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2024 | Book

Construction of the Façade Systems

Production and Assembly Procedures of the Advanced Building Envelopes

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About this book

The book explores the advanced façade systems according to the productive and constructive contents, in a cognitive and operative form, as a manual text to provide guidelines for researchers, technicians and professionals. It provides operational guidance for the technological design, production planning and site executive coordination for the realization of façade systems. The analysis deals with the main building elements and technical interfaces. The study of the façade systems, after explaining the anchoring structures and their connections to the load-bearing elements, investigates the criteria for the assembly between the framings. In particular, the book examines the technical interfaces of the main advanced envelope systems with respect to the functional, constructive and applicative coordination procedures of the mullions and transoms framing, of the structural sealant glazing façade system, of the unit façade system, of the suspended façade system and of the double skin façade system. The technical and manual character of the book is also expressed through the analysis of the functional and application procedures of the gaskets with respect to the façade systems in order to prevent the transmission of air and water loads: the analysis focuses on the connections between the framing and the enclosure elements of the envelope, in accordance with the compensation of height differences in order to guarantee impermeability, airtightness and insulation. Then, the book describes the assembly and interface conditions between elements of different composition and production within the façade systems: the examination of the technical interfaces involves the development and application of sealants, based on the loads exerted on the jointing devices, in order to fulfill the requirements of sealing and tightness with respect to mechanical, thermal and hygrometric, water, air and wind stresses. Moreover, the study of the envelope systems examines the methodologies directed toward fulfilling the requirements with respect to the actions caused by fire loads, considering the contents related to both components and connections and fixing surfaces.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. The Productive, Constructive and Expressive Articulation of the Advanced Envelope Systems
Abstract
The study examines the context of the façade systems characterized both by the confirmation and progression of the range series, and by the possibilities of performance increase based on the basic profiles, according to the paradigms of versatility and relational flexibility. Moreover, the context of envelope components is expressed according to the acquisition in its own production of technical solutions “outside system”: this considering the current component design strategies focused on production and combinatory procedures, or on criteria of integrated aggregation between elements and semi-finished products arranged “in catalogue”. The scenario under consideration accommodates, in the range series, the types of envelopes transferred by complex, large-scale interventions, with the inclusion of appropriate tools and accessories aimed at widespread use: therefore, the components are proposed in the form of “integrated” elements, characterized by “specialization” processes, as finished products, dimensionally coordinated, capable of providing mechanical assembly possibilities and applicable to different building types. Then, the contemporary experimental production observes the application of the archetypal and tectonic properties of envelope systems, through both the elaboration of external enclosures defined by the use of products belonging to the construction “tradition”, and the hybridization of established façade typologies through the use of profiles and frames of different material, mechanical and connective invoice. The alternative typologies are arranged with respect to the tendency towards rationalization and “reinvention” of the components and of the canonical application and interface methods, in an integrated manner with the multiplicity and variety of expressive possibilities: this is in order to legitimize the maintenance of the “solid” and “massive” presence within the growing “virtuality” and ephemeral, dynamic and “metamorphic” configuration of the envelope.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Chapter 2. The Structural Procedures of the Advanced Envelope Systems
Abstract
The study examines the constitution of the components and devices for the mechanical, functional and executive composition of the envelope systems, starting from the configuration of the frames, profiles and connection methods (in the priority forms defined by vertical mullions and horizontal transoms connected to the main load-bearing apparatuses). The construction concept is based on the transmission of the loads from the façade system to the main load-bearing structures of the architectural organism. The frame profiles, consisting of mullions (vertical) and transoms (horizontal), which act according to constraints that allow for the phenomena of expansion, are elaborated with respect to the requirements of “thermal break” and the functions of protection with chemical treatments or coatings of metallic materials. The façade frames provide support for the vertical actions (such as their own weight, the weight of the closing elements and the weights of additional functional elements or devices), the horizontal actions generated by the closing elements and the bending actions. The study focuses on planning and coordination practices for application towards elevation structures, with the examination of geometric and adjustment check criteria. In this regard, the analysis considers the methodologies for anchoring the frames: the elaboration of the stirrup joints observes the types of action with respect to the façade plane, noting the connection modes related to the constraints with the structures. The examination continues with the development of the procedures and operational sequences for the assembly of the frames, highlighting the geometric and executive control methods. Then, the technical interface criteria between the framing, the horizontal elevation structures, the roof and storey sections are determined.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Chapter 3. The Building Procedures of the Advanced Envelope Systems
Abstract
The study examines how frames are jointed to the anchoring structures and their interfaces to load-bearing structures. The analysis focuses on the engagement procedures of the devices applied to the frame profiles. In addition, the analysis observes the connection criteria of the main types of framing with respect to the brackets and fastening connections to the structures: specifically, the investigation implies the assembly criteria according to the tubular cavities of the framing, with respect to the extrados and intrados sections of the structures. The technical interfaces contemplate the connection and finishing extensions (by means of the profiles and shaped sheets to close the layers and connective passages). The specific roof connection provides for the assembly of the mullion profiles to the structural sections pronounced above, where the last transom realizes the support plane for the completion layers. The study examines the criteria for the assembly between the mullion and transom profiles, according to the telescopic insertion of the trestles within the tubular cavities. In the case of the structural façade system, the frame profiles are assembled with respect to the studs projected beyond the mullions and transoms: the connection procedures also involve the use of locking and latching devices on the centre studs and tubular sections. The study of the façade systems focuses on the methods of collecting and draining rainwater, considering the execution of the sealing and the criteria of vapour pressure compensation and drainage for glass enclosures. The analysis of framing is completed with an explanation of the methods of mechanical and structural fastening of the enclosures, noting the criteria for pressure and structural silicone assembly.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Chapter 4. The Technical Interfaces of the Advanced Envelope Systems
Abstract
The study examines the applicative coordination procedures for the main types of façade systems composed by the mullions and transoms framing, the structural sealant glazing façade system, the unit façade system, the suspended façade system and the double skin façade system. The analysis focuses, for each of the main façade types, on the technical interfaces in relation to the connection sections, the way parts of the frame profiles are joined and in relation to the enclosure elements. Moreover, the analysis considers the fastenings for the enclosures (glass or opaque) in relation to the frames, noting how they are applied in order to consolidate the construction against water infiltration (with the aid of waterproofing membranes), air infiltration (with the aid of gaskets) and thermal resistance to external environmental stresses. In this regard, the explanation contemplates the specific sections and connections of the frame profiles, aimed at supporting and including the fastening, heat-insulating and sound-insulating materials, especially with regard to the anchoring parts and the relations to the building structures and cladding systems. The study is confirmed in the form of a technical construction guide through the formulation of the attachment methods of the main façade types with respect to the extra- and intradossal surfaces, lateral and roof surfaces: in this case, the analysis observes the interaction with the additional fastening elements towards other components and technological systems. Based on the contents, frame apparatuses and specificities of the individual façade types, the study explores the assembly sequences and joining phases between the structural, closing and finishing elements.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Chapter 5. The Connections Between the Framing Profiles and the Glazing Envelopes
Abstract
The study examines the functional and application procedures of the gaskets with respect to the façade systems in order to prevent the transmission of air and water loads. In this regard, the analysis focuses on the connections between the framing and the enclosure elements of the envelope, in accordance with the compensation of height differences in order to guarantee impermeability, airtightness and insulation. The technical execution of the gaskets considers the production criteria at the level of cutting, connection and bending as well as the positioning and the installation methods. The study observes and investigates the types of framing elements in which the gaskets are inserted, emphasizing the specific function with respect to the connection interfaces. In particular, the assembly between the mullions and the transoms results from the insertion of the gaskets into the cavities, projected frontally, in the form of the crawler gaskets. With regard to the contact parts, for which only compressive actions perpendicular to the surfaces can be transmitted, the need for dimensioning in such a way as to reduce stresses in the load transmission zones is detected. Next, the study explores the assembly procedures of glass enclosures with respect to façade frames, highlighting the construction sequences and the devices for on-site construction.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Chapter 6. The Technical Processing of the Joints in the Façade Systems
Abstract
The study examines the assembly and interface conditions between elements of different composition and production within the façade systems. The examination of the technical interfaces involves the development and application of sealants, based on the loads exerted on the jointing devices, in order to fulfil the requirements of sealing and tightness with respect to mechanical, thermal and hygrometric, water, air and wind stresses. The execution of sealants concerns jointing techniques according to the adhesion to the contact surfaces. The sealants are subjected to stresses due to ultraviolet solar radiation, low temperatures and thermo-hygrometric loads. At the same time, the sealants can be subjected to failure procedures, due to the loss of adhesion, recalling the correct dimensional, geometric and connective design methods. The design study of joints recalls the evaluation of the width, the in-situ preparation of the adhesion surfaces and the filling of the thickness between the technical elements. The design study differs from the sealing of glass enclosures and technical elements, according to the different application types. In addition, the execution of the sealing involves the analysis of the surface treatment conditions and the physical state of the substrates, considering the procedures for cleaning, the application of the primer, the application of the “joint filler” and masking on the sub-layer surfaces.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Chapter 7. The Executive Design of the Technical Interfaces According to Performance Under Fire Loads
Abstract
The study of the envelope systems examines the methodologies directed towards fulfilling the requirements with respect to the actions caused by fire loads, considering the contents related to both components and connections and fixing surfaces. The objective is to identify the containment and interruption criteria towards the development and propagation modes of the fire loads: on this basis, the study focuses on the technical interfaces with respect to the fire behaviour. The design study involves the specific sections of separation with respect to the fire compartments: this is to limit the propagation of a fire originating inside the building, the fire of a façade and its propagation, the fall of the façade elements. The attention is focused on non-load-bearing external façade systems, independent of the main elevation structures and, in general, fixed in projection with respect to the perimeter surfaces of the horizontal structures and transversal enclosures: for these systems, the application of a fire resistance strip is indicated in correspondence with each floor and each transversal wall, with a compartmentalization function. In the particular case of non-inspectable double envelope systems, supplemented by mechanical or natural air circulation in the cavity, it is examined the type consisting of the closed external wall and the type consisting of the open external wall. In addition, for the double envelope systems that can be inspected, the type consisting of the closed external wall, with the cavity interrupted by the fire-resistant inter-floor elements, the type consisting of the closed external wall, with the cavity with no horizontal interruptions, and the type consisting of the open external wall, for which the internal wall must have the similar fire resistance requirements to “simple façade” systems, are considered. The analysis implies the applications and interfaces for the main types of enclosures, specified by fire resistance classes, observing compliance through the methods based on tests, calculations and, finally, model solutions.
Ingrid Paoletti, Massimiliano Nastri
Metadata
Title
Construction of the Façade Systems
Authors
Ingrid Paoletti
Massimiliano Nastri
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-49608-0
Print ISBN
978-3-031-49607-3
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-49608-0