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This book offers a practical, application-oriented introduction to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with a focus on the concepts and principles encountered when using CFD in industry.

Presuming no more knowledge than college-level understanding of the core subjects, the book puts together all the necessary topics to give the reader a comprehensive introduction to CFD. It includes discussion of the derivation of equations, grid generation and solution algorithms for compressible, incompressible and hypersonic flows. The final two chapters of the book are intended for the more advanced user. In the penultimate chapter, the special difficulties that arise while solving practical problems are addressed. Distinction is made between complications arising out of geometrical complexity and those arising out of the complexity of the physics (and chemistry) of the problem. The last chapter contains a brief discussion of what can be considered as the Holy Grail of CFD, namely, finding the optimal design of a fluid flow component. A number of problems are given at the end of each chapter to reinforce the concepts and ideas discussed in that chapter.

CFD has come of age and is widely used in industry as well as in academia as an analytical tool to investigate a wide range of fluid flow problems. This book is written for two groups: for those students who are encountering CFD for the first time in the form of a taught lecture course, and for those practising engineers and scientists who are already using CFD as an analysis tool in their professions but would like to deepen and broaden their understanding of the subject.

### Chapter 1. Introduction

Fluid flow occurs in a number of natural and industrial processes. Examples of the former are the wind flow pattern that affects our weather, and the flow of blood through arteries and veins which maintains oxygen supply to the organs and cells in our body.
Sreenivas Jayanti

### Chapter 2. Equations Governing Fluid Motion

In this chapter, we derive the basic equations that govern the flow of fluids. We examine the nature of these equations and discuss appropriate boundary and initial conditions that are needed to complete the mathematical description of fluid flow.
Sreenivas Jayanti

### Chapter 3. Basic Concepts of CFD

In a numerical solution, we seek the flow field or the values of the flow variables such as the velocity components and the pressure at discrete, predetermined grid points spread throughout the flow domain.
Sreenivas Jayanti

### Chapter 4. Solution of Navier Stokes Equations

In the previous chapter, we have dealt with the discretization of a generic scalar transport equation . The solution of fluid flow requires simultaneous solution of the momentum and the continuity equations.
Sreenivas Jayanti

### Chapter 5. Solution of Linearized Algebraic Equations

As seen in Chaps. 1 and 3, the accuracy of a CFD solution depends on Δx; only on fine grids can we expect the finite difference approximations to be adequately accurate. We have also seen that implicit schemes have higher stability and these are invariably used in the algorithms such as the Beam-Warming method (Sect. 4.​2) and the SIMPLE scheme (Sect. 4.​4) for the solution of Navier-Stokes equations .
Sreenivas Jayanti

### Chapter 6. Dealing with Irregular Flow Domains and Complex Physical Phenomena

The methodology discussed in Chaps. 2–5 is applicable for simple cases of fluid flow. Practical flow problems are often more complicated and require additional measures to get to a solution. If one leaves aside the very difficult and case-specific question of the problem formulation itself (e.g. what flow to simulate, what data is available, why one would want to use CFD as opposed to other modelling approaches, what exactly one would like to get from less then the problems associated with practical flow situations can be divided, especially from CFD solution point of view, into two categories: those associated with irregular and complicated flow domain, and those associated with complicated physics. In the former, the simplistic approach to grid generation adopted in earlier chapters is not applicable.
Sreenivas Jayanti

### Chapter 7. CFD and Flow Optimization

We have seen over the preceding several chapters how the equations governing flow can be solved for even turbulent, reacting flows through irregular geometries of the kind that are often encountered in industrial applications.
Sreenivas Jayanti