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2020 | Book

Concrete Durability and Service Life Planning

Proceedings of ConcreteLife’20

Editors: Prof. Konstantin Kovler, Prof. Semion Zhutovsky, Prof. Sabrina Spatari, Prof. Ole M. Jensen

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : RILEM Bookseries


About this book

This volume gathers the proceedings of the 3rd International RILEM Workshop on Concrete Durability and Service Life Planning (ConcreteLife’20), held in Haifa, Israel in January 2020. The papers cover a range of topics in concrete curing, cracking in concrete structures, corrosion of steel in concrete, thermal and hygral effects, concrete in cold climates and under high temperatures, recycling, alkali-silica reactions, chloride and sulfate attacks, marine structures, transport phenomena, durability design, microstructure of concrete and volume changes, and life cycle assessment. The book also explores future trends in research, development, and practical engineering applications related to durable concrete construction, and focuses on the design and construction of concrete structures exposed to various environmental conditions and mechanical loading. Given its scope, it offers a valuable asset for all researchers and graduate students in the areas of cement chemistry, cement production, and concrete design.

Table of Contents


Concrete Materials

Turning Marginal Aggregates into Useful Concrete Components

There is increasing pressure to use marginal aggregates for the production of cementitious systems which is motivated by environmental considerations and the depletion of high-quality resources.

A. Bentur, P. Larianovsky
Variation in Phase Quantification of White Portland Cement by XRD

X-ray diffraction has been used for at least a century in the cement industry to identify the crystalline phases of Portland cement [1]. More recently, the quantification of phases by X-ray diffraction (QRXD) together with other microstructural techniques have been successfully applied to Portland cement [2].

J. A. Canul-Polanco, O. M. Jensen
Comparison of Clinkers Produced Using Different Layers of Oil Shale

Oil shale is one of the largest energy resources today. Oil shales are horizontally layered rocks that have rich organic content called kerogen and mineral part is usually composed of clay.

A. Goncharov, S. Zhutovsky
The Effect of Grinding Process on Recycled Cement Paste Fines

In many countries, major portions of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) consists of concrete waste [1]. The uses of recycled aggregate from concrete waste include both base/sub-base infrastructure and structural applications. Each application requires a different quality and therefore, a different treatment. When concrete waste is crushed, a certain amount of paste/mortar from the original cement mortar remains attached to the aggregate particles, which forms a weak, porous and cracky layer [2]. The use of recycled aggregate in new concrete requires a beneficiation process, which separates the natural aggregate from the attached cement paste/mortar. The clean natural aggregate is used as recycled aggregate, while the attached cement paste/mortar is of no use. As a result, the majority of concrete recycling studies focus on the recycled aggregate only, clean from the attached cement paste/mortar. This work focuses on the old cement paste/mortar itself.

D. Kulisch
Effect of Soaking Time in a Solvent on Hydration Stoppage of Cement

In order to study the composition and microstructure of any hardening cementitious material, the ongoing hydration must be stopped [1]. At early hydration stages, the hydration stoppage is needed to suppress the further progress of hydration [2], allowing the analysis of several properties and characterization of the same sample at the same hydration age and therefore, at the same degree of hydration [3, 4].

A. Mezhov, D. Kulisch, A. Goncharov, S. Zhutovsky
Nanoscale Observations of Tricalcium Aluminate Dissolution in Water by Digital Holographic Microscopy

Mineral dissolution is a key process in geochemical reactions and environmentally relevant processes [1]. In recent years, the dissolution behaviors of cement clinkers have been obtaining increasing attention [2–6]. Portland cement is a low-cost material with multi-minerals, including alite, belite, tricalcium aluminate (C3A), gypsum, etc.

Shaoxiong Ye, Pan Feng, Jiaping Liu
Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates Particle Morphological Parameters and Packing Properties

In the European Union, concrete accounts for 25% of the construction and demolition waste generated each year. At the same time, in many places around Europe the availability of natural rounded aggregates for the production of concrete is becoming a crucial question. These two trends suggest that crushed particles, such as crushed stone aggregates and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), can be a necessity for concrete production to accommodate resource scarcity. When recycling concrete as aggregates, an important part to investigate is to use the fraction of fine recycled concrete aggregates (FRCA) as it constitutes 40–60% of the crushed concrete.

L. G. Pedersen, L. M. Ottosen
Effect of Seawater on the Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate

Coastal cities like Hong Kong rely heavily on their coastal and marine infrastructure for social-economic development. A major challenge for marine infrastructure is steel corrosion, which is the main cause for infrastructure deterioration. Also, fresh water is a scarce resource for some remote islands, and to meet the water requirement for concrete preparation in these regions, seawater is increasingly being considered as an alternative which would inevitable aggravate the deterioration problem due to steel corrosion. Up to now, a number of studies have focused on the effects of seawater on the workability, mechanical strength and durability (in particular corrosion of steel reinforcement) of cement pastes and reinforced concrete. However, the understanding on the influence of seawater on the composition and microstructure of cement hydration products is limited. This paper presents a preliminary study on the effects of individual salt components of seawater on the hydration process of C3S. The microstructure changes of the hydration products were also studied. The mechanism of the acceleration effect is analyzed. Na+ and Mg2+ can affect the dissolution of C3S and the participation of the hydration products. For the later age, Mg2+ can substitute part of Ca2+ and change the composition of the final reaction products.

Yanjie Sun, Chi Sun Poon
Portland Cement Production from Fine Fractions of Concrete Waste

The recycling of concrete can reduce the environmental impact of Portland cement production and concrete construction, and decrease the damping and landfilling of demolition waste. Currently, concrete recycling is widely used for aggregate extraction [1], though concrete fines which are a mix of aggregate and the hydrated cement paste are not a part of the recycling process [1]. Research efforts have been directed to the production of new Portland cement from recycled fines, but most research attempts run into problems [2, 3].

S. Zhutovsky, A. Shishkin
Life Cycle Assessment of Lightweight Aggregates from Coal Ashes: A Cradle-to-Gate Analysis

Power plant coal combustion residues (CCR) that consist of bottom ash and off-spec fly ash may be beneficially converted to value-added construction materials thereby reducing disposal costs and landfilled waste. Coal ashes have been investigated as sources of raw material for lightweight aggregates owing to their mineral properties, using well-known processes for agglomeration of fine particles (e.g., via sintering or autoclaving processes). Recent literature by Billen et al. [1]. Proposed converting coal bottom ash to spherical porous reactive aggregates (SPoRA) using a sintering process and fluxing agents that allow lowering the operating temperature of the rotary furnace used to produce the lightweight aggregates (LWAs).

K. J. O’Hare, G. Pizzulli, M. Torelli, M. Balapour, Y. Farnam, Y. Grace Hsuan, P. Billen, S. Spatari
Evolution of the Mass Balance of Water in the Hardening Process of Cement Compositions

Hardening and strengthening of cementitious materials is the result of simultaneous growth and interaction (in the thermodynamic sense) of chemical and structural transformations [1]. The source material, a visco-plastic mixture, gradually transforms into artificial stone with dominating elastic properties.

D. Stackelberg, B. Wilge

Concrete Composites

The Effect of Compatibility and Dimensionality of Carbon Nanofillers on Cement Composites

Cement is by far the most important and widespread building material in the industrialized world, with 4.2 billion tons of cement being produced in 2017. Cement production is, nonetheless, ecologically harmful, as a result of the CO2 produced both by clinker and cement kilns. One possible solution lies in reducing the amount of clinker in the cement composites. This demand could be met by enhancing the mechanical properties of cement-based composites, for example, by loading them with nanofillers (NFs) that improve the resistance to crack propagation in the cement-based composites.

A. Alatawna, M. Birenboim, R. Nadiv, M. Buzaglo, S. Peretz-Damari, A. Peled, O. Regev, R. Sripada
The Chemical Durability of Cement Pastes and Geopolymers Substituted with Dolomite-Based Quarry-Dust

In recent years, growing environmental concerns have led the cement industry to make modifications in cement production, manifested by the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) as raw materials within the cement mixture. In the present study the use of dolomite-based quarry-dust (QD) to generate a low-energy, environmentally-friendly structural material was explored. QD was added either as an additive to conventional Portland Cement (PC) or to geopolymeric binders, formed by the alkali activation of local class F fly ash (FA). A significant increase in compressive strength, due to QD addition, was found for both CEM- and FA- based mixtures [1]. The chemical durability of the cementitious systems and FA-based geopolymeric mixtures for which the binder (cement/FA) was replaced with 40% wt. QD was evaluated using two different tests: (a) Expansion tests to assess the durability of these dolomite-based, Mg-rich mixtures - as brucite (Mg(OH)2) may be formed according to Eq. (1) (known as the ‘alkali-carbonate reaction’) and hence induce volume increase and expansion.

E. Cohen, A. Peled, G. Bar-Nes
Chloride-Enhanced Delayed Ettringite Formation (CLDEF): An Obscure Process

From the historical perspective Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) is known to occur usually in cementitious systems made at high cement contents with rapid hardening Portland cements (RHPC) such as Type III cements. Elevated curing temperatures exceeding 70 °C are necessary for DEF to occur. However, there have been controversies, leading to speculations that DEF could occur outside these generally recognized conditions [1–9]. For example, large pours of concretes under hot weather concreting could increase concrete temperature levels to DEF critical temperatures. Johansen and Thaulow [10] found that a concrete beam of 1 m × 1 m cross-section developed a peak temperature of 84 °C at ambient temperatures of 35 °C, without heat treatment. Hobbs [11] also suggested that large sections of field concretes made with high cement contents of about 500 kg/m3, could attain maximum temperatures in the range of 85 °C. So in hot or tropical climates, concreting conditions similar to those found under heat curing, could arise as a combined effect of the following factors:- use of RHPC/Type III cement, mix designs of high cement contents such as 500 kg/m3, large concrete pours or casting of large sections, and ambient temperatures exceeding 30 °C. In laboratory studies, however, there are no reports of DEF occurrence in the absence of heat curing.

S. O. Ekolu
Geopolymer Damage Due to Leaching When Exposed to Water

An investigation on the effect of water immersion on the compressive strength of geopolymer pastes was investigated. Specimen’s exposure to water showed a detrimental effect on the compressive strength of the geopolymer pastes (up to 25% strength loss). It was shown that the leaching of the sodium silicate when geopolymers were immersed in water decreases the compressive strength.

M. Guerrieri, J. Sanjayan, A. Z. Mohd Ali
Air Void Analysis of Hardened Concrete Without Colour Enhancement

Air void structure plays a key role in the durability of concrete structures in cold regions. This is because water in the microstructure can escape into the air voids which, thereby, effectively reduce the stresses during cyclic freezing and thawing. This protects the concrete structures from developing frost damage [1, 2]. Therefore, to assure the frost resistance of conventional concrete, it is necessary to quantify its air void structure.

Gui Li, M. T. Hasholt, O. M. Jensen
Autogenous Shrinkage Revisited

In the 1990s it became generally accepted in the scientific community that autogenous shrinkage is a major reason for cracking observed during hardening of high-performance concrete [1, 2]. Within this decade suitable measurement techniques to identify autogenous deformation were developed, a large amount of scientific studies on the phenomenon were done all over the World, and various methods to mitigate its adverse effects were tested [3]. Today, about 25 years later, clearly the general knowledge on autogenous shrinkage and its mitigation strategies are extensive, but practice is slow to adopt it. To some extent cracking is in practice considered part of the nature of concrete. In this presentation an overview is given regarding mitigation of autogenous shrinkage in the cementitious binder. Certainly cracking, including that generated by autogenous shrinkage, can be, and should be minimized.

O. M. Jensen
A Simple Method for Determining the Diffusion Coefficient of Radon in Concrete Samples Using Charcoal

Radon is one of the most dangerous carcinogens that causes cancer. For this reason, in many countries of the world, the indoor radon is limited. For example, in Israel, the reference level of the radon concentration is 200 Bq/m3 for homes and 500 Bq/m3 for working places.

A. Tsapalov, T. Maslov, K. Kovler
Dry Forced Packing of Blends for Ultra High Performance Concrete: Effect on Physical-Mechanical Properties of the Composition and Concrete Made from It

This study discusses a method for forced packing of dry multi-component mixtures, and studies the effect of such forced packing on physicochemical properties of the composition, microstructure, homogeneity, and mechanical properties of UHPC produced using standard blended mixtures, and dry forced packed mixtures.

A. Ozersky, A. Khomyakov, K. Peterson
High-Performance Concrete Using Dolomite By-Products

Dolomite is the widespread sedimentary rock that finds a wide application in building industry and road engineering. During the treatment of dolomite rocks, a huge amount of fine fractions (0…8 mm) are produced and classified as by-products due to the limited range of applications. For example, nowadays more than 400 000–450 000 t dolomite by-products are deposited in a single quarry and the annual increase of this material is 50 000 t.

G. Sahmenko, A. Korjakins, D. Bajare
Green Cementitious Systems Based on Off-spec Fly Ash

The amount of coal combustion by-products (CCPs) generated by power utilities is significant and anticipated to grow [1]. However, more than 30% of all generated CCPs in the USA are considered “off-spec” because they do not meet the ASTM C618 specification and are not utilized [2]. For example, CCPs with high carbon content and spray dryer absorber ash (SDA) containing high concentrations of gypsum compounds represent two primary off-spec CCP materials that need to be addressed. The development of innovative binders based on off-spec fly ash represents an opportunity for efficient and sustainable use of by-products.

M. Kozhukhova, R. Wittenberg, K. Sobolev
Developing and Analyzing Mix Design for 3D Printable Concrete

In the age of industrialization, resources available in nature are declining. There has been an alarming rate of increase of greenhouse gas emissions in recent years due to high consumption of materials. In order to close the gap between demand and supply, and to abate this problem, the purpose of innovation through digitalization promises to revolutionize the construction industry with the implementation of freeform architecture, reduced material waste, decrease in construction costs, decrease in pollution, and increased worker safety [2, 3].

A. Gopani, P. Shah, R. Shah

Concrete Structures

Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Underwater Repair Concrete Under Hydrostatic Pressure

Concrete is widely used in the marine environment to create structures near, in, or under the water. Operating in the environment of the water influence, concrete is the subject to a variety of chemical and physical effects.

P. Brzozowski
Life Cycle Assessment on the Use of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concretes with Enhanced Durability for Structures in Extremely Aggressive Environments: Case Study Analyses

Last decades have been characterized by growing attention on sustainable development. The European Commission interest in this topic is evident considering the global agreements and the related massive investments that have been, and still are, carried out to guarantee a sustainable approach to global growth. A contribution to pursue this challenging goal is provided by the EU-funded ReSHEALience Project (GA n° 760824). ReSHEALience Project aims at developing Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concretes with enhanced durability (Ultra High Durability Concrete – UHDC) that will be characterized by at least 30% longer service life as compared to traditional concretes. The increase of durability will be analyzed also from a sustainability point of view taking into account all the environmental, economic and social impacts, associated to the longer life-cycle of the structures.

M. C. Caruso, C. Pascale, E. Camacho, S. Scalari, F. Animato, M. C. Alonso, M. Gimenez, L. Ferrara
Macro-Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concrete – Experience with Port Pavements Application

Ashdod Port successfully tries a use of Macro-Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concrete (MSFRC) pavements since 2007. The pavements in ports are subjected to rather rough (sometimes brutal) handling, due to unavoidable impacts.

V. Chernov
Service Life Design for Inland Concrete Structures in Africa: Kampala Case Study

Although concrete is a highly durable material, its design requires careful consideration of various design parameters, which have to be specified or selected in consideration of the environmental factors. The specification of environmental factors necessitates understanding of the geographical location under consideration during concrete design.

S. O. Ekolu
Effect of Alite Content in Sulphate-Resistant Cement on Heat Release in Massive Hydraulic Engineering Structures

The heat release of cement affects the quality and speed of concrete works, the implementation of the construction project management, and the durability of concrete structures, especially for massive hydraulic structures, in a construction of which sulfate-resistant cement is often used [1].

V. R. Falikman, K. B. Safarov, V. F. Stepanova
Self-healing Stimulated by Crystalline Admixtures in Chloride Rich Environments: Is It Possible to Extend the Structure Service Life?

Design code prescritpions on the service life of ordinary reinforced concrete structures may be difficult to be fulfilled in highly aggressive environments, in which premature degradation of the structural performance is most likely to occur. In these situations, in order to avoid expensive repair activities, advanced systems such as self-healing concrete could be adopted. In the last decade, researchers started to look at this functionality as a way to solve degradation problems in chloride-laden environments.

E. Cuenca, E. M. Gastaldo Brac, S. Rigamonti, V. Violante, L. Ferrara
Simulations of Electrical Conductivity of Composite Materials and Optimization of Artificial Neural Networks

Structural health monitoring (SHM) has become an established field of engineering in the past few decades. SHM aims to give a diagnosis on the condition of materials, elements, and of the whole structure at every moment of the structure’s lifespan.

S. Kekez
A Rapid Method to Test the Effectiveness of Corrosion Inhibitors in Reinforced Concrete

Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete (RC) is one of the major deterioration mechanisms causing economic and social losses [1]. The rate of corrosion depends strongly on the location of the structure. The major deterioration problems of RC structures are chloride-induced corrosion; sulfate-induced corrosion and carbonation. Another trigger of corrosion in RC is stray current [2].

I. Lapiro, A. Mezhov, K. Kovler
External and Internal Aspects on the Durability of Concrete Structures

Although degradation due to freeze-thaw cycles, carbonation, corrosion, sulfate attack, etc. and the corresponding mechanisms have been studied for decades, we continue to be challenged by being able to translate the kinetics of degradation reactions, rates of damage, symptoms of damage on small-scale laboratory specimens that are unreinforced, unrestrained, mechanically unloaded specimens to large-scale, real life, reinforced structural elements, subjected to restraint, and mechanically loaded. There is a need for research to relate the performance of materials tested in the laboratory to the performance of structures in the field to improve the safety, sustainability, service life of existing and new concrete structures.

D. K. Panesar, S. Narneni, B. P. Gautam
Performance of the Cement-Based Mortars for Repairing the Internal Lining of Steel Pipes for Drinking Water Supplying

The common pathology oftenly observed in the water-supplying steel pipes is cracking and delaminating the cement based internal lining [1]. Thus, the quick in-situ repair of these defects is essential for preventing the possible steel corrosion in pipes [2–4].

R. Wasserman
Prestressed Concrete Sleepers: Failure Investigation Case Study

The efficiency of rail transport is crucial to compete with other transportation modes. Thus, over the years railway operators demand increasing rolling stock axle load and speeds. Hence, railway infrastructure improvements are crucial to withstand persistent increasing of bearing capacity expressed in significant dynamic load and cumulative traffic load.

D. Yurlov, A. Shishkin, S. Zhutovsky
Concrete Durability and Service Life Planning
Prof. Konstantin Kovler
Prof. Semion Zhutovsky
Prof. Sabrina Spatari
Prof. Ole M. Jensen
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