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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

12. Conceptualization and Requirements for the Experimental Research

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Abstract

Experiments normally include one or more experimental conditions and one control condition. Through experiments we can observe whether the change in one dependent variable is caused by the change in a certain independent variable. These causal relationships can be predicted by employing experimental designs.

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Appendix
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Footnotes
1
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 83; DIEGEL (2021), p. 147.
 
2
Cf. CHRISTENSEN (1985), p. 24.
 
3
GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 91.
 
4
Cf. OPPEWAL (2010), p. 1; ZHANG/LU/GUPTA/ZHAO (2014), p. 1017; NEE (2016), p. 104; KOCH/PETER/MÜLLER (2019), p. 4.
 
5
Cf. OPPEWAL (2010), p. 1; ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 270.
 
6
Cf. MALHOTRA/BIRKS/WILLS (2012), p. 370 et seq.; SINNIG (2019), p. 95.
 
7
Cf. OPPEWAL (2010), pp. 1 et seq.; MCDANIEL/GATES (2013), p. 243.
 
8
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 87.
 
9
Cf. OPPEWAL (2010), p. 1; ZHANG/LU/GUPTA/ZHAO (2014), p. 1017; KOCH/PETER/MÜLLER (2019), p. 4.
 
10
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 272; NEE (2016), p. 110; SINNIG (2019), p. 96; DIEGEL (2021), p. 147.
 
11
Cf. MCDANIEL/GATES (2013), p. 242; KOSCHATE (2008) p. 109; NEE (2016), p. 110; SINNIG (2019), p. 96; DIEGEL (2021), p. 147; ANDRADE (2021), p. 178.
 
12
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 270.
 
13
Cf. NEE (2016), pp. 105 et seqq.; MCDANIEL/GATES (2013), p. 243; MALHOTRA/BIRKS/WILLS (2012), p. 372 et seqq.; SINNIG (2019), p. 112; DIEGEL (2021), pp. 147 et seq.
 
14
Cf. ANDRADE (2021), p. 178; Operationalization can be defined as the process that identifies scale devices, which correspond to characteristics of a concept involved in the research process. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 324.
 
15
Cf. WEAVER (2010) pp. 1 et seq.; ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 324; MCDANIEL/GATES (2013), p. 243. NEE (2016), p. 105; SINNIG (2019), p. 112; BABBIE (2020), p. 156; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 96.
 
16
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 270. Experimental treatment refers to the way an experimental variable is manipulated. Consumers may be assigned to assess either a color A or color B store. Medical research may manipulate an experimental variable by treating some subjects with one drug and the remaining subjects with another. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 270.
 
17
A within-subject design involves repeat measures because with each treatment the same subject is being measured. A disadvantage of this approach is that the burden of the long survey times is relatively high for the individual test subjects. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 282; CALFEE (1985), p. 173; RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 23; NEE (2016), pp. 110 et seq.; GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 87; DIEGEL (2021), p. 148 et seq.
 
18
A between-subject design involves each subject receiving only one treatment combination. The validity of between-subject designs is usually higher because by applying only one treatment combination to one subject, the demand characteristics upon subjects are greatly reduced. Furthermore, if a subjects can observe multiple conditions, they are more probable to guess the aim of the study. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 282; RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 23; GÄTHKE (2013), p. 114; NEE (2016), pp. 110 et seq. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 97.
 
19
Cf. MCDANIEL/GATES (2013), p. 243; NEE (2016), p. 105; GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 86; MALHOTRA/BIRKS/WILLS (2012), pp. 372 et seqq.; KOCH/PETER/MÜLLER (2019), p. 4; SINNIG (2019), p. 112; LIENEMANN /2021), p. 97; DIEGEL (2021), pp. 148 et seq.
 
20
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 279; Cf. RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 18.
 
21
Validity represents the accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a particular score truly represents a concept. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 335. Internal and external validity are defined below. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 283.
 
22
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 285; RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 18.
 
23
Cf. AAKER ET AL. (2013), p. 278; DÖRING/BORTZ, (2016), p. 193; NEE (2016), pp. 112 et seq.
 
24
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 283; SINNIG (2019), p. 97.
 
25
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 283.
 
26
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 285; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 97.
 
27
Cf. UNDERWOOD/SHAUGHNESSY (1975), p. 43; CALFEE (1985), p. 173; GRUNWALD/ HEMPELMANN (2012), p. 53; GÄTHKE (2013), p. 114; NEE (2016), pp. 110 et seq.; SINNIG (2019), p. 97; DIERKS (2021), p. 150.
 
28
Cf. KOSCHATE (2008), p. 111.
 
29
Cf. RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 28; ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 284.
 
30
Cf. COOK/CAMPBELL (1979), pp. 59 et seqq.; PERDUE/SUMMERS (1986), p. 317, LIENEMANN (2021), p. 97; DIERKS (2021), p. 150.
 
31
The experimental group refers to any grouping of respondents to whom an experimental treatment is administered. On the other hand, the control group refers to any grouping of respondents to whom no experimental treatment is administered. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 271. Cf. PYKA/FURCHHEIM (2017), p. 14. For a detailed description of construct validity see COOK/CAMPBELL (1979) and KOSCHATE (2008).
 
32
Cf. RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 31.
 
Metadata
Title
Conceptualization and Requirements for the Experimental Research
Author
Corina Oprea
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41364-4_12

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