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About this book

This book discusses latest advances in the area of bioenergy, including algal biomass, biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanation, pyrolysis, biomass gasification, biomass cook stoves and integrated processes. The volume comprises select proceedings of ICRABR-2016. The contents include cutting-edge research vital to R&D organizations, academics and the industry to promote and document the recent developments in the area of bioenergy for all types of stakeholders. The book highlights the need for biofuels and their market, the barriers and challenges faced by biofuels and bioenergy, and future strategies required to foster new ideas for research, collaboration, and commercialization of bioenergy. It addresses various topics, such as biomass and energy management; thermochemical conversion processes; biochemical conversion processes; catalytic conversion processes; electrochemical processes; waste treatment to harvest energy; and integrated processes. It will prove a valuable resource for students, researchers, professionals and policymakers in the field of biofuels and bioenergy.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Biochemical Conversion

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Evaluation of Growth and Lipid Profiles in Six Different Microalgal Strains for Biofuel Production

Abstract
Microalgae have been considered as potential feedstock to produce higher biomass and lipid content that is more suitable for biofuel production than traditional oleaginous crop plants, thus seems to be on niche of accumulating energy reserves to produce next-generation renewables such as biofuels and high-value chemicals, an essential alternative for diminishing fossil fuels. Evaluation of growth and lipid profiles of few oleaginous microalgae under nutrient deprivation will be the method to identify best industrial strain for production of biofuel precursors at commercial level. In the present study, we have evaluated six microalgal (both marine and freshwater) strains to find out their metabolic responses on growth and lipid profiles under different nutrient limitation (nitrogen, phosphorous, and/or sulfur) conditions. Our results demonstrate that all these strains showed severe growth hampering by stress phenomenon under nutrient deprivation except for phosphorous limitation, wherein the growth was normal among marine strains. Algal oils are rich in the triacylglycerols (TAGs) that serve as material for conversion to biofuels. Therefore, changes triggered by nutrient deprivation in these microalgae primarily increased TAG content (~up to 20 mg L−1 D−1) among marine strains under nitrogen and phosphorous limitation, whereas among freshwater strains, nitrogen limitation played a major role in increasing the TAG content (~up to 15 mg L−1 D−1). In conclusion, the biomass and lipid productivity among marine strains seems to be higher when compared to freshwater strains. Among all these six potential strains, we evaluated and identified a suitable marine strain Parachlorella kessleri with better biomass and higher lipid productivity for further characterization, which may be a critical step toward making algae-derived biofuels economically competitive for industrial production.
Kashif M. Shaikh, Asha A. Nesamma, Malik Z. Abdin, Pavan P. Jutur

Chemical Conversion

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Physicochemical Assessment of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil as a Viable Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

Abstract
Biodiesel is a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels which is derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. This paper presents the prospect of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil, as a feedstock for biodiesel production because of its suitability for production in a variety of atmospheric condition, easy cultivation, high-fruit production rate, and low cost of cultivation. In this study, C. pepo L. seeds were collected, processed, and oil was extracted from the seeds by mechanical extraction process. The important physical and chemical properties of the extracted seed oil were experimentally analyzed. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) of the seed oil was produced corresponding to ASTM standards. The quality of biodiesel produced was assessed in terms of the physicochemical properties e.g., density, viscosity, heating value, flash point, acid value, and pour point, which are considered as the most important properties of a fuel for its application in C.I engines. The experimental findings of this study reveal that C. pepo L. seed can be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production in commercial scale.
Bichitra Bikash, Nabajit Dev Choudhury, Dilip Kumar Bora, Kalyan Kalita

Chapter 3. Performance and Emission Parameters of Single Cylinder VCR Engine Fuelled with Argemone Biodiesel and Blend with Diesel Fuel

Abstract
In this, experimental study has been carried out to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder, four strokes, water cooled, VCR engine fuelled with argemone biodiesel blends with diesel (AB10, AB20, AB30) at different load conditions (no load, part load and full load). The argemone methyl ester was derived from single step transesterification method due to low fatty acid value. The effect of different reaction parameters named as molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, stirring speed on the properties of argemone biodiesel was also studied. The optimum reaction conditions for production of biodiesel were molar ratio 1:6 (oil to methanol), catalyst concentration 1.5% (w/w of oil) reaction temperature 75 °C, reaction time 2 h and stirring speed 550 rpm. The properties of argemone methyl ester were determined and compared with diesel standard. The result indicates that performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency increased by 6–10%, and whereas the specific fuel consumption decreased by 4–6% for AB30 at full load conditions. On the other hand, emission parameters: carbon monoxides (70–90%), carbon dioxide (20–30%) and unburnt hydrocarbon (70–80%) were reduced for AB30 at full load conditions. The argemone methyl ester produced more nitric oxide (NO x ) emission by (12–20%) for AB30 at full load conditions than that of diesel fuel. From the experiment, investigation signifies that argemone biodiesel blends with diesel can be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engine without any engine modification.
Parmjit Singh, Sandeep Kumar Duran, Inderpreet Singh

Chapter 4. Studies on Properties of Biodiesel Prepared from Microalgae (Chlorella sp.)

Abstract
Microalgae (chlorella) are an organism capable of photosynthesis and has less than 2 mm diameter in size. The biodiesel prepared from microalgae using chloroform–methanol extraction solvent system followed by three different transesterification processes (based on three different catalysts viz. Alkali catalyst, Acid catalyst, and Enzymatic catalyst) with two temperature (50 and 60 °C) and with 1:5 methanol to oil ratio. After transesterification, the fuel properties were measured and compared with the standard value of ASTM D 6751 standards. Alkali catalyst (0.56% NaOH) yields the highest production of biodiesel (92%) at 60 °C temperature. Also, the closest value of different fuel properties found at par with standard value of ASTM D 6751 standards viz. moisture content, carbon residue, calorific value, specific gravity, acid value, flash point, viscosity, density, and viscosity was found to be 0.01%, 0.04%, 40.41 MJ/kg, 0.83, 0.23 mg KOH/g, 143.67 °C, 5.16 mm2/s, and 0.83 g/cm3, respectively, in biodiesel.
S. V. Kelaiya, P. M. Chauhan

Chapter 5. Ultrasound-Assisted Biodiesel Production Using KI-Impregnated Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst: A Mechanistic Approach

Abstract
As a consequence of fast reduction of fossil fuel reservoirs in addition to environment concerns of global warming, the demand for clean and renewable alternate fuel has increased in recent years. Biodiesel comes as assuring alternative liquid fuel produced by transesterification of triglycerides in presence of catalyst. In present work, a new solid catalyst of KI-impregnated ZnO has been developed using wet impregnation method. This solid catalyst has been tested for biodiesel synthesis using soybean oil and methanol. The catalyst prepared was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface area of catalyst had been determined using Surface area and pore size analyzer. Transesterification using this catalyst has been carried out in presence of 35 kHz ultrasound. Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD) has been employed to assess the effect of three different process variables viz., methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst wt% loading and reaction temperature. The optimized set of parameters have been determined as: catalyst loading = 6.15 wt%; methanol to oil molar ratio = 10.25:1 and temperature = 335.5 K, for which the highest conversion of 94.71% of oil was obtained. The catalyst retained 54.5% of the original (or fresh) after five cycles. Biodiesel synthesized with new catalyst was tested for fuel properties such as calorific value, kinetic viscosity, specific gravity, flash, and fire point. These properties have been found to be within specific limits described by IS 15607:2005 and ASTM D6751 standards for commercial applications.
Ritesh S. Malani, Sohan Singh, Arun Goyal, Vijayanand S. Moholkar

Chapter 6. Experimental Evaluation of Cottonseed Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Abstract
Diesel engines are commonly used due to its low fuel consumption and higher torque. Nowadays, the world is facing the challenges of crises of fossil fuels due to rapid increase in utilization of its in transportation and industrialization. This further leads to environmental degradation by polluting the air. Hence, in the modern world, more importance is given on alternative source of energy. Several possible alternative sources are available as, namely biodiesel, alcohols, CNG, LPG, producer gas, etc. Biodiesel presents a promising alternative to diesel fuel since it is renewable and produced easily by transesterification process. Therefore, the research work is aimed at experimental evaluation of cottonseed biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Cottonseed is non-edible oil, thus food versus fuel conflict will not arise if this is used for biodiesel production. Biodiesel blends (B5, B10, B15, and B20) are prepared using cottonseed biodiesel and diesel at laboratory scale. The performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel blends fueled diesel engine are compared with base diesel. It is found that CO, HC, and smoke emissions are decreased with all biodiesel blends than base diesel. The cleaner and complete combustion take place due to oxygen content in biodiesel which helps to reduce CO and HC emissions. However, brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and NO x emission are increased with biodiesel blends than base diesel. BSFC increased due to lower calorific value of biodiesel, whereas NO x emission increased due to advance in dynamic injection timing due to higher bulk modulus, higher spray penetration, higher in-cylinder temperature and oxygen content in biodiesel. The brake power is decreased from 3 kW with base diesel to 2.93, 2.9, 2.79, and 2.77 kW with B5, B10, B15, and B20, respectively.
Pankaj S. Shelke, Nitin M. Sakhare, Subhash Lahane, N. G. Patil

Thermochemical

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Pyrolytic Characterization and Kinetic Analysis of Camellia sinensis (Tea) Seed Deoiled Cake

Abstract
The knowledge of kinetic parameters is essential for modeling of the reactor and for optimization of the process conditions. In the present work, the first attempt was made to investigate the thermal behavior and to calculate the kinetic parameters of Camellia sinensis deoiled cake (CSDC) using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were conducted in temperatures ranging from 298 to 1273 K under inert atmosphere utilizing two different heating rates of 10 and 40 K min−1, respectively. On the basis of thermogravimetric analysis, activation energy (E), pre-exponential factor (A) for the active pyrolysis zone of the deoiled cake were calculated, respectively, by Arrhenius, Coast–Redfern and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods for the heating rates of 10 and 40 K min−1. These results can provide useful information to predict kinetic model of CSDC pyrolysis and optimization of the process conditions. The activation energy was found in the range of 54–77 kJ mol−1 for heating rates of 10 and 40 K min−1, respectively. The results derived are useful for preliminary assessment of C. sinensis seed deoiled cake as potential feedstock for thermal conversion.
Nabajit Dev Choudhury, Bichitra Bikash, Rupam Kataki

Chapter 8. Development of Nanobased Thermic Fluid: Thermal Aspects of New Energy System

Abstract
In the present study, a cluster size of nanoparticle was evaluated using Xuan’s model for water-based Fe3O4 nanofluid. The thermal conductivity of nanofluid with different nanoparticle concentration of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 vol% was measured at temperature of 20, 40, 60 and 80 °C. It has been observed that thermal conductivity of nanofluid increases with an increase in concentration of nanoparticles and temperature of nanofluid. The agglomeration of nanoparticles in the fluid causes clustering, which adversely affects the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. To estimate the size of the cluster formed in the base fluid analytically, Xuan’s model was employed. When experimental observations were compared with Maxwell’s and Xuan’s model, Xuan’s model showed close proximity with observed results with an approximate cluster size of ten nanoparticles.
Shriram S. Sonawane, Vijay Juwar

Chapter 9. Strategies for Producer Gas Cleaning in Biomass Gasification: A Review

Abstract
Bioenergy is the prominent source of generation of power by means of thermal and electricity route. The potential of biomass, a renewable energy source, is estimated to be 500 million metric tons per year in India. Gasification, a promising route to extract energy from biomass, is a thermochemical process having high thermal efficiency compared to direct combustion. Producer gas is the outcome of gasification. Producer gas is a medium calorific value gas and is rich in H2 and CO. Despite innumerable applications of the biomass gasification gas, this century-old technology is yet not in its mature form. This is because of impurities like tar and particulate matter (PM). Tar is condensable at the downstream of gasifier system and leads to clogging or blockage in the process equipment. PM can create problems like fouling and corrosion. In this review paper, various methodologies are discussed which can diminish or destruct tar and PM. The purpose of this review is to analyze the recent technologies to clean the producer gas. Various gas cleaning methods like physical, non-catalytic, and catalytic are also discussed. The findings of the review are that catalytic tar conversion has the potential to increase conversion efficiencies while simultaneously decreasing tar, and therefore it is an instinctively effective method to obtain clean gas.
Haresh V. Makwana, Darshit S. Upadhyay, Jayesh J. Barve, Rajesh N. Patel

Biomass Management

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Partial Replacement of Aggregates Using Agricultural Waste in Concrete Manufacturing

Abstract
The environmental waste management practices are picking up across the world day by day. The present work deals with scientific disposal of the Agriculture waste material (rice straws) by utilizing them as coarse aggregate in conventional concrete mix. In order to reduce the alarmingly adverse effects of this waste material on the environment, it has become utmost necessary to get rid of it wisely so that the disposal may not affect the environment. The incorporation of this solid wastes in M15 grade concrete mix as partial replacements to coarse aggregate is found to yield an alternative lightweight eco-friendly concrete. The compressive strength of rice straws reinforced concrete sample with 10% replacement found out to be 10.2 N/mm2 which is 68% as compared to conventional concrete i.e., M15 (15 N/mm2). This waste utilization cum management practice makes the possibility of embedding the agriculture waste material into concrete, providing us a good sustainable, economical and lightweight alternative environment friendly construction material.
Ranjeet Singh, Amit Arora, Gurmit Singh, Anand K. Tyagi

Chapter 11. Characterization of Wood Apple Shell Particles

Abstract
Characterization of bio waste fiber/particulates for the fabrication of bio composite is essential, because the performance of composite depends upon several factors, including chemical composition, physical properties, and environmental condition of fiber/particulates. In this research, a new bio waste lignocellulosic wood apple shell particles have been chosen and characterized their properties through various analyses such as proximate, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), whether it is a suitable reinforcement for fabrication of polymer composite. From the analysis, it is concluded that the lignin percentage is more which helps to increase the carbon percentage in the shell particles. EDS result shows that wood apple shell contains hard particles which are suitable for the fabrication of polymer composite.
O. Shakuntala, G. Raghavendra, S. K. Acharya

Chapter 12. Governance of Sustainable Agriculture Schemes in India with Special Reference to Bio-fertilizer Project and Analysis

Abstract
Chemical fertilizers are one of the significant elements which boost the green revolution in India in achieving the goals of self-sufficiency in food production. This positive outcome had also brought negative side effects such as salinity, decreases in soil fertility, insect resistance to pesticides etc., which had further affected environment to large extent and had led to land degradation, water contamination, groundwater depletion and climate change. These problems in agricultural land and water resources could only be solved to some extent with usage of bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and adoption of organic farming techniques which are eco-friendly. The Government of India had implemented policies and programmes for improving the production, distribution, and promotion of bio-fertilizers. An attempt has been made to analyse the governance mechanism in improvising the market of bio-fertilizer in India while understanding the roles, capacities, and relationships among the diverse actors involved in governance process. It has been found that usage of bio-fertilizers is limited as compared to involvement of population in agriculture sector due to various governance issues in agriculture sector like low institutional capacity, lack of economic stability, poor accountability and transparency, no responsiveness, lack of participation and access to information.
Navreet, Ravneet Kaur

Waste to Management

Frontmatter

Chapter 13. Sequencing Batch Reactor Technique for Municipal Sewage Treatment with Carbon Credits

Abstract
Sequencing batch reactor is a developing technology in wastewater treatment for municipal sewage and industrial effluent. Aerobic process treatment generates significant amount of greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Reduction of GHG emissions is a significant role in wastewater treatment. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment is a significant consideration for the treatment process evaluation. In the present work, the direct and indirect emissions from a single-stage sequencing batch (SBR) deammonification plant for nitrogen elimination from sludge liquor are calculated based on measurements and construction documentation. The results show that N2O is responsible for most CO2 emissions, followed by energy consumption and construction and machinery, but significant amounts can be saved in mainstream treatment. The present work reveals that there is a need for the development of less GHG emitting process configurations. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the GHGs for municipal wastewater (mainly CO2 and N2O) with SBR technology for carbon credits approach. The analysed results are compared in a detailed manner. Neutral and negative carbon footprint has been widely discussed and investigated.
R. R. Marlar, Vigneshwaran Aiyappan, S. S. Rao, S. Bajpai

Integrated System

Frontmatter

Chapter 14. Convective Heat Transfer of Metal Oxide-Based Nanofluids in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Abstract
Nanofluid is a solid–liquid mixture in which metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles are suspended in the base fluid. The convective heat transfer performance for CuO- and TiO2-based nanofluids was measured flowing in the tube side in shell and tube heat exchanger. The effect of CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles on the overall heat transfer coefficient of base fluid like distilled water was studied. Nanofluids showed an enhancement in the overall heat transfer coefficient. The investigation of thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient enhancement was analyzed with different concentration of nanoparticles, base fluids, sonication time, and temperature of fluids. The nanoparticles concentration was 0.01–0.06 vol% used in base fluids. The heat transfer performance was studied for different Peclet number and temperature of nanofluids. An increment in the heat transfer performance was found for the nanofluids, by increasing the concentration of nanoparticles, flow rate and temperature of nanofluid.
Nishant Kumar, Shriram S. Sonawane
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