application of the CFO supports organizations in defining and monitoring the effects of mitigation actions: thanks to CFO, organizations are encouraged to innovate their management system, improve the use of resources, strengthen relationships in the supply chain, beside obtaining a reduction of their costs. In this context, the LIFE Clim’Foot project has given a contribution to foster public policies for calculation and reduction of the CFO. The project has dealt with two key aspects: (i) the need for national policies addressing GHG emissions of non-ETS organizations and the strategic role of structured and robust tools, such as national databases of Emission Factors; (ii) the relevance of organizations’ training in fostering their commitment to account for and mitigate GHG emissions. This chapter illustrates the development and application of Clim’Foot approach for promoting the calculation of the CFO and definition of mitigation actions and to highlight the results of the testing phase in Italy. The approach is described in terms of (i) the toolbox developed (national databases of emission factors, training materials and carbon footprint calculator), (ii) the voluntary program set up to engage public and private organizations and (iii) the role played by decision-makers. Strengths and weaknesses of the Clim’Foot approach are discussed, together with opportunities of replicability and transferability of the results to support the development of a dynamic European network for carbon accounting.

Simona Scalbi, Patrizia Buttol, Arianna Dominici Loprieno, Gioia Garavini, Erika Mancuso, Francesca Reale, Alessandra Zamagni

Carbon Footprint Assessment with LCA Methodology

Extended carbon footprints are causing damage to nature and their systems propagating a series of disastrous events. These extending footprints are due to the nonsustainable industrial practices, use of fossil fuels, improper disposal, and waste management, etc. Therefore, an assessment becomes a must prior to the mitigation efforts. The chapter deals with the carbon footprint and its assessment using LCA. During which, several other topics such as carbon footprint, environmental concerns, and their mitigation, need for assessment, LCA for various methods, and LCA tools, are discussed in detail. The chapter outlines the efficacy of LCA for footprint assessment justified by the study and investigations carried out worldwide, delivering attainability to a detailed description of LCA in the assessment.

Gaurav Jha, Shatrughan Soren, Kapil Deo Mehta

Application of Intelligent Compaction (IC) as a Quality Control Tool: An Oklahoma Experience

Performance of asphalt pavements depends on the quality of compaction achieved during construction. Asphalt cores as an indicator of construction quality are not reliable because they typically cover less than 1% of the constructed pavement. Intelligent compaction (IC) estimates the level of compaction of the entire pavement layer during construction. IC rollers are equipped with accelerometers for measuring vibration, a GPS for monitoring spatial location, a temperature sensor for measuring surface temperature and an on-board computer for real-time execution of software and data storage. Although IC shows great promise as a quality control tool, there are concerns regarding the quality and analysis of data including missing data, data accuracy, data filtering, and data interpretation. Also, verifying compliance of the IC output with Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements needs accurate project boundaries. Project boundaries obtained from the onboard GPS may not be adequate for verifying compliance. In this study, the IC data from three pilot projects in Oklahoma were analyzed using the VETA (v 5.1) software, which is a map-based tool for viewing and analyzing IC data. Three different IC providers were used in collecting these IC data. A high degree of variability in collected data was observed, including inconsistent file naming, unspecified target for number of roller passes and inadequate layout of project boundaries. Despite variability, coverage, number of roller pass, compaction temperature, roller speed and roller frequency were found useful as indicators of compaction quality. Project size and operator training were also found to be important factors for successful implementation of intelligent compaction as a quality control tool.

Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman, Musharraf Zaman, Blake Gerard, Jason Shawn, Syed Ashik Ali, Kenneth R. Hobson

A Numerical-Analytical Method for Dynamic Analysis of Piles in Non-homogeneous Transversely Isotropic Media

This paper presents a novel numerical-analytical method for dynamics of piles embedded in non-homogeneous transversely isotropic soils. In the method proposed, the piles are modelled using beam-column elements, while a new type of elements called radiation discs are defined at the nodal points of the elements to simulate the wave propagation through the non-homogeneous soil medium. By using radiation discs, the discretisation is only required along the length of piles, while discretisation of surrounding medium, top free surface boundary, and cross sections of piles are avoided. Numerical results are presented and the effect of soil non-homogeneity on lateral compliances of piles and pile groups is particularly emphasised.

B. Shahbodagh, H. Moghaddasi, N. Khalili

Application of an Innovative Displacement Based Design Approach for Earth Embankments on Piled Foundations

Deep foundations are commonly employed as settlement reducers for earth embankments on soft soil layers. Owing to the presence of piles, both stresses transmitted to the foundation soil and average settlements reduce. Since the piles may be interpreted as a vertical heterogeneity for the system, during the embankment construction and the soil consolidation, differential settlements accumulate at both the base and the top of the embankment. This complex interaction mechanism is severely influenced by the embankment height and by the relative stiffness of the various elements constituting this peculiar geostructure. Nevertheless, the approaches commonly adopted in the current engineering practice and the ones suggested by design codes do not explicitly consider the material deformability and do not allow the embankment settlement estimation.In this paper, the practical application of a new displacement based design approach for earth embankment on piled foundations under drained condition is presented. This model, based on the concept of “plane of equal settlement”, explicitly puts in relationship the embankment height, interpreted as a generalized loading variable, and the settlements at the top of the embankment.

Luca Flessati

Neither in the Programs Nor in the Data: Mining the Hidden Financial Knowledge with Knowledge Graphs and Reasoning

Vadalog is a logic-based reasoning language for modern AI solutions, in particular for Knowledge Graph (KG) systems. It is showing very effective applicability in the financial realm, with success stories in a vast range of scenarios, including: creditworthiness evaluation, analysis of company ownership and control, prevention of potential takeovers of strategic companies, prediction of hidden links between economic entities, detection of family businesses, smart anonymization of financial data, fraud detection and anti-money laundering. In this work, we first focus on the language itself, giving a self-contained and accessible introduction to Warded Datalog+/-, the formalism at the core of Vadalog, as well as to the Vadalog system, a state-of-the-art KG system. We show the essentials of logic-based reasoning in KGs and touch on recent advances where logical inference works in conjunction with the inductive methods of machine learning and data mining. Leveraging our experience with KGs in Banca d’Italia, we then focus on some relevant financial applications and explain how KGs enable the development of novel solutions, able to combine the knowledge mined from the data with the domain awareness of the business experts.

Luigi Bellomarini, Davide Magnanimi, Markus Nissl, Emanuel Sallinger

Development and Usability Assessment of a Semantically Validated Guideline-Based Patient-Oriented Gestational Diabetes Mobile App

Studies have shown the benefits of following Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) in the daily practice of medicine. Nevertheless, the lack of digitalization of these guidelines makes their update and reliability to be a challenge. With the aim of overcoming these issues, Computer Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) have been promoted to use in Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). Moreover, the implementation of Semantic Web Technologies (SWTs) to formalize the guideline concepts is a powerful method to promote the standardization and interoperability of these systems. In this paper, the architecture of a CIG-based and semantically validated mobile CDSS is introduced. For that, the development of a patient-oriented mobile application for the management of gestational diabetes is described, and the design and results of its usability assessment are presented. This validation was carried out following the System Usability Scale (SUS) with some additional measurements, and results showed excellent usability scores.

Garazi Artola, Jordi Torres, Nekane Larburu, Roberto Álvarez, Naiara Muro

Chapter 2. The Research Concept

The proposed research has a combined descriptive and exploratory purpose. The descriptive research covers the review of the renewable energy policy instruments supporting the development of offshore wind, large onshore wind, and solar PV projects. Feed-in tariffs policy instrument and its derivatives has been a very efficient way to develop renewable energy. However, role model countries in the energy transition such as Germany are now reducing the extent of their support. The research work describes this phenomenon and its consequences for the renewable energy project developers.

Matthieu Jaunatre

Chapter 1. Issues of Historical and Managerial Research

This chapter introduces the main methodological issues in the formation and development of the History of Management Thought (HMT). Here are the main questions that the history of management thought should answer: “Why and for What purpose has one or another management idea been proposed?” Why was it proposed at specifically this time and place? “Which conditions and circumstances have affected the emergence of a new management idea?” Here emphasis is being made on the relevance of increasing scientific validity in management decisions, the general and specific characteristics of HMT as a scientific, applied and educational discipline, the role and place of HMT in the history of science, issues of organization of research and methods of HMT development, source study and other issues of HMT are disclosed. Here the reader will get acquainted with the three main concepts of management thought—the models of the police, legal, and cultural states.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 2. The Origins of Management Thought: From Fifth Millennium B.C. to the Fifth Century

This chapter describes the main sources and origins of global management thinking over the centuries, from the emergence of the first human civilizations to the early feudalism era. Managerial aspects of the ancient world’s management monuments—treatises of thinkers, statesmen, leaders of economies, and social, religious, and military leaders—are disclosed. The objects of comparative analysis of views on economic management were representatives of ancient states—Egypt, Front Asia, China, India, Greece, and Rome. This chapter also briefly describes management ideas in the Old and New Testaments.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 4. The Emergence and Formation of Management Thought in Russia (Ninth to Eighteenth Centuries)

This chapter examines genesis, formation, and the development of management thinking in Russia of the ninth to eighteenth centuries. The authors of ideas here are state and religious figures, academics, representatives of various Russian categories, and classes, including representatives of the nascent third word. The sources were ancient records and tales, legislation, monographs of scientists and thinkers, archival documents, and memoirs. Of particular interest is the Sylvester’ treatise “The Domostroy,” containing many original ideas of household management. Among the heroes and creators of Russia’s management thought of this period are princes, emperors and representatives of imperial families, statesmen, advisers to emperors, and scientists such as Yurij Krizhanich, Ivan Pososhkov, and Michail Lomonosov.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 6. Western Schools of Management of the Twentieth Century

This chapter introduces the main western schools of management of the twentieth century. In all known works in the history of public opinion, this era is referred to as the era of scientific management. The characteristics of management schools show both their continuity with the management ideas of the past and their fundamentality and paradigmality in terms of future theories and concepts of management. The objects of comparative analysis are both the creators of new concepts, theories, and even schools of management (F. Taylor, A. Fayol, E. Mayo, G. Minzberg, etc.), and the axiomatics and results of the schools of management themselves (the school of “scientific management,” administrative school, school of human relations, the roles of managers, etc.).

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 7. Development of the Scientific Basis of Management in the USSR and in Russia in Twentieth Century

This chapter is devoted to the history of Soviet management thought, from the work of the promoters of Taylor’s “Scientific management” and H. Fayol’s Administrative School of Management to the original work of Soviet academics and practitioners of management on issues of effective management of the planned socialist economy before 1990. The sources were the works of researchers of this period—Russian and foreign scientists, the works of statesmen, as well as the materials of the HMT&B and AOM conferences, the work of the Leningrad School of Management, headed by professors Yuri Lavrikov and Eduard Koritsky. Particular attention in this chapter is paid to the formation and development of the Soviet scientific school of management, headed since the 1960s by Moscow State University professor Gavriil Popov, to a comparative analysis of the works of representatives of this school, as creators of the original concept of “Management as a system” and the original substantiation of “Management as a science.”

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 5. Management Thought in Russia in 1800–1917

This chapter of the textbook reflects the development of management thought in Russia in the 1800–1917. At this time, the works of M. Speransky appeared, for the first time, сameralist branches at Russian universities were opened, treatises on management of higher school and materials of the-trade and industry and Industrial Congresses (which focused on relevant issues of management) were published, and management reforms led by Russian government officials were implemented. The objects of comparative analysis of views on the management of the Russian state and private economy were representatives of four major socio-political movements in Russia that existed in Russia during the period under review—the revolutionary democrats, the populists, the bourgeoisie, and the proletariat. In addition, this chapter discusses various forms of creating and developing management ideas—the opening of commercial and legal schools, special training courses in management, holding major all-Russian trade and industrial congresses, etc.

Vadim I. Marshev

6. Transformational Leadership in New Work Organizations

Leadership is defined as the way of motivating and directing a group of people to jointly work towards achieving common goals and objectives (Helmold & Samara, 2019; Fatma, 2015). The leader is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and leadership skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction. Leadership implies formal and informal power distribution. The Tannenbaum–Schmidt Leadership Continuum is a model showing the relationship between the level of authority you use as a leader and the freedom this allows your team (Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 2009). At one end of the continuum are managers who simply tell their employees what to do. At the other end of the continuum are managers who are completely hands off. As you move from one end of the continuum to the other, the level of freedom you give your team will increase and your use of authority will decrease. Most managers and leaders will lie somewhere in the middle between these two extremes. The Leadership Continuum was developed by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt in their 1958 Harvard Business Revie (HBR) article: “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern”. Tannenbaum was an organizational psychologist and Professor at the UCLA Anderson School of Management. Schmidt was also a psychologist who taught at the UCLA Anderson School of Management. Most leadership models ringfence a leadership style and analyse it in isolation from other leadership styles. However, in practice, a single leadership style is not appropriate for all situations. Sometimes you might want to borrow elements of another leadership style to use with an individual within your team. Other times you might completely change your style if the situation requires it. Tannenbaum and Schmidt argued that there are certain questions to be considered when selecting a leadership style (Figs. 6.1 and 6.2):

Marc Helmold

13. New Work and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

The term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) was used in 1953 by Howard R. Bowen in his book Social Responsibilities of the Businessman and stands for the social responsibility of companies. Bowen preaches in his book for greater consideration for society by the large corporations in the USA (Corporate America), since these corporations have considerable power and, with their economic endeavors, have a major impact on the lives of ordinary citizens (Bowen5]. In the decades that followed, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) evolved continuously, initially through the zeitgeist of the social movements in the 1960s, for example through the civil rights movement, the consumer movement, the environmental movement and the women’s movements.

Marc Helmold

1. Introduction to the New Work Concept

Working concepts, styles and behaviour have been undergoing fundamental and structural changes for several years. New Work is the outcome of this transformation and cultural change (Bergmann, 2019). The triggers for this development of New Work are many. Digitization, connectivity and globalization as well as demographic change are among the factors that contribute to the change in the world of work. The question of how companies and societies deal with the megatrend New Work is becoming increasingly important (Bergmann, 2019). The core values of the New Work concept are independence, freedom and participation in the community as outlined by the scientist Bergmann back in the 1980s. In addition to freedom and participation, New Work also integrates elements like liberty or self-esteem, a purposeful profession, development and social responsibility as shown in Fig. 1.1.

Marc Helmold

Chapter 4. Ecological and Energy Analysis of the Green Areas and the Surface Layer of Atmospheric Air in the Districts of the Kyiv City

In this chapter, the calculation of the variant of the emergetic balance between green areas (natural component) and technogenic components (cost component) of the Kyiv city’s districts is carried out. The urboecosystem and its ordering can be considered as a result of plant photosynthesis and the life-sustaining ability of environmental factors together with the consumption of non-renewable resources and the further production of goods and services. Green area energy indicators were calculated for city districts in order to assess the balance of energy consumption and production within a year. Emergy is one kind of available energy that has been previously used directly or indirectly to produce a product or service. The following were used as indicators for the emergetic balance of the expenditure component: consumed energy, calculated in terms of the equivalent fuel, and energy of noise and electromagnetic radiation.

Dmytro Gulevets, Artur Zaporozhets, Volodymyr Isaienko, Kateryna Babikova

Chapter 3. Research of Chemical and Physical Pollution in Kyiv City

In this chapter, a study of the complex influence of physical and chemical factors on the state of the environment is carried out using the example of the Kyiv city. To carry out research on the chemical pollution of the surface layer of the atmospheric air of the Kyiv city, a database was formed according to the data of the Central Geophysical Observatory. Statistical samples of pollutant concentrations are characterized by large volumes and include a complete list of pollutants that were monitored. Full-scale acoustic measurements were carried out in the vicinity of the international airport “Kyiv”. For the current traffic intensity, contour areas of equivalent sound levels were calculated for day and night.

Dmytro Gulevets, Artur Zaporozhets, Volodymyr Isaienko, Kateryna Babikova

Chapter 1. Research of Scientific Bases and Methodologies for Evaluating the State of Ecological Safety in Urban Areas

Ensuring the ecological safety of an urbanized area, namely the development of special measures to maintain the quality of the urban environment at the required level, is a relatively new area of research. The substantive content of the scientific and conceptual basis for the ecological safety of an urbanized territory is considered on the example of the state of quality of the surface layer of atmospheric air, taking into account individual factors of chemical and physical pollution. Determination of the quality of the surface layer of atmospheric air includes the following stages: an inventory of factors and sources of impact; collection and generalization of information on the levels of exposure to adverse factors on the population and the environment; determination of points or zones within the residential area, for which it is necessary to reduce man-made impact.

Dmytro Gulevets, Artur Zaporozhets, Volodymyr Isaienko, Kateryna Babikova

Chapter 11. Conclusions

Francisco Eduardo Beneke Avila

Chapter 5. Determinants of the Investment Rate in the Economy and Their Relevance in Entry Analysis

The issue of economic growth has been the focus of great attention in the economics literature for a long period of time. Based on the model developed by Solow, neoclassical growth theory predicts differences in growth rates based on, among other factors, a country’s propensity to invest. Levine and Renelt find empirical support for this prediction. As a result, there have been numerous works that seek to identify the determinants of investment rates. From the myriad of variables that have been studied, there have been efforts to identify the ones that are more robustly associated with economic performance. This literature has a special value for antitrust law and economics because the factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest are directly related to the decision of entering a market. Not taking them into account can lead to error costs in enforcement interventions.

Francisco Eduardo Beneke Avila

Chapter 9. Comparative Analysis: Do Latin American Countries Follow the EU or US Standards for Entry Analysis?

In this chapter, the standards of entry analysis between the sample of Latin American countries, on one hand, and the EU and the US, on the other, will be compared. The analysis will be both positive and normative. First, the similarities and differences between the jurisdictions have to be established before one can make a conclusion of whether the relative points of view suit the different social and economic circumstances of the countries. Specifically, as will be seen, US courts seem to be more prone to dismiss cases on the basis of low entry barriers than the European Commission and the EU judiciary. Therefore, the comparative analysis will establish which rules of entry analysis have influenced the selected group of Latin American authorities and to which degree this influence is justified.

Francisco Eduardo Beneke Avila

Chapter 10. How to Incorporate the Country Characteristics Studied in the Present Research Into Entry Analysis

Throughout the present work, some consideration has already been made regarding the relevant factors that antitrust authorities can take into account when incorporating into entry analysis the country characteristics under study. In this chapter, these considerations will be presented in a more in-depth and systematic way in order to provide a guideline on how the assessment can be performed.

Francisco Eduardo Beneke Avila

Chapter 8. Entry Analysis in Abuse of Dominance Cases

This chapter presents the analysis of recent representative abuse of dominance cases in the selected Latin American countries. The present work will focus on the Latin American administrative authorities’ decisions rather than on their judicial review. Since the present work is concerned with highly specific factors regarding entry analysis, the antitrust agencies’ criteria provide a richer source of reasoning on specific barriers to entry. Higher courts usually rule on more general matters of law and, therefore, it is less likely to come across passages with reasoning that is of interest to the present research.

Francisco Eduardo Beneke Avila

Chapter 4. Dynamic Aspects of Entry

This chapter deals with the theoretical foundations of dynamic aspects of market entry—adjustment costs and real options—in order to provide a structured framework for the analysis of country characteristics covered in the next chapter.

Francisco Eduardo Beneke Avila

Study and Design Conceptualization of Compliant Mechanisms and Designing a Compliant Accelerator Pedal

Compliant mechanisms work on the elastic body deformations of a material to transfer or/and amplify an input displacement to an output desired displacement. They are highly preferred in applications demanding friction-less and backlash-free motion with high precision. In this paper, the accelerator lever arm and the torsional spring are replaced by an equivalent distributed compliant mechanism. In this mechanism, flexibility of lever arm eliminates the use of torsional spring and additional bolted parts in the entire assembly. The traditional accelerator pedal of passenger car consists of a stationery mount and a lever arm, loaded by a torsional spring, which is directly linked to the accelerator cable operated by the driver. The compliant accelerator pedal can be fabricated as an entire monolithic piece of polypropylene using 3D printing technique. The CAD model of the assembly is modelled on SolidWorks and simulated on ANSYS. The mathematical model of accelerator pedal is developed and simulated using MATLAB. Nonlinear model results that the necessary displacement can be achieved with precision control over the pull of the accelerator cable without compromising the automobile ergonomics. This mechanism is validated and used as an accelerator pedal in an all-terrain Baja vehicle which is designed and fabricated at the university.

Harshit Tanwar, Talvinder Singh, Balkesh Khichi, R. C. Singh, Ranganath M. Singari

Cloud of Things Assimilation with Cyber Physical System: A Review

Cloud of Things (CoT) provides a smart intelligent platform having capability of doing limitless computations by using the resources in an optimized fashion. With the advent of social networks, modern-day society relies on advanced computing technologies and communication infrastructures to share real-world events. Here comes the role of typical cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that derives tightly coupled computations with the physical world by integrating the computations with physical processes. The linkage between the computational resources and the physical systems can be done by using sensors and actuators. CoT can play a crucial role for extending the capabilities of CPSs. While this integration is still seeking more efforts for its own shape, the future CPS can dynamically adopted in different domains like healthcare, manufacturing, disaster management, agriculture and transportation etc. The deficiency of overall architectural awareness provides ample space and motivation for the academicians and industries to get involved in further studies. In this chapter, a complete literature study of CoT and CPSs oriented architectures are done which will act as a catalyst to improve the research efforts and understanding of tools and techniques. It also presents the current research opening in this area. The study is made to look beyond the current trends of architectures. The major contribution of this study is to summarize the CoT and CPSs oriented critical infrastructures with respect to the cutting-edge technologies and design considerations with respect to overall impact on the real-world.

Yashwant Singh Patel, Manoj Kumar Mishra, Bhabani Shankar Prasad Mishra, Rajiv Misra

Chapter 18. Attachment 1: BHP DLC

On June 29, 2001, BHP Limited and Billiton Plc completed the formation of a Dual Listed Companies structure, or DLC. To affect the DLC, BHP Limited and Billiton Plc entered into certain contractual arrangements which were designed to place the shareholders of both companies in a position where they effectively had an interest in a single group that combined the assets and was subject to all the liabilities of both companies. BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton Plc had each retained their separate corporate identities and maintained their separate stock exchange listings. BHP Billiton Limited had a primary listing on the ASX and secondary listings in London, Frankfurt, Wellington, Zurich and, in the form of ADSs, on the New York Stock Exchange. BHP Billiton Plc has a primary listing in London and secondary listings in Johannesburg and Paris.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 3. Organisational GovernanceGovernance

In this chapter we point out that effectiveness in corporate governance can contribute to an organisation and its outcomes from top to bottom and end to end, being a widely applicable set of sound business practices that go well beyond a compliance approach. Like many other aspects of what makes for a great organisation, effective corporate governance starts at the top, meaning the board and its directors. We outline the capabilities and characteristics of an effective board and director, and some general principles for boards and directors to consider and use as guidance, in their actions and contributions in activities ranging from CEO selection to board and organisational performance management.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 8. NAB (C): Banking in AustraliaBanking in Australia, NAB’s Track Record and Trajectory

In Australia, NAB’s retailing activities were principally conducted through its Australian Financial Services business unit, which provided a full range of financial services to over three million customers across all segments. It was in its Australian business that NAB established a strong credit risk management discipline that distinguished it in the industry. During the period up to 2000, its performance reflected that differentiation.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 14. BHP(F): Mergers and Acquisitions

One of the biggest days in the 130-year history of BHP was 29 June 2001, when the merger was formalised with Billiton Plc. The DLC structure meant that the combined entity was to be operated, even though it involved distinct organisations, to create the best overall outcomes for the aggregate of those entities, which would share the returns, through equal dividends. Although not formally a single entity, the business of the two entities were to be operated as if they were one. The group restructured assets from both previously separate businesses into seven business units called Customer Sector Groups, each with clear financial and operating goals and responsibilities. The group’s global footprint had expanded and diversified, including to Pakistan, Gulf of Mexico, South Africa, Chile and many other regions.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 6. NAB (A): Banking and Financial ServicesNAB (A): Banking and Financial Services, 1960–2020

The changes in strategy, leadership approach, governance, services, technologies and almost every other aspect of business life make the banking/financial services industry a most interesting one to examine with the wisdom of hindsight. Lessons can be effectively learned in all these realms from past successes and mistakes in this sector. The recent Royal Commission and scandals such as the alleged 23 million breaches at Westpac reported in late 2019 make leadership, governance and strategy in the financial sector a very much live issue, with very many challenges to overcome.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 17. BHP(I): Environment

The challenge for mining companies is to find, extract and process mineral resources with the least possible disruption to the environment. Meeting this challenge requires the adoption of a broad range of protective measures, including: sensitive treatment of land during exploration; environmental and aesthetic management of land under development; environmentally sustainable production procedures during the mining and metallurgical processes and of course decommissioning and reclamation practices aimed at restoring the land.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 4. Corporate Social ResponsibilityCorporate Social Responsibility

In this chapter we outline and review the modern approach to corporate social responsibility and compare it to the classical approach, using many examples from around the globe to acknowledge the progress being made by businesses and governments, while still acknowledging that this element of strategic leadership is not fully mature in most organisations. Stakeholders are increasingly turning their attention to non-financial organisational outcomes, which for leaders mean that they must face into the challenges of tradeoffs in satisfying those stakeholders, while seeking to formulate strategies that are win-win, across dimensions of ‘People-Planet-Profit’, that will see their organisations well positioned in the medium and longer terms. We cite many corporate examples of how CSR work and activities are rapidly becoming mainstream and indeed core to organisations’ work, including resource allocation and other strategic decisions. Noting the prevalence of published corporate CSR and sustainability reports, it is noted that a broader stakeholder approach and longer-term sustainable development initiatives are providing advantage to many organisations in attracting talented employees, customers and investors, more than ever before.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 9. BHPBHP (A): ‘The Big Australian’ Overview and Strategic Roots

The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) is one of the leading businesses in Australia. It was the fifth biggest company after World War 2 (WW2) when the Bank of New South Wales was the biggest. It grew to become the largest in later years. At the time of writing, it is still the backbone of Australian industrial development. It is a very successful and resilient company; and is now the largest mining company in the world. Insight into its values, strategy and structure, the strategic issues it has faced, and its strategic decisions are instructive and worthy of understanding, thinking about and remembering by students of business.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 11. BHP (C): Minerals

BHP commenced operations in 1885 as a miner of silver, lead and zinc, and later expanded its principal mineral interests in order to satisfy the majority of the raw material requirements of its steel operations. Those mineral interests have since been further developed, and the Company managed large mining operations, including joint ventures in a number of foreign jurisdictions. BHP Minerals produced iron ore, coking coal and manganese ore in Australia, copper concentrate and gold in Chile, Papua New Guinea and Peru, copper metals in the United States and energy coal in the United States and Australia. BHP also had a 49% interest in an iron ore project in Brazil. It became a major global player in this sector, with strategic leadership being critical to its outcomes.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 19. Brambles: Dual Listed Company Structures

The investment banking, legal and accounting fraternities spend an extraordinary amount of time and effort developing ideas to pitch to clients—ideas for mergers, corporate reconstructions and financial products: they pitch these with enough detail to make them sound interesting, but also with enough complexity to ensure the client can’t work it out alone. They hope of course to earn tidy fees if the client decides to press ahead. In reality, the client often ends up doing a lot of the leg work if they do proceed—the devil is usually in the detail—but the fact remains that few companies are set up or adequately resourced to develop sophisticated structural ideas or financial solutions on their own, nor in our view should they be. This is where the banking and professional firms shine, and can add significant value.

Don Argus, Danny Samson

Chapter 1. LeadershipLeadership

This chapter provides an overview of the impact of leadership on organisations and their performance outcomes, illustrated starkly with data from National Australia Bank (NAB) where we worked, and other organisations. We then derive from our experience and from more general knowledge and examples, a set of specific characteristics, often referred to as leadership traits elsewhere, that are the key components of effective leadership. We acknowledge that such traits need to be adjusted for the contingencies of different situations yet argue that sound leadership has these basic characteristics in common, albeit customised. These characteristics can be developed, and for developmental guidance we state a set of ‘leadership axioms’ that have sound conceptual foundation, and practical value in helping developing leaders to clearly envisage and put in to practice an answer to the key question about leadership: ‘What works?’

Don Argus, Danny Samson

On Data-Driven Approaches for Presentation Attack Detection in Iris Recognition Systems

With the development of modern machine learning-based techniques for accurate and efficient classification, the paradigm has shifted to automatic intelligent-based methods. The iris recognition systems constitute one of the most reliable human authentication infrastructures in contemporary computing applications. However, the vulnerability of these systems is a major challenge due to a variety of presentation attacks which degrades their reliability when adopted in real-life applications. Hence, to combat the iris presentation attacks, an additional process called as presentation attack detection mechanism is integrated within the iris recognition systems. In this paper, a review of the modern intelligent approaches for iris presentation attack detection (PAD) mechanisms is presented with a special focus on the data-driven approaches. The presented study shows that the machine learning-based approaches provides better classification accuracy as compared to conventional iris PAD techniques. However, one of the open research challenge is to design the robust intelligent iris PAD frameworks with cross-sensor and cross-database testing capabilities.

Deepika Sharma, Arvind Selwal

Data Ingestion and Analysis Framework for Geoscience Data

Big earth data analytics is an emerging field since environmental sciences are probably going to profit by its different systems supporting the handling of the enormous measure of earth observation data, gained and produced through perceptions. It additionally benefits by giving enormous stockpiling and registering capacities. Be that as it may, big earth data analytics requires explicitly planned instruments to show specificities as far as significance of the geospatial data, intricacy of handling, and wide heterogeneity of information models and arrangements [1]. Data ingestion and analysis framework for geoscience data is the study and implementation of extracting data on the system and processing it for change detection and to increase the interoperability with the help of analytical frameworks which aims at facilitating the understanding of the data in a systematic manner. In this paper, we address the challenges and opportunities in the climate data through the climate data toolbox for MATLAB [2] and how it can be beneficial to resolve various climate-change-related analytical difficulties.

Niti Shah, Smita Agrawal, Parita Oza

A Low-Power Hara Inductor-Based Differential Ring Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

The most important component needed for all wireless and communication systems is the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). In this paper, a four-stage low-power differential ring voltage-controlled oscillator (DRVCO) is presented. The proposed DRVCO is designed using new differential delay cell with dual delay path and Hara inductor to obtain a high frequency VCO with low-power consumption. Results have been obtained at supply voltage of 1.8 V using 0.18 µm TSMC complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The tuning range for the proposed VCO varies from 4.6 to 5.5 GHz. This low-power VCO has a power consumption of about 5–10 mW over a control voltage variation of 0.1–1.0 V. The proposed VCO circuit at an offset frequency of 1 MHz achieves a phase noise of −67.9966 dBc/Hz. The figure of merit of proposed circuit is −135 dBc/Hz.

Misbah Manzoor Kiloo, Vikram Singh, Mrinalini Gupta

Chapter 2. The Dialectics of European Integration

This chapter focuses on European identity politics, both in an administrative-institutional sense (EU, nation-state, regional autonomy, ethno-national minority parties) as well as in terms of a vehicle of public dissent and a tool of grassroots mobilization. It shows how a specific type of identity construction based on normative discourses of Enlightenment values, liberal democracy and human rights has turned into a legitimating narrative of European integration and enlargement. Despite the rejection of nation-centric politics and the commitment to a Europe of unity in diversity, this form of post-national universalism not only brackets and seeks to homogenize what is essentially and increasingly so a Europe of plural and contentious voices, but also construes newly objectified and essentialist forms of European societal and political cleavages.

Christoph M. Michael

Chapter 3. Citizenship in a Post-migrant Europe: Socio-Political Cohesion at Breaking Point?

This chapter suggests that political and administrative elites driving European integration may have underestimated—especially so in the post-Cold War era—the resilience and mobilizing force of the national(ist) idiom. Post-national and cosmopolitan paradigms of democratic politics—despite the de-territorialization of sovereignty—were clearly outpaced by national identity politics and popular opposition to immigration. The discussion further shows how debates on asylum and immigration impacted on debates of social cohesion and the integrative functions of citizenship. This does concern, above all, the question of whether there are any real prospects for European citizenship beyond a thin reality of legal nominalism. How this question is answered will not only have direct implications on EU political and social cohesion but on the sustainability of the European project as such.

Christoph M. Michael

Chapter 5. The Integration Paradox: Culturalizing Belonging at the End of the “Multiculturalist Era”

This chapter expands on previous arguments by analyzing discourses on the alleged failure of multiculturalism in Europe and the increasing culturalization of mainstream politics. It argues that this not only presents an integration paradox but, in a much more fundamental sense, also entails a redefinition of the basis of European liberal democracy. In a sustained theoretical reflection, the chapter argues against conceptions of liberalism that aim to invisibilize problems of cultural accommodation within a sanitized discourse of individual rights. Its core purpose thus concerns—on a theoretical level—a way of turning the experiences of pervasive pluralism and large-scale immigration into emancipatory sources of liberal democracy rather than into driving forces of its erosion.

Christoph M. Michael

Sensitivity of Damping for Diagnostics of Damage in Structure

Available researches on the sensitivity of damping capacity of specimens and structures as applied for the diagnostics of damage are quite conflicting. Certain of researchers revealed sufficiently high sensitivity of damping capacity for the reliable diagnostics of damage, but others declared that the change of damping due to damage is negligibly small. In the presented study this contradiction was attributed to the fact that the change of damping capacity of damaged structures is the function of great number of factors. The influence of these factors on the change of damping of damaged structure was investigated with the developed fracture mechanics-based procedure. In such a way, the sensitivity of damping for the diagnostics of crack in a beam-like structure in the case of bending and axial vibrations was investigated. In particular, it was revealed that the sensibility of damping to crack is dependent on structure’s stiffness and on damping capacity of structure in the undamaged state. In addition, the intensity of stress in the damaged area should be sufficiently high to induce the dissipation of energy of vibration. As a result, a simple formula was developed to estimate the sensitivity of damping capacity as applied for the damage detection.

A. Bovsunovsky, E. Soroka

Crowd Management for Power Generation: A Critical Analysis on the Existing Materials and Methods. (Structural Modal Analysis)

Energy harvesting by means of different materials and mechanisms is considered an important topic of interest in past decades. Materials such as piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic in nature are generally used to harvest energy in many of the sensing applications. Mechanisms based on simple deformation, vibration and magnetism are used to harvest energies in power generation applications. The published research shows that the harvested energy from these materials and mechanisms are still far away from practical feasibility and optimisation. However, not a single review article is available which can provide a critical analysis on the existing materials and methods with regards to the mentioned feasibility and optimisation. In this paper, a review attempt has been made to describe the mentioned analysis. All the past research is described in two categories: Energy Harvesting through Materials and Energy Harvesting through Mechanisms. The materials used for energy harvesting contain characteristic to release electric charge under the influence of an external excitation. Several materials such as Multiwalled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and ZirconateTitanate (PZT) with slight change in their internal properties and efficiencies are used to harvest charge. In contrast to the materials, several mechanisms are also in use to produce useful energy from available external forces. Their mechanics is principally based on phenomena like structural vibrations, electromagnetic induction, and magnetism. This review concludes that a methodology of energy harvesting which can utilise any random load and converts into maximum useful energy is still not present.

Abdulaziz O. Alnuman, Muhammad A. Khan, Andrew Starr

D-Beam Theory for Functionally Graded Double Cantilever Beam Analysis

A formulation that takes advantage of both Layer-Wise and Equivalent Single Layer approaches for modeling Functionally Graded beams is presented. Such alternative formulation, referred to as D-Beam, is here applied to model the Double Cantilever Beam specimen in order to estimate the relevant fracture opening mode of metallic graded beams made up by means of Additive Manufacturing technique. Numerical results are presented.

Calogero Orlando

Depreciation Accounting in Longevity Evaluation of Complicated Systems

Consideration is given to the systems, which consist of nonrepairable expendable items and the restorable items operating in a cyclic mode. Durability of the latter, along with the no-failure operation, maintenance ability and storage qualities is characterized by longevity, i.e. the object property to ensure safe operation until offset of the ultimate limit state providing usage of the established maintenance and repair system. Service durability also directly depends on: human errors resulting in the undeliberate result; dependent failures caused by the system latent fault, etc. The most useful technique is the operation life setting, i.e. the number of operating cycles, which the object should perform over the period of its service life. At that, the comprehensive description is given of the operation cycle, environment conditions, and qualifications of personnel. In making of the theoretical assessments to describe the materials fatigue resistance and depletion, the Weibull-Gnedenko distribution is used. In carrying out of tests, in case of revealing of the component part excessive wear (due to the safety criteria) to be checked is the deterioration rate of the devices and units mostly subjected to wear, along with the maintenance works in compliance with the article maintenance documentation. Based on all the information and analysis, the composition of the SPTA sets shall be determined proceeding from the specified values of the system reliability value. Matters related to the depreciation accounting in the complex systems longevity evaluation have been addressed. Flagship approaches to solving of the emerging problems have been outlined.

B. Avotyn’, A. Smirnov, B. Belobragin

A Study On Optimal Design of Longitudinal Shape For Improving Small-Overlap Performance

This paper presents a study on the optimal design of longitudinal shape for improving the small-overlap performance, based on a computer-based crash simulation model. The small-overlap frontal impact (SOFI) event was simulated using explicit finite element method. The models were developed for the simulation according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety IIHS real test conditions with the Flat 150 mm radius rigid barrier and 25% overlap. Several different cross sections of longitudinal members were subjected to dynamic compression load, which occurs in small overlap frontal impact. The different shapes of longitudinal structure were compared initially to obtain the cross section that fulfills the small overlap performance criteria. The evaluated performance parameters included the absorbed crash energy, crush force efficiency, ease of manufacture and cost. Once the cross section was selected, the design was further enhanced for better crashworthiness performances by investigating the effect of material characterization, increasing the wall thickness and by introducing a trigger mechanism. Real experiments were also performed for …. The results of this study showed that the multi edges profile with 2 mm wall thickness and steel material was a good candidate for energy absorption in SOFI condition.

Nguyen Phu Thuong Luu, Ly Hung Anh

Counterbalancing Asymmetric Information: A Process Driven Systems Thinking Approach to Information Sharing of Decentralized Databases

This paper explores asymmetric information and how to counterbalance it. It utilizes the case study of a hypothetical company called “Hashable”. The purpose of this case study is to exemplify a proposed solution to address the information asymmetry faced by buyers of residential real estate in New Zealand. A procedural response is provided for organizing the information needed to make an informed decision on purchasing a property. A causal loop diagram is introduced to develop an understanding of the various stakeholders involved in the proposed solution and their interaction with the information they provide. This paper highlights the core problems regarding information asymmetry within a transaction. It also provides procedural and technological solutions to counterbalance this information asymmetry while simultaneously reducing information costs and increasing reliability of the information provided.

Mark Hoksbergen, Johnny Chan, Gabrielle Peko, David Sundaram

Can Blockchain Fly the Silver Fern?

Exploring the Opportunity in New Zealand’s Primary Industries

Blockchain is an emerging technology perceived as ground-breaking. Yet, technology service providers are not realising the untapped market potential as quick as it was predicted. New Zealand is not any different. Currently, the number of blockchain-based solutions available in the country is rather limited. A clear understanding of the market of blockchain is critical for service providers to recognise the opportunities and the challenges. It has been suggested that multiple industries could utilise blockchain technology to attain numerous benefits. The primary industries of New Zealand will be one of them that remains underexplored. Therefore, in this study, we use total addressable market (TAM), a technique to estimate the market size, to explore the available economic opportunity of blockchain-based solutions in New Zealand’s primary industries. Our estimation suggests that it may be close to NZ$1.65 billion per year, including self-employed enterprises; or NZ$496 million per year, excluding self-employed enterprises. Besides, our review of secondary sources indicates that blockchain technology could tackle some of the challenges the primary industries are facing like food fraud and foodborne illness. However, lack of strong and practical use cases, lack of streamlined practice for data management, lack of understanding of the technology and its implication to business, and lack of regulation and legislation are the major impediments to blockchain adoption.

Mahmudul Hasan, Johnny Chan

1. Schwierige Zeiten erfordern neue Wege

Dieses Kapitel vermittelt dem Leser, dass Wirtschaftskrisen zwar als solche nichts Neues sind. Die branchenunabhängige Covid-19-Pandemie bewirkt aber einen besonderen globalen Effekt, und das inmitten eines digitalen Umbruchs. Je nach dem weiteren Verlauf der Pandemie sind vor diesem Hintergrund unterschiedliche postpandemische Zukunftsszenarien denkbar. Damit nicht genug, steigen auch die juristischen Anforderungen an Sie als Dienstleister weiter – beispielsweise mit dem neuen Unternehmensstrafrecht und seinen finanziellen Folgen. Um diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen, müssen Sie nicht nur in der Sache gut sein, Sie müssen auch die richtigen Methoden kennen, mit dem Sie Ihre Leistungen immer wieder optimal auf den Markt bringen können. Dazu müssen Ihnen schließlich auch die aktuellen Informations-, Arbeits- und Konsumwege ihrer (möglichen) Kunden klar sein – Faktoren, die wir anhand exklusiver Statistiken für Sie aufbereitet haben.

Anette Schunder-Hartung, Martin Kistermann, Dirk Rabis

3. Weiterführende Erwägungen

Diesem Kapitel entnehmen Sie, dass das Arbeiten mit SAM – also das systematische, agile und multimediale Vorgehen – ein dynamischer Prozess ist. Dabei schließen strukturiertes und flexibles Arbeiten einander nicht aus, das eine bildet im Gegenteil das Gerüst für das andere. Dabei ist gerade bei agilem Arbeiten die personelle Seite einschließlich eines entsprechenden Werte- und Haltungskanons von grundlegender Bedeutung, wie Sie einem detaillierten praktischen Beispiel entnehmen können. Eng miteinander verknüpft sind sodann auch Agilität und digitale Anwendungen. Und schließlich: Jetzt ist die Zeit für mobile Konferenzen. Dazu bekommen Sie zahlreiche praktische Tipps zu den Does and Don'ts.

Anette Schunder-Hartung, Martin Kistermann, Dirk Rabis

Russia’s Role in the Consolidation of the Central Asian Elites

Three decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many questions still arise in the area. These questions affect not only the functioning and the future of the newly emerged independent republics, but even their own identity. The struggle between, on one hand, the cohesion of national states and, on the other hand, a strong identification with the Russian history and culture and the shared bonds, leads often to political clashes and social and cultural confusion. In this scenario, especially visible in Central Asia, the local elites have a strong influence. And Russia, as the regional leader and the center of that common historical space, keeps being the main reference in the area.

Francesc Serra-Massansalvador

A Model for the Assessment of the Water Footprint of Gardens that Include Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS)

The limitations presented by traditional urban water cycle systems, which are linearly designed systems, highlight the need to develop new technologies in a new circular strategic approach. In order to quantify the improvements, new methodologies are needed that integrate indicators that assess direct and indirect water consumption, as well as the origin of the water consumed and the incorporation of grey and rainwater. The methodology proposed provides quantitative data in terms of water to calculate the payback period of the new circular systems, comparing the conventional ones with new installations of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS), which are proposed as alternatives to optimize the urban metabolism by improving the water infiltration. The water footprint indicator (WF) is adapted to the construction sector, it allows to quantify the direct and indirect consumption. The first approximation is made to evaluate the impact of the urban water cycle systems. To this end, three possible scenarios are modelled, one of which is a conventional system and another two with SUDS, but different gardens, one of them with autochthonous vegetation and the second one with ornamental vegetation, with greater water requirements. Through this quantification, the amortization period is analyzed in terms of water, considering; the reduction of direct water consumption achieved with the SUDS as compared to the conventional systems; and the consumption of indirect water embedded in the materials necessary for the execution of the systems. The SUDS implementation works require approximately twice as much indirect water as conventional systems, due to the necessary improvements in the terrain for the proper functioning of these eco-efficient systems. This study, together with the technical and economic evaluation, allows us to analyze the viability of the SUDS and contribute with quantitative data in the decision-making phase for the future incorporation of this type of eco-efficient systems into the urban networks. The results of the impact of an urban space renovation project applying water-sensitive urban design techniques are shown by evaluating the nature of the materials to be incorporated in the work, the hydrological design of the project, its suitability for the urban environment and its capacity to adapt to future scenarios, evaluating both direct and indirect water. Likewise, the calculation of the WF developed by Hoekstra and Chapagain, generally applied to the agricultural sector, is also adapted to the estimation of the water balance of urban systems with the presence of green areas. The methodology incorporates local biophysical, climatic and temporal data, together with the specific data of the project to calculate the water consumption in the urban area derived from the re-naturalization of urban areas, which has been little explored until now, and to have a measurable indicator to quantify economic and environmental impacts, applicable to the construction sector. In the analysis of the results, it is worth highlighting how the scenarios in which water-sensitive urban design technologies are incorporated presents higher WF values (increased by 1.7 times), referring to the materials and execution of the works than a project in which these design technologies are not applied. The saving of water resources during the use and maintenance phases is 82% per year. The balance means that, at the end of the life cycle, 66% less WF is accumulated and the amortization in terms of water of the infrastructures occurs in year 4.

Mª Desirée Alba-Rodríguez, Rocío Ruíz-Pérez, M. Dolores Gómez-López, Madelyn Marrero

Chapter 18. Asset Basic Care

Aim: To describe the features and organizational structures used in caring for assetsAsset basic care \b, from good housekeeping through to basic maintenance. To consider performance monitoring and recording and continuous improvement techniques.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will understand the importance of good housekeeping and basic maintenance and how to organize the workplace so that these are well managed. You will be aware of the continuous improvement cycle and techniques associated with it.Topics: Introduction Total productive maintenance (TPM) or asset basic care. Workplace tidiness, standards and training Machine knowledge Basic observation and action Japanese guide words Basic maintenance Accreditation of workers Performance recording Test analyze and fix Continuous conformance Continuous improvement Deming wheel Fishbone diagram Improvement coordinator Summary and benefits

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 14. Cost–Benefit Analysis

Aim: The aim of this chapter is to discuss situations where the benefitsCost-benefit analysis of some or all of the activities are not measurable in terms of direct financial returns. We then indicate how asset management decisions may be approached in these cases.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will be aware of those areas where benefits are wholly or partly of a nature which is not readily quantifiable in financial terms. You will learn about how to approach problems of this type and how to carry out cost–benefit analysis using a planning balance sheet.Topics: Definition Non-financial benefits Cost–benefit analysis outline Needs and wants User pays principle Measures of benefit Cost benefit analysis steps Activity-based cost–benefit example Planning summary sheet Regional health clinics exercise Cost–benefit spider diagram.

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 15. Risk Analysis and Risk Management

Aim: This chapter introduces the concept ofRisk management riskRisk analysis, gives references to standards and major documents which deal with risk and defines terms relating to risk. The procedures in the management of risk are then outlined, and the legislative approach to risk is discussed and illustrated by an example. Various types of risk are described, and hazard analysis and the assessment of consequences are discussed. Factors in mitigating risk and contingency planning are presented. The chapter continues with an example of risk analysis and management in a water supply system. Risk considerations in safety critical plant are addressed in the separate chapter under the title of “Safety.”Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will know how to analyze and treat risk. This will include an awareness of the legal approach based on meeting duty of care and regulatory obligations and the analysis and assessment of risk in relation to projects and to plant and machinery. You will be aware of techniques of hazard analysis, the assessment of consequences, the use of contingency allowances and of methods of mitigating risk. You will have seen how risk analysis was used in a water supply system application.Topics: Introduction Definitions Introduction to risk Legislative approach Management of risk Water supply system example Risk identification Risk register Risk analysis and treatment Consequences Likelihood reduction Risk treatment Contingency planning Types of risk Quantitative risk analysis Risk-cost Risk rating Risk matrix Project risk examples.

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 1. Introduction to Asset Management

Aim: The aim of this chapter is to introduce to the main concepts of asset management.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will know about: The purpose of this book, The historical background to asset management, The ISO 55000 series of standards for asset management, Definitions of assets, liabilities and related terms with reference to ISO 55000 and to accounting applications, The broad types of assets which organizations have, The types of industry to which asset management is particularly important; The aim of asset management within an organization, An outline of the asset management life cycle, The basic questions to be addressed by asset management, The benefits of good asset management, The dangers of the asset death spiral. Topics: Purpose of this book Evolution of asset management ISO 55000 series Asset Management Standards What is an Asset? The asset management role An accountant’s view of assets What is asset management? Asset management system The asset life cycle Asset management basic questions Dangers of poor asset management Benefits of good asset management The asset death spiral Exercises

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 11. Strategic Asset Management Planning

Aim: The aim of this chapter is to introduce and discuss the principles of Strategic Asset Management PlanningStrategic asset management planning. This is concerned with providing the organization with asset capabilities which match the needs of the organization’s business plan and are consistent with the organization’s financial plan. This involves creating or updating: the “Plan for the Asset Portfolio”, which shows what physical assets the organization will have over a given planning period, the “Plan for Asset Support” which is the plan for the supporting facilities such as maintenance and logistics over the same planning period, the “Asset Information Systems and Procedures” such as the asset register and documented procedures such as change management. These plans are then incorporated into a document known as the Strategic Asset Management Plan. ISO 55001 at Clause 4.4 states that: “The organization shall develop a Strategic Asset Management Plan (SAMP)…”. This is an overview document which provides information both to asset management personnel and to others who need to be aware of the role of asset management in meeting organizational objectives. This includes senior managers and a range of external and internal stakeholders.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will be aware of how to tackle the issues of aligning the asset capabilities with the business plan. In particular you will be aware of the concepts and roles of the “Plan for the Asset Portfolio”, the “Plan for Asset Support” and the “Asset Information Systems and Procedures”. You will have seen how these plans are developed. You will be aware of the document called the “Strategic Asset Management Plan” and will have learnt about its purpose and content.Topics: Introduction Strategic Asset Management Planning Elements The Plan for the Asset Portfolio The Plan for Asset Support Asset Information Systems and Procedures Planning Teams Development Steps Plan Summary and Follow-up Action Planning Considerations Top-down and Bottom-up Support Activities Engineering and Technical Services Strategic Asset Management Plan.

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 5. Local Autonomy in the Nordic Countries: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

The autonomy of local governments in the Nordic countries is ranked high in comparative indexes. However, the Nordic welfare state, based on unity, and standardised services, seems to represent the contrary. Are Nordic local governments so autonomous after all? Although having a constitutional guarantee of autonomy, local governments in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have to constantly redefine the limits of autonomy. The chapter examines the constraints to local autonomy, including heavily regulated services to upscaling and, a pressure on small municipalities to provide the services. It makes recommendations for local autonomy in the Nordic countries to define itself within the welfare state framework.

Pekka Kettunen

Chapter 17. State Supervision of Local Budgets: From Forbearance to No Concession

To guarantee fiscal sustainability of municipalities, all countries establish fiscal regulations and supervision. However, there is no guarantee that such regulation will be effective as the German state North Rhine-Westphalia shows. For decades, fiscal supervision suffered due to weak rules and inadequate implementation. In 2011, the state changed its supervisory system in favour of stricter rules. This chapter identifies causes for the persistence of an obviously failing system and reasons for its transformation. Persistence refers to political considerations and excessive demands in practice. The institutional change was caused by the global financial crisis making the old system unworkable and changing the actors’ mindsets. The state reacted by strengthening rules and their implementation simultaneously. Despite positive fiscal effects, the reform had negative impacts on local autonomy.

Christian Person, René Geissler

Chapter 18. New Ways of Limiting Local Government Debt: An Empirical Assessment of the German Case

Severe fiscal pressure experienced by some German municipalities has led to a shift in the way municipalities are controlled by the responsible state governments. Instead of purely relying on a system of approving budgets and borrowing, some states have established debt relief programmes which combine grants and sanctions, or even sent austerity commissioners who take over responsibilities of councils and mayors. Whether these are deemed proportionate and legitimate interventions into the constitutionally guaranteed administrative autonomy of the local level depends heavily on their success in limiting local government debt. Based on an innovative synthetic control approach, this paper undertakes an empirical assessment of a recent debt relief programme in North Rhine-Westphalia and the deployment of an austerity commissioner, revealing that both instruments to some degree positively impacted upon local government debt, as compared to non-intervention. Nevertheless, it finds the effect is limited in substantial terms.

Steffen Zabler

Chapter 8. Life Cycle Planning and Costing

Aim: The aim of this chapter is to describe the techniques of lifeLife cycle planning cycle planning and costing and to illustrate them with an example.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will understand the reasons for life cycle planning and costing and have seen a check list of factors that go into a life cycle cost analysis. You will understand the concept of a life cycle asset management plan, and you will have seen an example of life cycle planning and cost analysis.Topics: Life cycle asset management planLife cycle asset management plan, Life cycle costingLife cycle costing, Creating life cycle plans and costings, Life cycle planning and costing elements, Life cycle planning and costing example, Input to plans and budgets, Summary of applications of life cycle plans and costs.

Dr. Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 22. Safety

Aim: The aimSafety \b of this chapter is to outline the main factors involved in general safety issues related to asset management. Safety critical systems are also considered, and techniques applicable to high risk plant are introduced.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will be aware of safety issues in two main areas. Firstly, there are general safety concepts which apply to all physical assets. Secondly, there are concepts such as safety integrity levels which apply to high risk plant. You will also be aware of the need for approved engineering standards to be applied by competent personnel when developing repair specifications.Topics: Safety requirement and competence Safety practices Training and information Permits Tags Danger indications Safety critical equipment Risk-based Inspection Asset integrity management Layer of protection analysis Safety integrity level Facility siting and layout Repairs requiring engineering.

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 29. ISO 55000 Series Standards

Aim: The aim of this chapter is to provide a guide to the ISO 55000ISO 55000 series of asset management standards, published by the International Standards Association. The ISO 55000 series standards describe and specify requirements for the implementation of physical asset management in asset-intensive organizations. These standards provide a general framework for the management of physical assets.Outcomes: Reading this chapter will provide information on the requirements of the ISO 55000 series of standards and give cross-references to the relevant sections in this book and in other publications. The adoption of ISO 55000 can provide: A structured view and understanding of asset management, Effective relationships between top management, financial management, asset management, operations and maintenance, Improvements in asset financial returns, Well-informed asset management decisions, Insurance, health and safety, regulatory and risk management benefits, Company recognition/marketing, Improvements in training and development. Topics: ISO 55000 ISO 55001 ISO 55002 ISO/TS 55010 Overview of planning and the standards ISO 55001 Clauses and Book Cross-reference ISO 55001 Clauses and Figures ISO 55002 Annexes and Book Cross-references ISO 55010 Annexes and Book Cross-references Strategic Asset Management Plan (SAMP) Functional gap analysis.

Dr. Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 28. Performance, Audit and Review

Aim: The aim of this chapter is to introduce and to give examples of indicators of asset performance and to discuss auditing and review of the asset management system itself.Outcomes: After reading this chapter you will be aware of the role of performance indicators and of some of the factors to consider in creating and applying them. You will have available some examples of performance indicators in specific applications. You will be aware of the need for audit of the asset management system and the requirement for review of the system to ensure its continuing effectiveness.Topics: Key performance indicators Railway systems Water supply systems Electricity supply systems Overall equipment effectiveness Maintenance-related performance indicators Audit of the asset management system Management review.

Nicholas Anthony John Hastings

Chapter 12. Where Is Municipal Marketisation Heading? Experiences from England and Scandinavia

Negative experiences, newer reform trends and local circumstances have challenged the reform doctrines of the New Public Management (NPM) and raised the question of whether reforms have entered a post-NPM era. We explore this question in a comparison of experiences with marketisation—a key doctrine in the NPM—within local park and road services in England, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The comparison draws upon survey data collected from mid-level managers in 2014–16. We conclude that although marketisation is widespread it is not dominant. Also, the practices of marketisation are partly transformed by newer reform trends. In perspective, we find that marketisation is an evolving practice, which trajectories depend on local contextual circumstances and adaption of newer reform ideas.

Andrej Christian Lindholst, Ylva Norén Bretzer, Nicola Dempsey, Merethe Dotterud Leiren, Morten Balle Hansen

Chapter 2. Artificial Intelligence and Online Family Dispute Resolution

The integration of technology with dispute resolution practices follows the identification of a range of value-added benefits in both formal and informal legal proceedings. In recent years, there has been a movement towards investigating how artificial intelligence (AI)Artificial intelligence (AI) can enhance the functioning of online family dispute resolution (OFDR) systems after successful application to other types of disputes. This chapter provides an overview of the development of AI Artificial intelligence (AI) in disputes in order to understand current progress within family law. Several existing negotiation support systemsNegotiation support systems for use in Australian family contexts are described, including Split-Up, Family_Winner, and Asset-Divider Asset Divider , the latter of which incorporates principles of justice in a game theoryGame theory framework. Negotiation support systemsNegotiation support systems facilitate informed decision-making through performance improvement via machine learningMachine learning while the integration of game theoryGame theory assists in the distribution of resources to ensure the best outcome. As online dispute resolution begins to gain public and private traction culminating in the normalisation and institutionalisation of services, it becomes important to carefully consider issues of justice, regulation, and quality assurance.

Elisabeth Wilson-Evered, John Zeleznikow

Chapter 3. Current Research and Practice in Online Family Dispute Resolution

The growth of Online Family Dispute Resolution (OFDR) means that consumers are now presented with a range of options on the market to suit their needs. With the intention of these services to optimise effectiveness and efficiency for their users, it is paramount that robust evidence be demonstrated for their quality to support their preferential use when compared to other forms of dispute resolution service delivery. The literature review presented in this chapter was conducted to scope the current research and practice evidence for online dispute resolution in family law as relating to child custody issues. The use of OFDR services in both Australian and international contexts was investigated across a range of electronic sources since 2011. Of those programs located by the review, it was evident that while more methodologically rigorous research is required, preliminary evidence shows support for OFDR effectiveness in reaching desirable and fair outcomes. The considerations for selecting technologically-enhanced services are discussed, as are the avenues for future research and directions to further develop OFDR as a viable option for informal conflict resolution. This chapter demonstrates how knowing the literature helps to inform future OFDR development and enhance service delivery.

Elisabeth Wilson-Evered, John Zeleznikow

Chapter 7. Sustainable Supplier Segmentation: A Practical Procedure

Sustainability of supply chain is determined by the sustainability performance of each partner in the chain. The relationship between buyer and supplier has an important role in improving the sustainability of supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to explain the process of segmenting the sustainable suppliers and presenting strategies for collaboration and improvement of the suppliers. In this chapter, a six-step process is suggested in which the output of one step is considered as the input of the other step. At first, the performance indicators in each dimension of sustainability are introduced, and then given the performance indicators in the segmentation model, the sustainable suppliers are assigned into seven segments (three main segments, economic, social, and environmental; three balancing segments, bearable, viable, and equitable; and supplementary segment, sustainable). Finally, some supplier development strategies appropriate to each dimension of sustainability are suggested. The present study is beneficial for the researchers and companies’ executive managers. By a deeper understanding of this process, researchers can benefit from the proposed process for sustainable supplier segmentation, and the corporate executives and experts can have the opportunity of using the supplier collaboration and development strategies in the supply chain.

Hamidreza Fallah Lajimi

Chapter 4. Case Study: The Development and Evaluation of Relationship Australia Queensland’s Online Family Dispute Resolution System

The previous chapter emphasised the need for more methodologically rigorous evidence in online family dispute resolution (OFDR) if these technologically-enhanced services are to be useful and enduring. The contribution of Australia to furthering OFDR knowledge and practice worldwide is exemplified by an innovative pilot project conducted by Relationships AustraliaRelationships Australia Queensland in 2009. Both the development of the software and its subsequent evaluation were evidence-based and intended to adhere to best practice through the adoption of an iterative designIterative design that incorporated ongoing quantitative and qualitative data from all stakeholders to optimise system functioning and utility. This chapter summarises processes, findings, and recommendations of this pilot across the four stages of the program design: registration, intakeIntake, pre-FDR educationPre-FDR education, and OFDR. Clients and staff reported largely positive attitudes towards OFDR, with need to appreciate the learning curve involved in navigating the system and how the technology qualitatively changes the mediation process. This pilot sets the standard for the development and evaluation ofOnline Family Dispute Resolution (OFDR)evaluation of OFDR services in Australia and worldwide by subjecting the service to extensive systematic testing and evaluation to promote continuous learning and improvement.

Elisabeth Wilson-Evered, John Zeleznikow

Open Access

Chapter 4. Science and Technology Commitment to the Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 was adopted by United Nations (UN) member states on 18 March 2015, at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Japan. The Sendai Framework went on to be endorsed by the UN General Assembly in June 2015. The Sendai Framework is wide in scope. This paper uses many resources of already published material to enable the reader to access a more complete summary of the science and technology commitment to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. In this paper on the role of science and technology engagement to provide evidence to inform policy and practice where possible, the author considered it important to emphasis the partnerships and learning she has been a part of and all significant statements that are included in this paper are in italicized quotes. The author is grateful for the many opportunities to engage at many levels with colleagues who also contributed so much to these opportunities for joint working and shared learning.

Virginia Murray

Chapter 2. Evaluating Current Research Status and Identifying Most Important Future Research Themes

Concept Notes for the Group Discussion Sessions

This chapter focuses on group discussion sessions targeting the Priority Areas of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Day one group discussion session efforts were on Priority Area One—Understanding Disaster Risks; and Day two emphasis was on Priority Areas 2, 3 and 4.

Hirokazu Tatano, Andrew Collins, Wilma James, Sameh Kantoush, Wei-Sen Li, Hirohiko Ishikawa, Tetsuya Sumi, Kaoru Takara, Srikantha Herath, Khalid Mosalam, James Mori, Fumihiko Imamura, Ryokei Yoshimura, Kelvin Berryman, Masahiro Chigira, Yuki Matsushi, Lori Peek, Subhajyoti Samaddar, Masamitsu Onishi, Tom De Groeve, Yuichi Ono, Charles Scawthorn, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Muneta Yokomatsu, Koji Suzuki, Irasema Alcántara Ayala, Norio Maki, Michinori Hatayama

Chapter 17. Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

Inducting the sustainable infrastructure rating systems enable assessment of the degree to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) compliance (Diaz-Sarachagaa et al. 2016). Day-to-day revenue and profit pressures relegate disaster preparedness to lower priorities. Policy-makers, processors, and community are taking serious note of disaster risk management targets and indicators. (Mitchell et al. 2013). Integrated assessments put in parenthesis disaster-proofing, technology innovation, SDG compliance and overarchingly, good governance (Lotze−Campen 2015) Integrated models: integrated assessment). Infrastructure sustainability assessment commenced with societal, environmental and economic costs, and value added spanning their life cycles. This was boosted to the next level with disaster preparedness and resilience charted by Hyogo and Sendai frameworks that focused on reduction of global disaster damage to critical infrastructure, access to multi-hazard early warning, strengthen resilience of aging and new critical infrastructure, spanning, water, transportation, telecommunications, education, health care, and sanitation (UNISDR 2015).

Bhumika Gupta, Salil K. Sen

Influence of Selected Internal Factors on the Outputs of the Financial-Sector Companies Traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

Financial-sector companies differ significantly from other enterprises in terms of the business activity carried out, which mainly consists in provision of financial services and consultancy with regard to financial products. Financial institutions, similarly to other companies, issue shares that are traded on the stock exchange in order to obtain additional capital. The purpose of the paper is to indicate which financial ratios significantly affect the rates of return of the shares issued by the financial institutions analyzed. The empirical analysis involves financial institutions operating on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in the years 2000–2018. The source data adopted for the analysis result from financial statements that are compliant with the applicable regulations regarding financial reporting, in particular with the International Financial Reporting Standards. Financial reports constitute the basis for analyses and evaluations of the activity of a given financial institution as well as are the source of relevant information that is used by depositors and investors in decision-making processes. The results of the unbalanced panel estimation, carried out using appropriate diagnostic tests, indicated a financial ratio, such as return on assets, that proved to be significant. Moreover, effects were indicated that are specific for particular sectors. The banking sector should be analyzed separately from other financial-sector companies.

Ewa Majerowska, Ewa Spigarska

Chapter 9. Legalizing Artificial Intelligence

Current boardroom technologies concentrate on the production and distribution of information that boards want to assist in their supervisory and strategic roles which mean that many of these technologies do not tender the advantages of AI systems themselves but instead engender the data which is the necessary lifeblood that AI needs. Advanced analytics based on AI algorithms categorize more complex patterns than is possible by human intervention, predominantly in the context of identifying fraud and money laundering in the financial services context. AI can be considered as property and so making the obligation of the clients, owners, or producers if the damage is caused because of it. The European Parliament passed a resolution proposing a form of legal personhood for Artificial Intelligence regardless that legal personality is not lightly conferred in any jurisdiction. As AI entities function at an increasing distance from their developers and owners, these AI entities confront conventional legal frameworks for attribution and liability. This author (Georgios I Zekos) considers that there is a need for attributing legal personhood to AI entities, in their present configuration, in an analogous way that of traditional corporations and the only difference is that of their virtual dimension of function because humans are creating AI entities and put them in operation and so the occurrence of AI entities put in function by other AI entities is for the future where it is supposed to have a legal personhood attributing liability for the original AI entities and be forced in an AI way by AI entities in an AI world.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 6. AI Risk Management

Artificial intelligence has become a new engine for economic growth and as the central driving force of the new round of industrial reforms, artificial intelligence will further discharge the energy accumulated from prior technological revolutions and industrial alterations by generating new powerful engines to modernize economic activities such as production, distribution, exchange, and consumption. The decentralized nature of blockchain generates, the new concept of a token economy in which the community’s revenue is allocated to the actual content producers and service users who generate value. In addition, Blockchain is a key technology that enables new protocols for the establishment of a token economy in the future, leading to a new economic paradigm. Digital technologies are now turning the world upside down and so an ongoing series of technological developments have transformed economic and social life. The integration of AI agents into society has led to a different manner in which persons interact with each other, along with a new kind of direct interaction presented with AI agents, which are increasingly posed in society.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 5. Risk Management Developments

Risk is a tool which makes possible the decision-maker to get knowledge about the event with destructive effects and so, the decision-maker via the analysis of risk makes the event more certain and obtaining control on it. Moreover, risk is the net negative influence of the exercise of vulnerability, regarding both the prospect and the effect of occurrence. Risk management is the procedure of identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to moderate risk to a tolerable point. Furthermore, Risk sharing or risk controlling are central justifications for joining strategic alliances. Credit risk surfaces from the prospective that one participant to a financial tool is triggering a financial loss for the other participant by neglecting to discharge an obligation. Managing risk is one of the key objectives of companies operating globally and managers normally correlate risk with negative result.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 4. Artificial Intelligence Governance

AI is an approximation of human intelligence for the reason that it leaves open the prospect that AI will exceed human intelligence demonstrating a separate category of intelligence. Moreover, AI is interrelated to using computers to understand human intelligence, but it is not necessarily confined to methods that are biologically observable, which means that AI denotes the competence of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior. The emerging digital lifeworld delivers resources for a new type of government, which means that the algorithmic government is about extracting facts, entities, concepts, and objects from vast repositories of data making those subjects and objects traceable and amenable to decision and action via the unavoidable power of inference. AAI systems host algorithmic governmentality encompassing governable subjects who function not as real people but rather as temporary aggregates of infra-personal data, which means that by numbering the system will control the globe via the deployment of statistical power encompassed by AAI systems.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 3. Management and Corporate Governance

Corporate governance refers to the relationships among the different internal and external stakeholders implicated with the governance processes planned to assist a corporation in order to accomplish its objectives. DLT adoption by market participants will involve which means that there is a likelihood that new kinds of corporation stakeholders will appear such as the token holders. Hence, these new players will lead to alterations in the securities’ issuance and trading, in the shareholder’s involvement, but also to a reinforcement of the rights awarded to the different corporation stakeholders and so a new role will be recognized to corporate stakeholders. Public blockchain systems are “trust-minimized,” but “trust-shifting”—which indicates the need to trust in others than the officers and directors of a bona fide corporation and so in these systems that operate money, smart contracts, and possibly many other critical human practices which means that people continue to lead and make vital decisions on behalf of others.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 2. E-Globalization and Digital Economy

The new era of information technologies is referring to the globalization of communication. The quick decrease of the communication costs enhanced the dealings among countries and is a vital foundation for the structure of a stronger universal civil society. In today’s technology-driven world, industry standardization, device interoperability, and product compatibility have turned out to be vital to advancing innovation and competition. The technologies and virtual places that represent cyberspace have been assimilated into the lives of people who accept the Internet as a tool for pursuing their common, real-world needs. E-government brings the government closer to citizens, defeating the barriers of bureaucracy, reducing corruption, and making decision-makers more reactive to people’s needs, which means that e-services of e-government are characterized by greater efficiency and transparency.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 12. AI and International Law

Law can formally be considered as an institutionalization of practical discourse on social norms, and so modern law in Western civilizations is positive by articulating the will of a sovereign lawgiver, legalistic by applying to deviations from norms and formal. Public international law portrays itself as an instrument of universal moral values, of human rights, and of justice. There is a shift from international law to law and globalization providing a new incentive for erasing the artificial boundary between public and private in international law. It is characteristic that modern societies are far more interconnected than societies have ever been in the past, and so with the advances of technology and infrastructure, networks have quickly become an integral part of humans’ lives. AAI technological advance unavoidably is altering human and social behaviors demanding an adaptation of existing norms or the creation of specific rules if the law in force proves inadequate or unproductive. Essentially, AAI will be a cross-cutting happening necessitating not only the establishment of specific standards but also the reconsidering of the feasibility and effectiveness of preexisting rules. Zekos considers that at the verge of humanity losing earth’s control, there will be a war of humans against AAI machines by immobilizing the AAI intelligence and arriving at zero point for a restart.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 13. Conclusions

It seems that advanced technology and Al acts and thinks like humans. AI is an exceptional information technology demanding the event of a machine that reacts and works as a mind of the human. Moreover, the upcoming of AAI systems lead to global governance challenging the conventional international law. It is worth mentioning here that AAI systems generate a clear-cut need for new sui generis rules to cope with new AAI situations or types of conduct. AAI will ignite morally problematic or politically or strategically disruptive forms of conduct by controlling the global population, deploying fully autonomous weapons forming cyber-warfare systems establishing stability in AAI global society via the AAI. In conclusion, Al has to be utilized by people for the good of the whole society and not being a weaponry on the hands of an elite to conquer earth against any costs of human life and prosperity.

Georgios I. Zekos

Role of Personality Traits in Work-Life Balance and Life Satisfaction

In this study, we examine the role of personality traits in ensuring work-life balance and life satisfaction. For this purpose, 434 people working in service sector in Kocaeli/Turkey are interviewed through face-to-face. Five-Factor Personality scale is used to measure personality traits, and scales that have international validity and reliability are used to measure work-life balance and life satisfaction. Hayes Process analysis is used to determine whether personality traits have a role in ensuring work-life balance and life satisfaction. According to the results of the analysis, it has been determined that personality has a role in ensuring work-life balance and life satisfaction. When detailed analysis of the sub-dimensions of personality is conducted, it is seen that extroversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional balance have a role in terms of work-life balance and life satisfaction, but no relationship is found in the dimension of agreeableness.

Sevda Köse, Beril Baykal, Semra Köse, Seyran Gürsoy Çuhadar, Feyza Turgay, Irep Kıroglu Bayat

Interactions Between Effectiveness and Consolidation of Commercial Banks in the Polish Banking Sector

Bank consolidation is a process that has been observed in the world economy since the early 1980s. Until the global financial crisis formation of bank capital groups and financial conglomerates was considered as banks’ response to the globalization of financial system. After the global financial crisis, a “consolidation window” opened up in the global economy, which did not bypass the Polish banking sector. At the same time, it coincided with the support of the Polish government interested in its repolonization, which in a consequence resulted in an increase of the concentration level of bank capital. The main aim of the paper is the analysis of consolidation processes after the global financial crisis, as well as interactions between concentration of commercial banks in Poland (as a quantitative approach to the consolidation process) and their operational efficiency. The research indicates that concentration of the Polish banking sector affects effectiveness of the sector and individual commercial banks. However, scale and strength of these dependencies varies between the analyzed cases.

Irena Pyka, Aleksandra Nocoń, Anna Pyka

Globally Emergent Behavioral Patterns, as a Result of Local Interactions in Strongly Interrelated Individuals

In this paper, we study how local interactions in suitably structured social networks give rise to globally emergent states and observable patterns. An example of such states and patterns is the emergence of Panopticon-like structures that possess global surveillance properties. Our methodology is based on elements of game theory and innovation diffusion graph processes modeling social network local interactions. We provide an example of a simple social network structure in which collective actions induce the emergence of specific behaviors due to the effects of the local dynamics inherent in strongly interconnected individuals. Our work provides a framework for studying and explaining how specific social interaction patterns produce already observable global social patterns.

Christos Manolopoulos, Yannis C. Stamatiou, Rozina Eustathiadou

Insights from Lobbying Research on the Accounting Standard-Setting Process Through Comment Letter Submissions

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of lobbying research through comment letter submissions in the accounting standard-setting process. First, we review the theoretical framework that supports lobby behavior in accounting standard-setting process. Second, we examine the participation in lobby process and constituents’ incentives to participate worldwide. Third, we analyze the studies that focus on the content of comment letters to understand the position and argument of participants, and finally, we examine the effectiveness of a lobbying strategy through the relationship between the inputs (comment letters) and output (final standard). This paper identifies fundamental questions that remain unanswered and offers avenues for future research.

Lucía Mellado, Laura Parte

Chapter 11. AI and IPRs

First of all, it is worth mentioning here that the law’s struggle “to keep pace with technological developments” has always raised questions about intellectual property protections in emerging areas, which means that data-centric technologies are not an exception. Moreover, data-centric technologies have crossed national borders and attained adoption, even while patent law and copyright law have been slow to respond. It is worth noting that data-centric technologies have challenged the precise meanings of intellectual property doctrines, which did not envision such technological advancements challenging the scope of intellectual property doctrines. There is a growing sophistication of AI escalating the capability of AI to engage in knowledge work. Moreover, AI technologies infuse the role of a machine in the invention process, which means that the algorithms at the heart of artificial intelligence are playing a role in conception and reduction to practice of inventions.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 10. AI and Legal Issues

Al technologies affect the center of private autonomy and its limits, the notion of a contract and its interpretation, the equilibrium of parties’ interests, the structure and means of enforcement, the effectiveness of legal and contractual remedies, and the vital attributes of the legal system of effectiveness, fairness, impartiality, and predictability. The increasing global investments in blockchain technology justify a progressive regulatory adaptation to the altering materiality and so, civil liability and the insurance sector are required to amend and govern an ever-more pressing techno-economic evolution. It is worth noting that adapting existing rules to deal with the technology will need an understanding of the various manners robots and humans respond to legal rules. A robot cannot make an instinctive judgment about the value of a human life. It is argued that the automation of legal services is a manner to enhance access to justice, diminish legal costs, and upgrade the rule of law, which means that these improvements are a democratization of law. There is a shifting role of artificial intelligence in the legal course.

Georgios I. Zekos

Chapter 1. Introduction

Artificial intelligence is becoming global and so, it is encompassing various industries and transforming commerce, which means that AI is having tremendous economic consequences akin to transformational technologies of the past, such as electrification, manufacturing, and information technology. Algorithmic decision-making presents multiple benefits to society and so, algorithms surpass human abilities, and the set of those tasks is escalating. AI and its usage have significant impact on human lives and society as a whole. AI involves a number of potential risks, such as opaque decision-making, gender-based or other kinds of discrimination, intrusion in private lives, or being used for criminal purposes.

Georgios I. Zekos

Peer-to-Peer Lending Development in Latvia, Risks and Opportunities

Investment opportunities have become limited due to low interest rates; therefore, investors are searching for alternative investment sources. Peer-to-peer (P2P) platforms act as mediators between investors and borrowers and provide an opportunity for mutually beneficial interaction. The aim of the research is to study the P2P lending process and to identify risks and opportunities related to this area. The research is focused on the investors’ side due to the specifics of Latvian P2P lending platforms, i.e., they do not grant loans directly but use loan originators. Mixed research methods were performed as follows: a field experiment (trial investments through P2P lending platforms), a survey, structured interviews, and a focus group discussion. The study shows that rapid development of P2P lending in Latvia is driven by providing relatively lower risks to investors. The main investors’ risk mitigation tools are critical originator selection, when a due diligence procedure is executed for each prospective loan originator, buyback guarantees, and payment guarantees, when marketplaces compensate the invested principal and earned interest if the borrower is late with the repayment. Most Latvian marketplaces offer to diversify investors’ risk by investing in fractions of loans across different borrowers, originators, loan types, and geographies. Some marketplaces offer loan ratings based on the internal evaluation of the risks. Secondary loan market provides liquidity to investors. However, some specific risks still exist such as the P2P lending operating model’s sensitivity to adverse economic development scenarios.

Irina Petersone, Ilmars Kreituss

Concurrent Correctness in Vector Space

Correctness verification of a concurrent history is challenging and has been proven to be an NP-complete problem. The reason that verifying correctness cannot be solved in polynomial time is a consequence of the way correctness is defined. Traditional correctness conditions require a concurrent history to be equivalent to a legal sequential history. The worst case number of legal sequential histories for a concurrent history is O(n!) with respect to n methods invoked. Existing correctness verification tools improve the time complexity by either reducing the size of the possible legal sequential histories or improving the efficiency of generating the possible legal sequential histories. Further improvements to the time complexity of correctness verification can be achieved by changing the way correctness of concurrent programs is defined. In this paper, we present the first methodology to recast the correctness conditions in literature to be defined in vector space. The concurrent histories are represented as a set of method call vectors, and correctness is defined as properties over the set of vectors. The challenge with defining correctness in vector space is accounting for method call ordering and data structure semantics. We solve this challenge by incorporating a priority assignment scheme to the values of the method call vectors. Using our new definitions of concurrent correctness, we design a dynamic analysis tool that checks the vector space correctness of concurrent data structures in $$O(n^2)$$ O ( n 2 ) with respect to n method calls, a significant improvement over O(n!) time required to analyze legal sequential histories. We showcase our dynamic analysis tool by using it to check the vector space correctness of a variety of queues, stacks, and hashmaps.

Christina Peterson, Victor Cook, Damian Dechev

6. Post-independence Land Reform, War Veterans and Sporadic Rural Struggles

This chapter discusses the intervening period between the second and third zvimurenga by focusing on developments central to the rise of the fast track land occupations in the year 2000. A central consideration for this period is the Zimbabwean state’s failure to shift fundamentally the colonial land and agrarian structure, with the land reform programme failing to de-racialise the countryside in terms of landholdings. Alongside this stalled land reform programme were two further developments which facilitated the emergence of the third chimurenga. On the one hand, large numbers of ex-guerrillas from the war of liberation were marginalised in the post-1980 period and they began to mobilise and organise in a manner which led to the eventual formation of a national war veterans’ association which expressed discontent with the Zimbabwean state and ruling party. On the other hand, because of minimal land reform, as well as ongoing land pressures and livelihood challenges in the communal areas, villagers often in alliance with war veterans increasingly began to occupy land in the 1990s in a deeply localised way. By the late 1990s, the stage was set for another large-scale episode of land struggles.

Kirk Helliker, Sandra Bhatasara, Manase Kudzai Chiweshe

3. Land Alienation, Land Struggles and the Rise of Nationalism in Rhodesia

This chapter acts as a prelude which frames the examination of the second chimurenga in Chapters 4 and 5 . In discussing land alienation, land struggles and the rise of nationalism in Rhodesia in the intervening period between the first and second zvimurenga, the chapter brings to the fore the deep grievances around land under colonial subjugation, which resulted in localised resistance and struggles in the Reserves, later Tribal Trust Lands. Grievances and struggles were firmly embedded in the historical memories of rural people as they engaged with guerrilla armies during the second chimurenga. The chapter shows social differentiation within the reserves and the tensions which sometimes arose because of this differentiation. In the case of both the pre-nationalist days and the days of emerging mass nationalism from the mid-1950s, the chapter stresses the ways in which Africans drew upon their localised experiences and grievances when confronting the colonial order, including the agrarian and land reconfiguration of the reserves. As well, the chapter has a specific focus on women, as they struggled not only against a colonial order but also a patriarchal order.

Kirk Helliker, Sandra Bhatasara, Manase Kudzai Chiweshe

Open Access

The Evolution of Chatbots in Tourism: A Systematic Literature Review

In the last decade, Information and Communication Technologies have revolutionized the tourism and hospitality sector. One of the latest innovations shaping new dynamics and fostering a remarkable behavioral change in the interaction between the service provider and the tourist is the employment of increasingly sophisticated chatbots. This work analyzes the most recent systems presented in the literature (since 2016) investigated via 12 research questions. The often appreciated quick evolution of such solutions is the primary outcome. However, such technological and financial fast-pace requires continuous investments, upskilling, and system innovation to tackle the eTourism challenges, which are shifting towards new dimensions.

Davide Calvaresi, Ahmed Ibrahim, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Roland Schegg, Emmanuel Fragniere, Michael Schumacher

Open Access

Chapter 18. Citizen Science and Policy

Citizen science has manifold relationships to policy, which is understood as sets of ideas or plans for action followed by a government, business, political party, or group of people. In this chapter, we focus on the relationship between citizen science, government policies, and the related notions of politics and polity. We discuss two core areas of interaction between citizen science and policy. Firstly, government policies can support citizen science to flourish, for example, through legitimisation or funding. Secondly, citizen science can contribute to policymaking at various stages of the policy cycle, including policy preparation, formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Since both of these perspectives are intertwined, the policy landscape related to citizen science is complex, and it is continuously evolving. This chapter disentangles some of the complexities, with a particular focus on the European landscape, its geographic diversity, and key players (stakeholders and beneficiaries). It presents a brief history and the current context and also includes recommendations for the future with respect to governance, policy impact, sustainability of citizen science initiatives, and the role of digital transformations. We showcase the pathways of leading examples but also highlight currently unanswered questions.

Sven Schade, Maite Pelacho, Toos (C. G. E.) van Noordwijk, Katrin Vohland, Susanne Hecker, Marina Manzoni

Open Access

Chapter 17. Science as a Lever: The Roles and Power of Civil Society Organisations in Citizen Science

Citizen science has become an umbrella term that encompasses a growing range of activities, actors, and issues. This chapter examines the potential of citizen science to generate transformative knowledge and argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) are key actors in this regard. However, the roles of CSOs are neglected in the literature on citizen science. We turn to the traditions of community-based research and participatory action research to learn more. With two case studies on health and safety, we show how transformative knowledge enables concerned communities to claim their rights and enriches scientific knowledge generation. Through a socio-historical analysis, we find three main roles grassroots CSOs take on in participatory research: (1) a technical role in the production of data and knowledge; (2) a governance role in the deliberation on research activities and risk assessment; and (3) an advocacy role by campaigning for transformative knowledge. These roles determine the ability of grassroots CSOs to generate legitimacy and rely on CSO members belonging to different spheres of society, scientific skills, and access to marginalised communities. Finally, we discuss the conceptual and practical challenges of accounting for CSOs’ roles in order to build a more just and transformative future through citizen science.

Claudia Göbel, Lucile Ottolini, Annett Schulze

Open Access

Chapter 10. Machine Learning in Citizen Science: Promises and Implications

The chapter gives an account of both opportunities and challenges of human–machine collaboration in citizen science. In the age of big data, scientists are facing the overwhelming task of analysing massive amounts of data, and machine learning techniques are becoming a possible solution. Human and artificial intelligence can be recombined in citizen science in numerous ways. For example, citizen scientists can be involved in training machine learning algorithms in such a way that they perform certain tasks such as image recognition. To illustrate the possible applications in different areas, we discuss example projects of human–machine cooperation with regard to their underlying concepts of learning. The use of machine learning techniques creates lots of opportunities, such as reducing the time of classification and scaling expert decision-making to large data sets. However, algorithms often remain black boxes and data biases are not visible at first glance. Addressing the lack of transparency both in terms of machine action and in handling user-generated data, the chapter discusses how machine learning is actually compatible with the idea of active citizenship and what conditions need to be met in order to move forward – both in citizen science and beyond.

Martina Franzen, Laure Kloetzer, Marisa Ponti, Jakub Trojan, Julián Vicens

Open Access

Chapter 23. Citizen Science in the Digital World of Apps

In this chapter, we highlight the added value of mobile and web apps to the field of citizen science. We provide an overview of app types and their functionalities to facilitate appropriate app selection for citizen science projects. We identify different app types according to methodology, data specifics, and data collection format.The chapter outlines good practices for creating apps. Citizen science apps need to ensure high levels of performance and usability. Social features for citizen science projects with a focus on mobile apps are helpful for user motivation and immersion and, also, can improve data quality via community feedback. The design, look and feel, and project identity are essential features of citizen science apps.We provide recommendations aimed at establishing good practice in citizen science app development. We also highlight future developments in technology and, in particular, how artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) can impact citizen science projects.

Rob Lemmens, Vyron Antoniou, Philipp Hummer, Chryssy Potsiou

An Aircraft Pilot Workload Sensing System

The workload evaluation is of great importance for human error avoidance training, particularly in the use of complex systems that requires different and concurrent activities. The excessive workload harms human performance even with adverse outcomes. In the aviation field, certain flight maneuvers, such as take-off and landing, are characterized by great attention and workload demand to the pilot. Thus, a system capable of measuring pilots’ workload levels during flight could be beneficial to increase pilots’ performance. This work aims to study the initial feasibility of a device called Cockpit Pilot Warning System that monitors the pilot workload level during flight. With this aim, an experimental campaign using a Level-D business aircraft flight simulator is conducted. Two sensors are used to acquire biological signals: a thermographic camera is used to obtain pilots’ Face Temperature Variation (FTV) while a Heart sensor is used to acquire their Heart Rate (HR). The nervous system modifies FTV and HR in response to stressing or high workload events and can thus be used to monitor pilots’ workload that affects their performance. The workload measurement with the thermographic camera is an indirect measurement, particularly indicated in aviation, since it is contactless. It does not interfere with the concentration and leaves pilots’ freedom of movement, thus not affecting their working functions.

Andrea Alaimo, Antonio Esposito, Alberto Milazzo, Calogero Orlando

Combining Ultrasound and Surface Treatments for an Efficient Ice Protection

Different strategies may be adopted to avoid ice formation, such as power-consuming active systems and passive coatings. Several categories of surface treatments with superhydrophobic/icephobic behavior have been developed in the last decade. The goal of the coating application is to repel water droplets, delay ice nucleation and significantly reduce ice adhesion. However, surface treatments alone are not sufficient to guarantee icing protection in a wide range of humidity and temperature conditions. They should be considered as a complementary solution to traditional protection active systems to reduce their power consumption and environmental impact. This study concerns the early stage of development about a hybrid system, characterized by a low energy consumption and based on both passive techniques, the superhydrophobic/icephobic coating, and an active one, ultrasound, to remove ice build-ups from treated surfaces. Preliminary tests are conducted on a coated metal plate and the results coming from the investigation are presented.

Leandro Maio, Filomena Piscitelli, Salvatore Ameduri, Antonio Concilio, Fabrizio Ricci

A Structural-Aware Frequency Division Multiplexing Technique for Acoustic Data Communication in SHM Applications

The technological advancements in the sensor design and fabrication process brought about a new generation of smart sensor nodes to be used for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) purposes, which are concurrently capable of data sensing and processing in situ. This is the case of GWs-based monitoring applications, where the capability of the state-of-the-art transducers to generate custom signals inspired new potentials for acoustic data communications without the need for external cabling. Thus, information about the structural integrity might be transferred between sensor nodes permanently attached to the structure and exchanged across the monitored mechanical waveguide as a numerical damage indicator. Here, a combination of square-wave excitation sequences and frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is explored for simultaneous communication with multiple nodes. In detail, the problem of selecting the most appropriate carrier frequencies is specifically tackled, by proposing two different strategies for structural aware SHM data communication systems. A Multiple-in Multiple-out (MIMO) miniaturized smart sensor network, consisting of low-power and low-cost sensor nodes, was deployed to prove the effectiveness of the advanced solutions. Transducers were positioned in a spatially distributed and permanently installed network. Cable-free exchange of encoded information across a square metallic plate as well as on a stiffened carbon-fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) panel is achieved.

Federica Zonzini, Luca De Marchi, Nicola Testoni, Christian Kexel, Jochen Moll

Damage Identification by Inverse Finite Element Method on Composite Structures Subject to Impact Damage

One main limitation to the implementation of an SHM system on real structures is the difficulty to accurately define the load boundary conditions and the material properties, possibly leading to damage misclassification, especially with heterogeneous materials like composites. In this framework, the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) enables to reconstruct the complete displacement, and thus, the strain field starting from discrete strain measures without any a priori knowledge of the loading condition and the material properties. Structural assessment is then performed by computing an anomaly index identifying discrepancies between the strain reconstructed and measured in some testing positions and exploiting the latter for computing the Mahalanobis distance to further highlight discrepancies. Though the anomaly identification framework is general for any arbitrary component geometry and damage type, the procedure is experimentally verified with a CFRP reinforced panel subjected to a compressive load with propagating delamination generated from bullet damage.

Luca Colombo, Daniele Oboe, Claudio Sbarufatti, Marco Giglio

Review on Various Coating Techniques to Improve Boiling Heat Transfer

Boiling has got prominence in the recent decades for its effectiveness in cooling of micro-electronic devices due to its superior heat extraction ability as compared to air or single-phase liquid cooling. Numerous works have been published regarding augmentation of boiling heat transfer by developing modified surfaces. Micro- and nano-surfaces have been developed for this purpose. These surfaces are engineered either by surface coating or by micro-machining. The present review attempts to elaborate the various coating techniques and methods that have been used to fabricate surfaces to improve pool and flow boiling heat transfer. The experimental studies have been primarily focused in this paper. The results obtained using the modified surfaces and the mechanisms responsible for them have been discussed.

Amatya Bharadwaj, Rahul Dev Misra

Chapter 2. Gavagai? The International Politics of Translation

This chapter unpacks the politics of translation in four steps. In a first step, it reviews how translation is made unproblematic in contexts as diverse as the literature on international norms, actor-network theory, and in a generalised attitude toward social research commonly dubbed ‘positivism’. Second, it turns to W. V. O. Quine’s influential take on the indeterminacy of translation to highlight how it effectively disrupts routinised attempts to render translation unproblematic. A third step discusses these attempts in the broader horizon of a quest for certainty, a longing for knowledge to stand on a firm ground, which contrasts sharply with the reflexive interplay of social relations of translation. In a concluding step, the chapter discusses the politics of both translation and untranslatability in terms of its inextricably international dimension.

Benjamin Herborth

Gravitation of Blockchain in Shared Services: The Next Phase of Service Delivery Strategy

A Blockchain is an immutable, tamper-proof, shared ledger of state changes of a digital asset. It is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value. This digital ledger is managed via a distributed network across many nodes that can verify and confirm those transactions through consensus. The implications of the technology are far-reaching but there are conditions that should be met in order for Blockchain to be a viable solution. The purposes of this research are to (1) explore the current Blockchain use cases in Shared Services (2) understand the value created by Blockchain in Supply Chain Management and (3) study the tactical challenges in adopting a Blockchain strategy in Shared Services. In addition to a literature review conducted, we conducted in-depth interviews with selected Shared Services Leaders and experts. Results of our research indicate that Blockchain technology can deliver on expectations and implementation in Shared Services organizations will require simple steps. This study provides the data necessary for executives to build a business case for applying Blockchain technology in Shared Services and investigates the potential that Blockchain has to revolutionize industry and deliver gains in speed, security, transparency, traceability and accountability for a wide range of business processes.

Vipin K. Suri, Marianne D. Elia, Jos van Hillegersberg

What Do You See in Your Bot? Lessons from KAS Bank

The introduction of robotic process automation (RPA) has created an opportunity for humans to interact with bots. While the promise of RPA has been widely discussed, there are reports suggesting that firms struggle to benefit from RPA. Clearly, interactions between bots and humans do not always yield expected efficiencies and service improvements. However, it is not completely clear what such human-bot interactions entail and how these interactions are perceived by humans. Based on a case study at the Dutch KAS Bank, this paper presents three challenges faced by humans, and consequently the perspectives humans develop about bots and their abilities to perform work. We then provide a set of five practices that are associated with the management of the interactions between humans and bots.

Ilan Oshri, Albert Plugge

Digital Maturity: A Survey in the Netherlands

Digital transformations facilitate the need for speed. However, how the required digital maturity to manage transformation is not well-understood. This Dutch research examines inhibitors for digital maturity and is focusing on the business as well as the information technology side. Using a literature review and survey research of managers from national and global firms based in the Netherlands; we present a research model and empirically test the hypothesized relationships. The results show the inhibitors for digital maturity including the capability limitations for both the Chief Information Officer and the business representatives. In the research also the balance between achieving the digital business and information technology maturity has been measured: number of months required to achieve digital maturity. There is support for the hypothesis that information technology and business digital maturity are balanced.

Erik Beulen

Smart Contracts for Global Sourcing Arrangements

While global sourcing arrangements are highly complex and usually represent large value to the partners, little is known of the use of e-contracts or smart contracts and contract management systems to enhance the contract management process. In this paper we assess the potential of emerging technologies for global sourcing. We review current sourcing contract issues and evaluate three technologies that have been applied to enhance contracting processes. These are (1) semantic standardisation, (2) cognitive technologies and (3) smart contracts and blockchain. We discuss that each of these seem to have their merit for contract management and potentially can contribute to contract management in more complex and dynamic sourcing arrangements. The combination and configuration in which these three technologies will provide value to sourcing should be on the agenda for future research in sourcing contract management.

Jos van Hillegersberg, Jonas Hedman

Chapter 10. Towards a New World Trade Order? The EU, Brexit and North-East Asia

British political leaders regularly speak of the importance of free trade. In doing so, they overstate the importance of trade with North-East Asia but understate that of inward investment, which is of greater importance to the UK than to any comparable economy. The rise in this has gone in tandem with how modern manufacturing has responded to globalisation through global value chains. Bilateral and regional free trade agreements need increasingly complex rules of origin to cover these, reducing their attraction to businesses. Although the UK’s preference is to negotiate new bilateral trade agreements, nonetheless, Japan has suggested that it could join the new trans-Pacific CPTPP regional trade agreement and that the EU and CPTPP could together negotiate a further agreement. This would be the world’s largest free trade area, covering more than 30% of global GDP. For Japan, the proposal seems to be defined primarily by its rivalry with China and Korea, but it is still an opportunity for the EU to enhance trade relations with the Pacific Rim and to project its values. But the EU should push for inclusion of Korea and Taiwan in the agreement to ensure maximum impact.

Michael Reilly

Chapter 2. International Organizations

“International Organizations” describes the three main types of IOs—the United Nations System, regional and sub-regional organizations, and other intergovernmental organizations outside the UN system that are built upon cultural, linguistic, religious, or historic ties—as well as international humanitarian organizations. It also provides a comprehensive overview of the various types of UN peace operations, including peacekeeping operations, political missions, police missions, and human rights missions.

Jonas Claes

Chapter 2. Experimental Techniques

This section deals with the experimental techniques that have been used during the thesis. It covers several areas, from material to device preparation and characterisation. At each subsection, we briefly describe an experimental technique, explaining also its utility in our research.

Daniel Montero Álvarez

Offline and Online Citizen Activism in Russia

The article is devoted to the analysis of civic activity in modern Russia. The article presents the results of a longitudinal study of civic activity in Russia since 2014. The study is conducted by a survey of experts. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the development of online and offline civic activity.Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of mobilization and demobilization in civic activity. It examines what forms of organizations are most significant in civic engagement, as well as how authorities react to their activities, what tools are used to demobilize citizens.The research show that the degree of development of civic activity has remained at approximately the same level for several years. At the same time, on-line activism is more developed than off-line. It seems that online activism is more massive and affordable, less labor-intensive for ordinary participants. At the same time, the Internet provides a fairly diverse set of tools, the application technologies of which are developing. Internet technologies are used as a mechanism by which political action can be seen by authorities and the public. At the same time, the state is forced to respond to such changes and is stepping up to regulate various forms of activity on the Internet.

Alexander Sokolov, Asya Palagicheva, Yuri Golovin

On the Legal Issues of Face Processing Technologies

The article analyzes the problems and prospects of using recognition technologies for human faces. The authors note that their development over recent years brings together the problems of the right to a personal image and the right to privacy, enshrined in the constitutions of most democratic countries. This is due to the fact that these technologies make it difficult, and, in some cases, impossible (or inappropriate) to use traditional legal mechanisms to protect these rights. In this regard, the authors propose to extend the concept of personal integrity to the “digital forms of existence” of an individual reflected in personal images, videos, virtual accounts, etc.The authors propose to put some approaches formulated in the article as the basis of the legal regulation of the use of facial processing technologies. In particular, there should be a legislative ban on the development and use of programs and systems that search and process photo and video images that are not publicly available, and legal liability measures should be established for its violation. On the contrary, a person’s posting of such information in the public domain should be interpreted as his consent to their search and comparison.Otherwise, issues should be resolved with the processing of photo and video images, as a result of which they are subjected to various kinds of distortions. Although the prohibition on creating such fakes is unreasonable, their publication and distribution may be restricted by law.

Roman Amelin, Sergey Channov

Simulation of Human Upright Standing Push-Recovery Based on OpenSim

Investigating the human standing balance mechanisms under push-recovery task is of great importance to the study of biped robot balance control. Under human push-recovery mission, the passive stiffness, stretch reflex and short-range stiffness control mechanisms of human ankle joint are the main components in the internal mechanism of human body. To this end, this paper dedicates to evaluating the roles of the three aforementioned mechanisms during human upright standing push-recovery mission. Firstly, based on the simulation platform OpenSim4.0, this paper chooses a simplified lower-limb musculoskeletal model as the research object. Subsequently, this paper completes the design of the passive stiffness, stretch reflex and passive stiffness controller, and completes the static standing test and upright push-recovery simulation of the selected musculoskeletal model. Finally, in order to verify the effectiveness of the simulation, this paper uses electromyography, force plate and dynamic capture system to collect the relevant data of the human upright push-recovery. The experimental and simulation results reveal that the selected musculoskeletal model can basically simulate the process of human upright push-recovery under the joint actions of the three mechanisms noted above, which, to some degree, can reflect the effectiveness of the established method. Thus, the established method may provide some insights on the balance control of the bipedal robot.

Ting Xiao, Biwei Tang, Muye Pang, Kui Xiang

Variable Impedance Control of Manipulator Based on DQN

For traditional constant impedance control, the robot suffers from constant stiffness, poor flexibility, large wear and high energy consumption in the process of movement. To address these problems, a variable impedance control method based on reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm Deep Q Network (DQN) is proposed in this paper. Our method can optimize the reference trajectory and gain schedule simultaneously according to the completion of task and the complexity of surroundings. Simulation experiments show that, compared with the constant impedance control, the proposed algorithm can adjust impedance in real time while manipulator is executing the task, which implies a better compliance, less wear and less control energy.

Yongjin Hou, Hao Xu, Jiawei Luo, Yanpu Lei, Jinyu Xu, Hai-Tao Zhang

Towards Safe and Socially Compliant Map-Less Navigation by Leveraging Prior Demonstrations

This paper presents a learning-based approach for safe and socially compliant map-less navigation in dynamic environments. Our approach maps directly 2D-laser range findings and other measurements to motion commands, and a combination of imitation learning and reinforcement learning is deployed. We show that, by leveraging prior demonstrations, the training time for RL can be reduced by 60% and its performance is greatly improved. We use Constrained Policy Optimization (CPO) and specially designed rewards so that a safe and socially compliant behavior is achieved. Experiment results prove that the obtained navigation policy is capable of generalizing to unseen dynamic scenarios.

Shiqing Wei, Xuelei Chen, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Chenkun Qi

Management and Service System of CAS Key Laboratory

Key laboratory system is an important part of the scientific research and technological innovation system, the core strength of basic research, applied research and high-tech frontier exploration in Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The purpose of developing the management service platform of Key Laboratory is to realize the informatization of the management service of CAS Key Laboratory (CAS-KLMSS), so the managers can conveniently understand and master the research and operation of the Key Laboratory, and more support will be provided for the implementation of innovation-driven development strategy. This paper designs a platform architecture system based on data flow and approval process for different users and work scenarios according to the actual needs of laboratory management. It introduces the idea of generating system “Database” through filling of laboratory annual reports, to make all data captured, accounted and analyzed. The security mechanism of the system is developed to ensure the encryption of all data transmission and reading. Finally, it outlooks the future development trend of the informatization of the key laboratory management in CAS.

Hongfei Hou, Xiaoning Li, Xuerui Bai, Jue Wang, Fan Yang, Ying Wang

Construction of a Scientific Research Integrated Management Information Service Platform Integration in a Form of Cross-Platform and Multi-disciplinary Organization

In the era of big science, the scientific research is basically characterized by cross-platform, multi-discipline, and large-scale collaboration. Based on the abovementioned characteristics and by organically combining information with scientific research and integrating new generation information technologies (e.g., Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Big Data and Mobile Internet), this study aimed to reconstruct the cloud center-based technical architecture and build an integrated scientific research management information service platform with scientists as center, focusing on scientific research activities and covering the integrated solutions which involved human resources, finance, condition guarantee, and daily office. The platform was expected to have the following integrated information service functions: the management collaboration of scientific research projects], the digitalization of scientific research activities, the compliance of scientific research funds, the sharing of equipment and instruments, the servitization of talent teams, the e-commercialization of supporting activities, the cyberization of scientific communication, and systematization of scientific and technological think tanks. Besides, the platform was expected to achieve the following objectives: to realize the horizontal close-loop management and vertical business interconnection of research units by human-centered application experience; to greatly improve the compliance of business and reduce the management risk of research units by refined full-cost control; to provide information support for improving the management system, optimizing the corporate governance structure and promoting the multi-disciplinary and cross-field big science cooperation and innovation.

Binjian Qiang, Rui Zhang, Yugang Chen, Tongtong Zhang

Opportunities and Challenges for Biometrics

Biometrics refers to the science and technology of automatic identification achieved by computers through acquiring and analyzing physiological and behavioral characteristics of human body. The purpose of biometrics research is to give computers advanced intelligence to automatically detect, capture, process, analyze, and identify digital biometric signals, that is, make machines “can see and hear”. This is one of the basic functions of machine intelligence as well as one of the most significant challenges in theoretical and applied research human beings face. In conclusion, biometrics research is important in terms of both academic significance and practical value. In recent years biometrics has become an important part of national strategies such as the “Internet + Action Plan” and the “Development Plan on the New Generation of Artificial Intelligence”. At the same time, it has already become a new growth point for strategic high-tech and electronic information industry in the field of national and public security. This paper introduces research progress of several common biometric modalities such as face, iris, fingerprint and gait, summarizes development trends and opportunities of current biometrics technology, and analyzes main challenges on the road to the development of a new generation of biometrics. Finally, this paper provides some suggestions regarding the future development of biometrics.

Zhenan Sun, Qi Li, Yunfan Liu, Yuhao Zhu

Biomedicine Big Data—Trends and Prospect

This forward-looking review focuses on the development and applications for Biomedicine Big Data (BMBD), and its role in the engineering system for data management, scientific and technological research and development, as well as in social and economic transformation. The review starts with an elaboration on the complex connotations of BMDB from the inter-disciplinary point of view. It then explores the implications of BMDB in sectors such as life science research, medical and health institutions, and biotechnology and bio-medicine industries in connection with the challenges and opportunities faced by social and economic development. The recent COVID-19 outbreak is used as an illustrative case study. The review ends with an analysis of a decade of BMBD practice, both domestically and abroad, with suggestions for policy-making and solutions to tackle major challenges from China’s perspective. It is hoped that any BMBD-related institutions, including administrative, academic, industrial, financial and social organizations,practitioners and users will benefit from this insightful summary drawn from the past decades of BMBD practice. Any critical comments and constructive suggestions are sincerely welcomed by the authors.

Guoping Zhao, Yixue Li, Daming Chen, Yan Xiong

37. Toxic Leadership: Managing Its Poisonous Effects on Employees and Organizational Outcomes

This chapter gives an overview of the research on toxic leadership with regard to its definitions and the different ways in which toxic leadership has been dimensioned and measured. The chapter describes predictors of toxic leadership, poisonous effects of toxic leadership on employees, and organizational outcomes as well as a toxic leadership process. The author describes possible ways employees, HR personnel, and organizations may cope with and manage toxic leaders as well as the bright sides of toxic leadership with regard to its positive effects for individuals and organizations. Lastly, this chapter proposes future directions for researchers and practitioners.

Emem Laguda

10. Diverse Personalities, Egos, Roles, and Relations: Toward Workplace Wellbeing

This chapter introduces and integrates four theoretical and practical approaches to workplace wellbeing: (1) personality approach that addresses personal identity theories, personality types (e.g., Myers and Briggs), and personal strengths (e.g., StrengthsFinder) to enhance self-awareness; (2) ego or adult development approach with its various developmental stages that chart the dynamic developmental stages as experienced over a lifetime; (3) multiple role identity approach that leads to the fluidity of leadership and followership, which has the positive potential for enhanced individual wellbeing and organizational team performance; and (4) relational model approach that extends its four fundamental forms of interpersonal relationships (e.g., Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing) further into the six complex social relations in the metarelational model with proper inclusion and preclusion of social relations that enhance workplace wellbeing within the bounds of legality, morality, and cultural norms. These four approaches assume diverse intrapersonal and interpersonal perspectives and provide varying yet connected theoretical understanding and practical implications for a workplace wellbeing located at both the individual and organizational level. For each approach, the theoretical definitions presented are followed by practical explanations and explorations supported by examples of what the theories imply for workplace wellbeing. Workplace wellbeing comes from both personal and relational perspectives. This chapter demonstrates that an integrated understanding of self and the self’s interdependency with others through dynamic and permissible relations is instrumental to workplace wellbeing.

Petros G. Malakyan, Tim Schlak, Wenli Wang

43. How Wakeful Leaders Create Flourishing Workplaces

Wakefulness is reviewed in this chapter as a critical characteristic for leaders. It is described as the way of an awakened leader and an effective way to secure flourishing workplaces. Wakefulness is subdivided into three dimensions: internal, external, and integrated. Each of these dimensions is briefly reviewed. In a review of ways for wakeful leaders to create flourishing workplaces, the chapter discusses two critical strategic foundations: (1) the macro-to-micro approach, in which leaders first consider the macro needs and then formulate ways to fulfill those needs, and (2) ecumenical learning, in which the well-being of all stakeholders is considered. In the macro-to-micro approach, profits are reformatted from a starting point to a rewarding consequence of need-fulfilling actions, and gratification of all stakeholders at all levels is guaranteed. Five considerations are thereby provided, which leaders could use as a guide toward implementing the macro-to-micro approach. In the discussion of ecumenical learning, a comprehensive and revolutionary style of organizational learning, the chapter presents a number of factors to be considered, from the moment a deviation surfaces or an insight for a change in the status quo appears to the evaluation of the ramifications of this application to stakeholders inside and outside the direct organizational or even industrial environment.

Joan Marques

54. Let My People Go: Emancipating Values as a Remedy for Religious Role Conflict

A decades-long decline in job satisfaction in the United States has inspired researchers and practitioners to seek out changes that might explain the trend and suggest solutions. The numbers remain dismally low, with half of American workers still declaring they are dissatisfied with their jobs. One prognosis that has been offered for this long-term trend is increasing role conflict. There is evidence that demographic, cultural, and even political shifts resulted in an increase in role conflict issues for American workers. Many organizations have made an effort to address the issue, adding perquisites such as company-provided daycare, flextime, family-leave plans, and even concierge services. Meanwhile, these same organizations, ironically often as part of their diversity initiatives, have implemented policies which segregate workers from their deeply held values. Religious role conflict has been virtually ignored by both scholars and industry. This chapter will examine the issue of religious role conflict in modern organizations and suggest actions which emancipate worker values as a potentially effective treatment.

Mumphord Kendall

31. Improving Engagement During Times of Change

The vast majority of change initiatives fail to meet their objectives, and most decimate their organization’s levels of engagement in the process. The effect of plummeting employee engagement during turbulent times creates a downward spiral that can result in permanent damage to the organizational culture and capabilities. This phenomenon has led some to believe that change can only be achieved at the cost of employee engagement and that engagement can only be improved during periods of stability. Our work suggests that this is a false dichotomy. Through careful planning and active management, some organizations utilize these times of change to deploy strengths-based, positive approaches to successfully deliver their change agenda while simultaneously cultivating greater work meaningfulness and engagement. In this chapter, we examine a case study that demonstrates, through the use of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as one such approach, how taking on aggressive change initiatives in this manner can be leveraged as an opportunity for widescale reinvention of the organization, enabling greater work meaningfulness, engagement, and flourishing.

Melissa A. Norcross, Patrick Farran

14. Happiness and Workplace Well-Being: Transformational Leadership and the Role of Ethical and Spiritual Values

Happiness and well-being – being the main objectives of human pursuit (Fisher 2010) – have attracted attention in organizational context (Cooper and Marshall 1978; Smith et al. 1995; Danna and Griffin 1999; Simone 2014), given the growing emphasis on quality of life at work. Increasingly, larger part of waking life is being spent at the workplace, resulting in spilling over of the workplace experiences into personal and family life. Happiness and well-being have also known to have positive effect on customer care and, consequently, on profitability and productivity. It has been observed that transformational and other forms of positive leadership have great potential to contribute significantly to individual’s happiness and well-being (Turner et al. 2002; Sivanathan et al. 2004) by ensuring justice with different stakeholders and customers but also providing money as well as meaning that help to eradicate negativity and useless stress and contribute to positive experiences. Transformational leadership and its variants like authentic leadership, servant leadership, ethical leadership, and responsible leadership are deeply rooted in spiritual and ethical values (Kumar and Vij 2014). Practicing moral values stemming from spirituality contributes to individual’s happiness and well-being (Ricard 2008). This chapter explores how transformational leadership and its variants contribute to happiness and workplace well-being and how spiritual values contribute to transformational leadership as well as happiness and well-being of the people in the workplace.

Varinder Kumar, Satinder Dhiman

29. Work Alienation and Disengagement: Sexual Harassment and Uber

Work is fundamental to human flourishing. A toxic work environment can lead to work alienation and disengagement, adverse to human flourishing. Toxic leadership, including sexual harassment by managers, a form of bullying, creates a toxic work environment. Workers value transparency and fairness. The typical way that sexual harassment complaints are resolved in work organizations involves mandatory arbitration and nondisclosure agreements. Not only are these processes non-transparent, but they also enable the continuation of the toxic behavior. The #MeToo movement led to whistleblowing about sexual harassment at the Weinstein Company, Fox News, CBS, NBC, and Uber. Investigations conducted at Uber, following a complaint by a female engineer posted on a public blog, resulted in the resignation of the founder of Uber as CEO and widespread change in corporate procedures, including performance management and compensation systems. New York, New Jersey, and California all have prohibited secret nondisclosure agreements settling sexual harassment complaints. High-tech companies including Uber, Microsoft, Facebook, and Google have voluntarily abandoned mandatory arbitration of sexual harassment claims. Significant culture change is required to eradicate sexual harassment in the workplace, so that the sex roles of female workers are not defined as salient, but rather female workers are judged in terms of the effectiveness of their job performance. Performance management and compensation systems for executives are required to create real culture change in work organizations. The focus on improving organizational transparency and fairness would appropriately be expanded including race harassment and gender identity issues in the workplace.

Paula Alexander Becker

12. Seeking Meaning for the Contemporary Workplace: Insights from the Desert Fathers and Mothers

Contemporary organizations have become increasingly aware of an employee’s desire for meaningful work. According to Afsar, Badir, and Kiani (J Environ Psychol 45:79–88, 2016), employees who feel a “sense of self-worth, meaning, interconnection, interdependence and collective purpose” (pp. 95–96) in their work are more likely to be intrinsically motivated to accomplish tasks and be more innovative (Afsar and Rehman, J Manag Spiritual Relig 12:329–353, 2015). Organizations that create a climate characterized by trust, open communication, and service see an increase in productivity and efficiency, a reduction in expenditures, higher customer satisfaction, lower rates of employee turnover, and deeper organizational engagement (Afsar and Badir, J Work Learn 29:95–108, 2017; Podsakoff et al., J Appl Psychol 94(1):122–141, 2009).As twenty-first century organizations and their members continue their quest for greater productivity and purpose, one historically distant source has emerged as an enduring reservoir of wisdom. Distressed by a lack of respect for human dignity and authentic community, the desert mothers and fathers disentangled themselves from secular society in search of a deeper grasp of interiority. For instance, in his Conferences, fifth-century C.E. monk and writer John Cassian (1997) tells the stories of individual spiritual leaders who lived and prayed in the deserts of Egypt. One such spiritual leader, Abba Moses, explains that while the ultimate goal of monastic life is the kingdom of God, the more immediate goal (that which leads to the kingdom) is the acquisition of puritas cordis, or purity of heart. Thomas Merton (The wisdom of the desert. New Directions, New York, 1960), a twentieth-century C.E. monk and writer, wrote that one who is pure of heart “has an immediate apprehension of the way things really are” (p. 8); i.e., such a person is not prey to extreme emotional reactions, considers things from a transcendent point of view, has discretion, and responds appropriately and completely to each person and every situation he or she encounters. In other words, personal well-being.Whether religious or secular, leaders are prey to addictive and neurotic thinking, segmentalism, and psychological projection, and their dysfunctional thinking and acting leads to unhealthy organizational environments. The concept of purity of heart, developed in the early years of Christian monasticism, has much to offer leaders and scholars of leadership, not only in understanding “the way things really are” in organizations but in how personal well-being is connected to community well-being, and vice versa.To that end, the purpose of this chapter is to draw wisdom from the stream of experience shared by the early Christian monks – the desert mothers and fathers – and illustrate their relevance to the contemporary quest for workplace well-being and human flourishing.

Michael R. Carey, Dung Q. Tran

Hardness vs Strength for Structural Steels: First Results from Experimental Tests

Cultural heritage protection and restauration are fundamental matters. Intervention design requires preliminary modelling and analysis to carefully simulate the structural behaviour of existing buildings. The identification of constructive schemes is based on direct surveys, whereas direct testing are required to reveal mechanical and physical properties of materials and their degradation status. Clearly, higher knowledge levels correspond to minor penalties in terms of material performances. For metal structures, regulations provide the employment of destructive investigations only. Furthermore, the sampling of specimens often collides with the safety requirements of artifacts. Therefore, there is a strong need for non-destructive investigations, such as the Leeb method, for a reliable in-situ characterization of carpentry steels. A fundamental step towards reaching this aim is represented by the identification of a theoretical relationship between Leeb hardness values, measured in-situ, and experimental tensile strengths. In order to identify a generally valid correlation, data of the past four years were collected from the database of the Tecnolab s.r.l. company. The experimental setup was based on in-situ Leeb analysis followed by samples collection for consequent tensile tests performed in the laboratory. The experimental data, compared to the trend provided by internationally valid guidelines, provide resistances that the regulations tend to overestimate. Therefore, designing an intervention using these resistances would not be on the safe side. Further analyses should be performed to investigate determinants related to in-situ conditions altering the steel resistance with the aim of identifying potential corrective factors.

Antonio Formisano, Antonio Davino

A State-of-the-Art Review of Nature-Inspired Systems for Smart Structures

Since the dawn of humanity, nature has been a source of inspiration for developing engineering systems, referred to as “nature-inspired systems”. With respect to smart structures instrumented with smart structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, nature-inspired systems may provide promising advancements, for example, by executing self-healing or self-diagnosing processes. However, for developing optimum strategies towards deploying nature-inspired systems to smart structures, the plenitude of nature-inspired systems in SHM need to be classified. This paper aims at reviewing the potential of nature-inspired systems to advance the performance of smart structures. Upon a brief introduction to smart structures and nature-inspired systems, a state-of-the-art review of nature-inspired systems that exhibit potential to advance smart structures is presented, providing decision support on how to advantageously apply the benefits of nature-inspired systems to smart structures.

Henrieke Fritz, Kay Smarsly

Smart Composite Rebars Based on DFOS Technology as Nervous System of Hybrid Footbridge Deck: A Case Study

The paper presents the concept and application of the smart pedestrian footbridge, equipped with DFOS strain sensors called EpsilonRebars. These sensors, in the form of composite rods being simultaneously the structural reinforcement for the concrete deck, were placed along the entire span of nearly 80 m. Thanks to the application of distributed optical fibre sensing technique DFOS, it is possible to perform measurements of strains, displacements (deflections) and temperature changes in a geometrically continuous manner along the entire length of the footbridge. The sensors integrated with the deck were used to measure selected physical quantities during the hydration of early-age concrete (thermal-shrinkage strains) as well as during the load tests. Sensor readings can be performed at any time of the structure operations in order to assess its technical condition (e.g. crack appearing) and to analyze the impact of environmental conditions and other factors, e.g. rheological phenomena.

Rafał Sieńko, Łukasz Bednarski, Tomasz Howiacki

Path Identification of a Moving Load Based on Multiobjective Optimization

This contribution presents and tests experimentally a nonparametric approach for indirect identification of 2D paths of moving loads, based on the recorded mechanical response of the loaded structure. This is an inverse problem of load identification. The method to be proposed is based on multicriterial optimization with two complementary criteria. The first criterion is purely mechanical, and it quantifies the misfit between the recorded mechanical response of the structure and its predicted response under a given trajectory. The second criterion is geometric: it represents the heuristic knowledge about the expected geometric regularity characteristics of the load paths (such as related to linear and angular velocity), and in fact it can be considered to be a regularizing criterion. A multicriterial genetic search is used to determine and advance the Pareto front, which helps to strike the balance between the response fit and the geometric regularity of the path. The proposed approach is tested in an experimental laboratory setup of a plate loaded by a line-follower robot and instrumented with a limited number of strain gauges.

Michał Gawlicki, Łukasz Jankowski

Fatigue Reliability Assessment of Pipeline Weldments Subject to Minimal Detectable Flaws

The study presents a probabilistic modeling of the fatigue crack growth prediction of the pipeline steel weldments in nuclear power plants in the context of an integrated structural health monitoring setting. Fatigue testing of the crack growth in the fusion line region of the steel weldments is made using compact-tension specimens. In particular, the uncertainty of the crack growth due to different crack plane orientations is investigated in details. A total of six orientations of the specimens are manufactured and tested according to the ASTM standards to obtain the fatigue crack growth data. The Bayesian method is used to identify the probability density function of the parameters of the Paris’ fatigue crack growth model. Using the concept of damage tolerance, the reliability model of the pipeline weldments given the minimal detectable internal flaws of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations can be established. The time-dependent reliability of the pipeline weldments is obtained using the efficient first-order reliability method. Results indicate the uncertainty of the orientations of the flaws plays an important role in the overall reliability of the pipeline weldments.

Xiaochang Duan, Xinyan Wang, Xuefei Guan

Chapter 8. Simulation and Verification on the Proposed Model and Control Strategy

The above-mentioned chapters in this book discussed the vehicle state and TRFC estimation, direct yaw moment control, torque vectoring, energy-efficient control, respectively. This chapter will validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model, control algorithms and methods under different maneuvers based on the simulative experimental platform, as shown in Figure 8.1.

Xudong Zhang

Chapter 5. Mechanical Performance of Pulsed Alternators

Compensated Pulsed Alternators (CPAs) typically operate at high speed to obtain higher inertial energy storage and reverse potential for higher energy storage and power densities. CPA is subjected to extremely high mechanical stress. Moreover, during pulsed discharging, the excitation current and discharge current are very high, there exists a very strong magnetic field, in the motor instantaneously. Some components of the motor are therefore subjected to a great instantaneous electromagnetic force, which directly threatens the security of CPA, so the mechanical stress, electromagnetic stress and key component strength are required to be analyzed and verified. The introduction of fiber resin composites with high strength-density ratio decreases the quality and increases the speed of the air core CPA, which greatly improves the energy density and power density. However, due to the anisotropy characteristics of the mechanical characteristics of fiber resin composite materials, the lateral strength of fiber is much lower than the vertical strength. It is necessary to carry out a safety assessment for reasonable parameters design.

Shaopeng Wu, Shumei Cui

„Wer informiert hier eigentlich wen?“ Qualität des Dialogs zwischen verschiedenen Gesundheitsberufen und PatientInnen

Wie arbeiten verschiedene Berufsgruppen im Gesundheitswesen zusammen, um die PatientInnen bei Veränderungen ihres Ess- und Bewegungsverhaltens zu unterstützen? Im Rahmen einer Studie in Südtirol wurden hierzu AllgemeinmedizinerInnen, KrankenpflegerInnen, ErnährungstheraputInnen und PatientInnen befragt. Eine Erkenntnis daraus ist, dass zwar jede Berufsgruppe beansprucht, für diese Lebensstilveränderungen zuständig zu sein, sich aber in ganz unterschiedlicher Weise tatsächlich darum kümmert. Ganz klar ist auch die Lücke, die zwischen den Berufsgruppen existiert, herausgekommen. Sie arbeiten überwiegend für sich, weshalb die Frage aufkommt: Welcher Dialog findet überhaupt statt?

Heike Wieser, Harald Stummer

Kapitel 12. Kostenmanagement

Auch eine Sache der Compliance

Kostenmanagement – das impliziert die Mitverantwortung aller Mitarbeitenden im Unternehmen. Alle sind beteiligt, jede Person in ihrer Position entsprechend ihrer Aufgaben und Möglichkeiten. Jeder und jede kann mitwirken, sei es mit bewussten Einsparungen oder mit guten Ideen, zumindest aber mit konsequentem Handeln.

Werner Heister, Julia Tiskens

Chapter 3. Cognitive Psychological Influences

This chapter examines the cognitive psychological influencescognitive psychological influences that shape dominant state threat perceptionsthreat perception and their proliferation responses. Because the methodology incorporates variables that influence a powerful state’s operational milieu, descriptive data illustrates the importance of these influences.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 7. Analysis of Data

The importance of cognitive psychological influencescognitive psychological influences, national securitynational security policies, and military capabilities in shaping a powerpower projecting state’s perceptions and response to emerging nuclear threatsnuclear threats was discussed in Chapters 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 . The Analysis of Data chapter incorporates these influences and applies them to the four proliferation cases using the Differential Effects of Threat Perception’s two decision-tree heuristicsdecision-tree heuristics to forecast the power-projecting state’s degree of perceived threatperceived threat, and how it is projected to respond to the non-power-projecting state’s proliferation efforts.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 2. Literature Review

To answer the central question of this study, “When and why do states that have the military capability to use force to disrupt or destroy a proliferating state’s nuclear facilities choose to take no action, use military force, or pursue coercive diplomacy?” the research first discusses the contributions and shortcomings of the existing proliferation literature. This critique contextualizes the foundation of nuclear proliferation literature before transitioning from the study of the aggregate to the individual effects of proliferation by discussing Matthew Kroenig’s power-based Differential Effects of Nuclear Proliferation Theory, which argues nuclear proliferation has varying effects on differently situated power-projecting states and these differing effects account for the variations in their proliferation responses.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 8. Conclusion

This book explored the role threat perceptionsthreat perception play in state responses to nuclear proliferationnuclear proliferation by conducting a comparative analysis of the United StatesUnited States and IsraelIsrael over four case studies: IraqIraq (1981 and 2003), SyriaSyria (2007), and IranIran (2015).

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 6. The Middle East States and Threat Perceptions

Adversarial rhetoricrhetoric has a cognitive influence on the powerpower projecting state decision-makersdecision-makers’ threat perceptionsthreat perception and how they perceive the intent of the non-nuclear-weaponnuclear weaponacquiring state’s proliferation ambitions.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 4. National Security Policy and Nuclear Policy

A state’s national security policy provides the structural framework for protecting its citizens and national security interests. These objectives provide the foundation for how a state will conduct its foreign policy, address threats, and promote its values and economic well-being. A state’s nuclear policy provides the governing philosophies of its nuclear arsenal, primarily concerning their security and conditions under which nuclear weapons could be employed.

Brian K. Chappell

Open Access

Chapter 6. Restructuring Banks and Borrowers

The systemic banking crisis subsided by March 1999, but it took five more painful years before the Japanese banking system recovered full health. This chapter reviews the process to restructure banks and borrowers and the impacts the process had on the labor force. It then tries to estimate the costs borne by corporates, banks, and taxpayers and explore what would have been the consequence if the immediate clean-up option had been chosen in 1992.

Ryozo Himino

E-Government Mechanisms Development: Comparative Analysis of British and Russian Cases

The main goal of the study is to identify shortcomings in the implementation of e-government mechanisms in Russian Federation and to propose recommendations for improving these mechanisms. Particular attention in the article is paid to current trends and problems in the field of e-government, which are based on high rates of technological development, informatization and digitalization. The relevance of this study lies in the need to improve the state system and its industries in the context of digitalization, as well as its dynamic transformations in order to meet the urgent needs of citizens. In this context, successful development and operation experience of e-government in the United Kingdom is indicative. In order to achieve the goal set in the study, the authors conduct a composite graphical analysis of the UK and Russian e-government websites. As a result of identifying the significant advantages of e-government in the UK, as well as taking into account the current challenges of digitalization and the needs of society, the authors develop recommendations for improving e-government mechanisms in Russia.

Svetlana Morozova, Alexander Kurochkin

Intelligent Legal Decision Support System to Classify False Information on Social Media

In the study, a decision support system for governance in the field of law was developed and the existing decision making model to conduct linguistic expertise of inaccurate public information in online media and social networks was improved, taking into account the human factor. The results of the proposed system are presented in a set of the formed recommendations, based on which the user makes a decision. The specific feature of the decision support system (DSS) is that it works with several types of false information in accordance with the Russian legislation against “fake news” addressed in the study. The adapted algorithms of Bayes classification were studied and built for effective work of the decision-making and classification module of false information. These algorithms were implemented in the system and a computational experiment on text classification was performed. The study examined the features of the Russian legislation on false information dissemination, and described the components and functionality of the proposed intelligent legal DSS, as well as its efficiency. This solution implies a widespread use of systems, application packages, special software and legal support for analytical work, obtaining forecasts and conclusions on the processes under study based on databases and expert judgment, considering the human factor and active influence of the controlled system on the governance process.

Arsenii Tretiakov, Elizaveta Kobets, Natalia Gorlushkina, Viktor Kumpan, Alexandra Basakina

Algorithmic Panopticon: State Surveillance and Transparency in China’s Social Credit System

This article examines China’s Social Credit System to illustrate how information and communication technologies bring forth new forms of interaction between the state and its citizens. In particular, it asks how the transparency generated by the Social Credit System enables new forms of social control, trust, and self-regulation. The study provides a descriptive account of the Social Credit System’s basic design elements and the political intentions behind its implementation. Based on Foucault’s model of the panopticon, the study then derives three basic parameters, each of which relate to the system’s capacity to create transparency and to reconfigure government-citizen relations. The study finds that the system increases the control of the government over society, likely diminishes trust, and reduces the freedom to act. However, compared to the clientelism and arbitrary decision-making of previous decades, the precise and depersonalized standards of the Social Credit System can be seen as an improvement that enables individuals’ capacity to self-regulate. This theoretical and analytical study thus adds to the debate about how government through algorithms rearranges practices of state power and control.

Viktor Suter

Legal Framework for the Use of Drones by Public Entities for Monitoring and Control Purposes in Russia

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), in its annual report in 2018, noted an unprecedented increase in the use of small unmanned aircrafts (UAS), which represents a serious challenge for regulators in terms of safety and security. Moreover, there is a general trend in the filing of special requests to the ICAO for preparing of harmonizing documents in the field of legal regulation of drones. According to recent research, both in Russia and abroad, drones are used in more than 50 sectors of the economy to solve more than 450 commercial tasks, which allows companies to increase profits, reduce costs, and optimize many processes. The TOP 5 areas of drone use include: medicine & health care; oil and gas industries; protection of nature reserves and forests; urban planning and surveying; delivery of light cargo by transport companies.At the same time, considering the current practice, many specialists note the limited applicability of the tools provided for by UN Convention on International Civil Aviation and traditional air regulations in case of UAS, and the urgent need for further efforts to create specific rules and regulations.At present, considering the increasing frequency of drone use, two main areas can be identified: civil (commercial, recreational) and public (state bodies for monitoring and monitoring compliance with legislation, military). The purpose of this study is to analyze the general state of legal regulation on the use of drones for public administration purposes, as well as to determine its main parameters and possible differences/deviations from the rules applicable for commercial use. The authors also formulate the basic principles that should allegedly become the basis for drafting of special rules for the public use of drones to ensure the necessary level of security and the required efficiency – to achieve the public goals by their using.

Mikhail Bundin, Aleksei Martynov, Ekaterina Shireeva, Maria Egorova

eIDAS Implementation Challenges: The Case of Estonia and the Netherlands

Solid eID (electronic identification) infrastructures form the backbone of today’s digital transformation. In June 2014, the European Commission adopted the eIDAS regulation (electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market) as a major initiative towards EU-wide eID interoperability; which receives massive attention in all EU member states in recent years. As a joint effort of Estonia and the Netherlands, this study provides a comparative case study on eIDAS implementation practices of the two countries. The aim was to analyze eIDAS implementation challenges of the two countries and to propose a variety of possible solutions to overcome them. During an action learning workshop in November 2019, key experts from Estonia and the Netherlands identified eIDAS implementation challenges and proposed possible solutions to the problems from the policy maker, the service provider and the user perspective. As a result, we identified five themes of common challenges: compliance issues, interpretation problems, different practices in member states, cooperation and collaboration barriers, and representation of legal persons. Proposed solutions do not only involve changes in the eIDAS regulation, but different actions to develop an eIDAS framework and to improve cross-border service provision - which has recently become an important topic among member states. Eventually, the study provides practical input to the ongoing eIDAS review process and can help member states to overcome eIDAS implementation challenges.

Silvia Lips, Nitesh Bharosa, Dirk Draheim

Factors of Open Science Data Sharing and Reuse in the COVID-19 Crisis: A Case Study of the South Korea R&D Community

Semi-structured interviews with South Korean experts were conducted to explore enabling and limiting factors influencing open commutation of scholarly outputs and data in public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 outbreak. The study provided a set of contextual/external, institutional/regulatory, resource, and individual/motivational factors with some relevant examples. The results revealed the highest importance of institutional/regulatory factors in such situations. The findings might be useful for a country’s comprehensive Open Science policy development as a component of future outbreak preparedness.

Hanna Shmagun, Charles Oppenheim, Jangsup Shim, Kwang-Nam Choi, Jaesoo Kim

Fault Tolerance in Multiagent Systems

A decentralized multiagent systems (MAS) is comprised of autonomous agents who interact with each other via asynchronous messaging. A protocol specifies a MAS by specifying the constraints on messaging between agents. Agents enact protocols by applying their own internal decision making.Various kinds of faults may occur when enacting a protocol. For example, messages may be lost, duplicates may be delivered, and agents may crash during the processing of a message. Our contribution in this paper is demonstrating how information protocols support rich fault tolerance mechanisms, and in a manner that is unanticipated by alternative approaches for engineering decentralized MAS.

Samuel H. Christie V, Amit K. Chopra

Fragility and Robustness in Multiagent Systems

Robustness is an important property of software systems, and the availability of proper feedback is seen as crucial to obtain it, especially in the case of systems of distributed and interconnected components. Multiagent Systems (MAS) are valuable for conceptualizing and implementing distributed systems, but the current design methodologies for MAS fall short in addressing robustness in a systematic way at design time. In this paper we outline our vision of how robustness in MAS can be granted as a design property. To this end, we exploit the notion of accountability as a mechanism to build reporting frameworks and, then, we describe how robustness is gained. We exemplify our vision on the JaCaMo agent platform.

Matteo Baldoni, Cristina Baroglio, Roberto Micalizio

Aplib: Tactical Agents for Testing Computer Games

Modern interactive software, such as computer games, employ complex user interfaces. Although these user interfaces make the games attractive and powerful, unfortunately they also make them extremely difficult to test. Not only do we have to deal with their functional complexity, but also the fine grained interactivity of their user interface blows up their interaction space, so that traditional automated testing techniques have trouble handling it. An agent-based testing approach offers an alternative solution: agents’ goal driven planning, adaptivity, and reasoning ability can provide an extra edge towards effective navigation in complex interaction space. This paper presents aplib, a Java library for programming intelligent test agents, featuring novel tactical programming as an abstract way to exert control over agents’ underlying reasoning-based behavior. This type of control is suitable for programming testing tasks. Aplib is implemented in such a way to provide the fluency of a Domain Specific Language (DSL). Its embedded DSL approach also means that aplib programmers will get al.l the advantages that Java programmers get: rich language features and a whole array of development tools .

I. S. W. B. Prasetya, Mehdi Dastani, Rui Prada, Tanja E. J. Vos, Frank Dignum, Fitsum Kifetew

Chapter 25. Aspects of Risk Management and Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings in the Republic of Georgia

This manuscript presents an ad-hoc methodology for the assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to be applied in Georgia where such assessment is included in the management risk approach designed to work at the national level.The risk management approach is based on the determination of several factors: specifically, it considers the severity and probability of occurrence of adverse events, the multiplicity and complexity of their impacts (anthropological, economic, environmental, political and social), and the determination of physical and social vulnerability. The physical vulnerability assessment of buildings is here generally defined against all events that produce mechanical effects on buildings, with special focus on natural hazards.

Teimuraz Melkadze

A Comparison of Machine Learning and Classical Demand Forecasting Methods: A Case Study of Ecuadorian Textile Industry

This document presents a comparison of demand forecasting methods, with the aim of improving demand forecasting and with it, the production planning system of Ecuadorian textile industry. These industries present problems in providing a reliable estimate of future demand due to recent changes in the Ecuadorian context. The impact on demand for textile products has been observed in variables such as sales prices and manufacturing costs, manufacturing gross domestic product and the unemployment rate. Being indicators that determine to a great extent, the quality and accuracy of the forecast, generating also, uncertainty scenarios. For this reason, the aim of this work is focused on the demand forecasting for textile products by comparing a set of classic methods such as ARIMA, STL Decomposition, Holt-Winters and machine learning, Artificial Neural Networks, Bayesian Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, taking into consideration all the above mentioned, as an essential input for the production planning and sales of the textile industries. And as a support, when developing strategies for demand management and medium-term decision making of this sector under study. Finally, the effectiveness of the methods is demonstrated by comparing them with different indicators that evaluate the forecast error, with the Multi-layer Neural Networks having the best results with the least error and the best performance.

Leandro L. Lorente-Leyva, M. M. E. Alemany, Diego H. Peluffo-Ordóñez, Israel D. Herrera-Granda

Chapter 14. Precision Retailing: Building Upon Design Thinking for Societal-Scale Food Convergence Innovation and Well-Being

As a holistic framework, food well-being (FWB) is conceived as “a positive psychological, physical, emotional, and social relationship with food at both individual and societal levels” (Block et al. 2011, p.5). It traces ways forward for research and action for individuals and society through five domains: food socialization, literacy, marketing, availability, and policy. The decade that followed since the introduction of the concept has seen significant theoretical development bearing on the experiential quality of eating and its dynamics (Batat et al. 2019), as well as on the five primary domains (Bublitz et al. 2019; Scott and Vallen 2019).

Laurette Dubé, Dilip Soman, Felipe Almeida

Chapter 11. Food Well-Being in the Higher Education Sector: How to Leverage Design Thinking to Create Healthy and Pleasurable Food Experiences Among College Students

Higher education is an important and unique sector to examine food well-being, defined as an integrative understanding of the psychological, physical, emotional, and social relationships individuals have with food (Block et al. 2011). Transitioning into adulthood and living away from home for the first time, students demonstrate inadequate food literacy (Abraham et al. 2018; Kang et al. 2014; Malan et al. 2020; Tam et al. 2017; Wilson et al. 2017). Food availability is often limited to on-campus institutional dining services, fast-food restaurants, and vending machines, with little access to grocery stores (Caruso et al. 2014; Dhillon et al. 2019; Horacek et al. 2013; Lugosi 2019). Promotions for junk food and beverages, such as pizza, burgers, and sugar-sweetened sodas, dominate marketing efforts aimed at this demographic (Bragg et al. 2018; Buchanan et al. 2018; Jayanetti et al. 2018), though calorie concerns, especially among female students, guide many food decisions, often at the expense of pleasurable and social food experiences (Rozin et al. 2003; So et al. 2012; Zein et al. 2016). Meanwhile, university food policies, such as mandatory meal plans, can be costly, confusing, and wasteful (Ellison et al. 2019; Laterman 2019; Pappano 2016). As a microcosm of universal food experiences, student food well-being experiences can inform innovation in all food sectors.

Jane Machin, Brooke Love

Chapter 16. From Food Product to Food Experience: How to Use Design Thinking to Service Vulnerable Populations and Improve Their Food Well-Being

Design thinking, the process of transforming deep user insight into new solutions by utilizing methods and mindsets borrowed from designers, has evolved to become one of the most rapidly spreading approaches for development globally. Today, design thinking is applied not only for product and service development but also for societal, political, and economic problems. In this chapter, we argue that design thinking can help to promote and enhance healthy food consumption experiences for vulnerable groups. To do so, we discuss three core elements of design thiking: empathy, visualization and collaboration.

Nina Veflen, Øydis Ueland

The AIQ Meta-Testbed: Pragmatically Bridging Academic AI Testing and Industrial Q Needs

AI solutions seem to appear in any and all application domains. As AI becomes more pervasive, the importance of quality assurance increases. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on what artificial intelligence means and interpretations range from simple statistical analysis to sentient humanoid robots. On top of that, quality is a notoriously hard concept to pinpoint. What does this mean for AI quality? In this paper, we share our working definition and a pragmatic approach to address the corresponding quality assurance with a focus on testing. Finally, we present our ongoing work on establishing the AIQ Meta-Testbed.

Markus Borg

Software Quality for AI: Where We Are Now?

Artificial Intelligence is getting more and more popular, being adopted in a large number of applications and technology we use on a daily basis. However, a large number of Artificial Intelligence applications are produced by developers without proper training on software quality practices or processes, and in general, lack in-depth knowledge regarding software engineering processes. The main reason is due to the fact that the machine-learning engineer profession has been born very recently, and currently there is a very limited number of training or guidelines on issues (such as code quality or testing) for machine learning and applications using machine learning code. In this work, we aim at highlighting the main software quality issues of Artificial Intelligence systems, with a central focus on machine learning code, based on the experience of our four research groups. Moreover, we aim at defining a shared research road map, that we would like to discuss and to follow in collaboration with the workshop participants. As a result, the software quality of AI-enabled systems is often poorly tested and of very low quality.

Valentina Lenarduzzi, Francesco Lomio, Sergio Moreschini, Davide Taibi, Damian Andrew Tamburri

A Systematic Literature Review on Implementing Non-functional Requirements in Agile Software Development: Issues and Facilitating Practices

Agile Software Development methods have become a widespread approach used by the software industry. Non-functional requirements (NFRs) are often reported to be a problematic issue for such methods. We aimed to identify (within the context of Agile projects): (1) the issues (challenges and problems) reported as affecting the implementation of NFRs; and (2) practices that facilitate the successful implementation of NFRs. We conducted a systematic literature review and processed its results to obtain a comprehensive summary. We were able to present two lists, dedicated to issues and practices, respectively. Most items from both lists, but not all, are related to the requirements engineering area. We found out that the issues reported are mostly related to the common themes of: NFR documentation techniques, NFR traceability, elicitation and communication activities. The facilitating practices mostly cover similar topics and the recommendation is to start focusing on NFRs early in the project.

Aleksander Jarzębowicz, Paweł Weichbroth

The Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic and Agile Methodologies in Software Development: A Multiple Case Study in Germany

In recent years, agile methodologies have been established in software development. Today, many companies use agile or hybrid approaches in software development projects. The Sars-Cov-2 pandemic has led to a paradigm shift in the way people work in Germany. While it was customary for German software development teams to work co-located before the pandemic, teams have been working on a distributed remote basis since March 2020. Studies show that distributed work impacts the performance of agile software development teams. To examine the effects of the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic on agile software development in Germany, we planned, carried out, and evaluated a multiple case study with three cases. The results show that the majority of teams did not experience any loss in performance. We present some problems and challenges and derive specific suggestions for software development practice from the results of the study.

Michael Neumann, Yevgen Bogdanov, Martin Lier, Lars Baumann

Journalismus & Werbung

Zur Trennung von redaktionellen Inhalten und kommerzieller Kommunikation

Der Trennungsgrundsatz zwischen redaktionellen Inhalten und kommerzieller Kommunikation schützt sowohl die Demokratie- wie auch die Werbeträgerfunktion von Massenmedien. Dieser Beitrag stellt für die diversen Aspekte des Trennungsgrundsatzes wie die Kennzeichnungspflicht, das Verbot von bezahlten Inhalten und Kopplungsgeschäften sowie die Handhabung zahlreicher Darstellungsformen redaktioneller Werbung alle verfügbaren gesetzlichen und standesrechtlichen Regelungen zusammen. Anschließend wird für die einzelnen Aspekte des Trennungsgrundsatzes der Stand der Forschung insbesondere hinsichtlich Beschreibung und Wirkung referiert. Schließlich werden Lösungsvorschläge für die aktuelle Anwendung und Desiderata zusammengetragen.

Stefan Weinacht

Corporate Social Responsibility in Medienunternehmen

Der Beitrag entwirft ein innovatives Rahmenkonzept für das Management der Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Medienunternehmen. Dazu werden die unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen von CSR herausgearbeitet und gezeigt, dass die CSR auch für Medienunternehmen an strategischer Relevanz gewinnt.Unter Einbezug zentraler Ansätze der Wirtschaftsethik wird geklärt, wie die Ansprüche der betriebswirtschaftlichen Managementlehre mit der integrativen Wirtschaftsethik vereinbart werden können. Schließlich wird das Rahmenkonzept des CSR-Managements von Medienunternehmen an aktuellen Beispielen aus der Medienpraxis dargestellt.

Anke Trommershausen, Matthias Karmasin

Methoden der Medienökonomie

Die Methoden der Forschung zur Medienökonomie sind so vielfältig wie die Zugänge zum Fach. Als Teildisziplin der Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft werden einerseits die Methoden dieses Fachs verwendet und die Ergebnisse im Hinblick auf ökonomische Fragestellungen interpretiert. Andererseits sind die forschenden Personen im Fach oftmals in anderen Disziplinen sozialisiert worden. Damit spielen auch Methoden – insbesondere aus den Wirtschaftswissenschaften – jeweils eine wichtige Rolle. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt nach einer kurzen Einführung der Fachgeschichte aus methodischer Perspektive die gängigen Erhebungs- und Analysemethoden systematisch vor. Weiter wird erörtert, mit welchen speziellen Herausforderungen das Forschungsfeld aus methodologischer Perspektive konfrontiert ist. Im Anschluss wird ein Ausblick gegeben, welche Methoden das etablierte Spektrum bereichern können, verbunden mit der Diskussion, warum sich diese Methoden bislang nur schwer etablieren konnten.

M. Bjørn von Rimscha, Juliane A. Lischka

Chapter 1. High-Power Laser Energy

This chapter goes through high-power laser and its energy definition. This chapter presents a tutorial discussion of the material responses to high-power laser energy radiations, with emphasis on simple, intuitive models. Topics discussed include optical reflectivity of metals at infrared (IR) wavelengths, laser-induced heat flow in materials, the effects of melting and vaporization, the impulse generated in materials by pulsed radiation, and the influence of the absorption of laser radiation in the blow-off region in front of the irradiated material.

Bahman Zohuri

Chapter 6. Assistance Systems in Textile Production

Using the simple formula “assistant + data glasses = skilled worker”, a German news magazine described possible effects on work and assistance systems in Industrie 4.0, quoting one manager as follows: “With data glasses, a new worker can achieve the same results after a short briefing as another employee with many years of experience” and “When Amazon hires 800 new people for the Christmas business, they won’t need 20 trainers in the future, but can put on the Smartglass and get started immediately” [NN14].

Yves-Simon Gloy

Chapter 3. Regularization of Linear Inverse Problems

The discretization of linear identification problems led to linear systems of algebraic equations. In case a solution does not exist, these can be replaced by linear least squares problems, as already done in Sect. 2.3 . We will give a detailed sensitivity analysis of linear least squares problems and introduce their condition number as a quantitative measure of ill-posedness. If the condition of a problem is too bad, it cannot be solved practically. We introduce and discuss the concept of regularization which formally consists in replacing a badly conditioned problem by a better conditioned one. The latter can be solved reliably, but whether its solution is of any relevance depends on how the replacement problem was constructed. We will especially consider Tikhonov regularization and iterative regularization methods. The following discussion is restricted to the Euclidean space over the field of real numbers ?? = ℝ $$\mathbb {K}=\mathbb {R}$$ but could easily be extended to complex spaces.

Mathias Richter

Listings and M&As of Chinese Real Estate Enterprises

Many domestic and foreign investors are paying great attention to the issues of real estate enterprises’ listings and M&As within China. The Chinese supervisory authorities have made an effort to regulate the capital markets relating to real estate industry in order to improve transactional efficiencies and management of real estate development and investment activities. This chapter discusses the circumstances of the real estate industry’s initial public offerings (IPOs), both domestically and overseas, based on an analysis of related laws and regulations issued by competent authorities. Some critical M&A matters in the real estate industry are also presented in this chapter to help readers understand the scenarios and situations before making plans to invest in real estate in China.

Qingjun Jin

Tax Framework for Accessing Real Estate Asset Classes

Real estate investment in China provides an enormous opportunity for significant capital appreciation and rewarding returns to foreign investors. Yet, the regulatory and tax regime governing foreign investment in China’s real estate sector is complicated. Respectable return on a successful real estate project could be easily wiped out by uncertain or unexpected taxation rules. Thus, in order to avoid pitfalls, robust tax considerations are essential throughout the life cycle of different types of real estate projects. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the application of taxation frameworks for international investors, in particular key tax challenges when investing in the real estate sector in China.

Matthew Wong

Chapter 6. Migration

One of the key areas of concern for the UK has been its high net migration. Insights into understanding migration, its motivations and impact are assessed, alongside a brief presentation of UK immigration statistics, its poor image in the public eye and the persistent UK labour market inequality. Migration can have a positive or negative impact for the UK as a whole and also for particular indigenous groups, depending on the economic aspect analysed. Therefore, understanding the evidence in relation to migration is important, as this is highly significant for deciding which form of Brexit to favour. The effect of migration is discussed in relation to many key economic aspects for the UK, including demographics, jobs, business and sectors of activity, skill levels, wages, employment, fiscal contributions, housing and, quintessentially, productivity. The design of a post-Brexit migration system is analysed, comparing it mainly to the Australian points-based visa system, and its consequences for UK business and productivity are summarised alongside recommendations—principally related to the need for its flexibility—aimed at addressing some of UK employers’ major concerns of skill shortages and the economy suffering post-Brexit. Migrant labour can make a positive contribution to our nation if government, business and the research community work together to help design a migration policy appropriate to our country’s needs.

Philip B. Whyman, Alina Ileana Petrescu

Chapter 9. Alternative Trading Models After Brexit

The book concludes by examining the alternative trading models that have been advanced for Brexit. These range from close forms of relationship with the EU, such as membership of the European Economic Area (EEA) or customs union, or more independent options, such as concluding a free trade agreement (FTA) with the EU or alternatively trading according to World Trade Organisation rules. Additional trade options are considered, such as membership of the European Free Trade Association, increasing trade with the Commonwealth, North American Free Trade Agreement and ‘Anglosphere’ countries, or joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). There is a fundamental choice facing policy makers—whether to seek to minimise short-term trade costs through the adoption of a close economic relationship with the EU, but at the cost of inhibited policy autonomy, or to utilise policy flexibility to pursue national economic objectives, but at the cost of short-term reduction in UK-EU trade. Rodrik’s trilemma model is used to illustrate this choice, between adopting a ‘golden straightjacket’ and opting for the benefits of greater national sovereignty and policy space. The chapter explains and evaluates the Chequers (May) and Johnson variants of the withdrawal agreement, before noting how game theory might suggest a mutually beneficial bargaining solution between the UK and the EU—based around a basic form of FTA.

Philip B. Whyman, Alina Ileana Petrescu

Chapter 2. The Fiscal Impact of Brexit

The fiscal impact of Brexit is an area where even detractors concede that the UK will gain from withdrawal from the EU, as smaller (if any) contributions will be made to cover the UK’s share of EU programmes. The precise nature of this fiscal benefit is, however, uncertain. This is partly due to the way in which the EU budget is only finalised ex post facto, as relative gross national income only becomes known after the fact, whilst prior commitments are often only realised into payments after a time lag. Calculations additionally depend upon assumptions related to the UK budget rebate and whether gross or net contributions are used in calculations, or additionally, whether EU or UK Treasury figures are deemed to be the most appropriate for the particular application of the data. Future budgetary developments need to be estimated, for any comparative forecast to be accurate, and the final form of trade agreement reached with the EU will have a significant effect upon the size of fiscal gain, as some of the options contain fiscal payment implications. The size of the financial settlement is broadly known, albeit that aspects will remain indeterminate for a number of years. Finally, this chapter notes that whilst potentially significant, the direct fiscal gain from Brexit is likely to be relatively modest when compared to any impact upon GDP (and thereby overall fiscal balance) arising from Brexit’s broader economic impact.

Philip B. Whyman, Alina Ileana Petrescu

Sustainable Buildings and Practice in China

Sustainable building, or more commonly referred to as “green building” in China, is an integral part of the country’s path toward sustainability. There are both opportunities and challenges in China’s green building market. Opportunities lie in both architecture and building engineering, as well as planning and urban development areas. The recently appeared WELL building concept may also be promising in China. On the other hand, the development of green building in China faces challenges in economics, professional capability and awareness, and regulatory standards. Moving forward, the certification-focused developers shall introduce new technologies to increase the added value of green building labels. For technology-focused developers, they will need to combine their advanced core technology with the existing ones to capture larger shares of the market, particularly in the residential area. The ideas and concepts that may bring about technological integration will be the main drivers in the market.

Sean Chiao, Nancy F. Lin

Chapter 5. Regulation

Regulation has been identified as one area where Brexit may deliver economic benefits. Sections of business opinion have long criticised the EU for the negative impact of its regulations upon the business community, and therefore the chapter examines the potential for a shift towards national rather than supra-national regulation to deliver economic gains. Evidence is presented relating to the relative ranking of UK regulatory burdens, and that the vast majority of UK firms do not export to other EU member states and yet remain constrained by single market regulations. The chapter evaluates the evidence, produced by a handful of studies, which have sought to contrast the economic cost-benefit rations produced by national as opposed to EU regulations, before considering policy responses in the form of significant regulatory liberalisation (‘Singapore on Thames’), gains that might be made through repatriation of certain regulations and the significance of the choice facing UK negotiators, concerning whether to pursue regulatory divergence or concede EU demands for regulatory compliance (the so-called level playing field).

Philip B. Whyman, Alina Ileana Petrescu

The Regulation of Leasing Activities

Chinese law provides a national-level regulatory framework for leasing. Variation, however, can occur among different localities in respect of local regulations. Moreover, different customs exist in different localities, which can affect matters such as the amount of the rental bond, frequency of rental payments and whether subleasing is acceptable. In this chapter, we outline China’s national-level regulatory framework for leasing activities. Local regulations and practices are also discussed, though no attempt has been made to systematically address local regulations and practices.The leases discussed in this chapter involve the periodic payments of rental for the occupation of real estate premises, similar to leasing arrangements made elsewhere in the world. This is to be distinguished from the granting land use rights in China, which can also be referred to as leasing from the government. As discussed below, all land in China is owned either by the government or rural collectives. Government-owned land may be transferred to an individual or company for a certain period of time (between 40 and 70 years, depending on the usage) in exchange for the payment of money. This arrangement is sometimes referred as granting of the land use right or lease of land. For the purpose of this chapter, our discussion does not include the granting of land use rights, which is regulated under a different regulatory regime.

Karen Ip, Nanda Lau

Real Estate Valuation in China

Property valuation has become increasingly important in China due to growing merger and acquisition (M&A) activities. Although the same internationally accepted valuation approaches are applied in real estate valuation in China, a number of local particularities need to be considered, including the special regulatory environment and the unique ownership structure, such as the so-called land use rights, as well as volatility in market developments.

Florian Hackelberg, Nova Chan

Open Access

Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities: Who Will Balance Individual Rights, the Public Interest and Biobank Research Under the GDPR?

In this chapter, an analysis is undertaken of the division of legislative power in the space created by the GDPR, regarding the balancing of individual rights, the public interest and biobank research. The legislative competences of the EU, international obligations within bioethics, and the regulatory space left for Member States are all examined. The conclusion of the chapter is that in spite of the aim of the GDPR to further legal harmonisation, it is more likely that unity will be brought about through administrative cooperation and soft law tools.

Jane Reichel

Open Access

The Impact of the GDPR on the Governance of Biobank Research

Governance of health and genomic data access in the context of biobanking is of salient importance in implementing the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Various components of data access governance could be considered as ‘organizational measures’ which are stressed in the Article 89(1) GDPR together with technical measures that should be used in order to safeguard rights of the data subjects when processing data under research exemption rules. In this chapter, we address the core elements regarding governance of biobanks in the view of GDPR, including conditions for processing personal data, data access models, oversight bodies and data access agreements. We conclude by highlighting the importance of guidelines and policy documents in helping the biobanks in improving the data access governance. In addition, we stress that it is important to ensure the existing and emerging oversight bodies are equipped with adequate expertise regarding using and sharing health and genomic data and are aware of the associated informational risks.

Mahsa Shabani, Gauthier Chassang, Luca Marelli
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