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About this book

This book covers remarkable contemporary nanomaterials such as carbon nanomaterials, nanoclays, quantum dots, MXene, and metal-organic frameworks. Each chapter discusses the synthesis techniques, characterization methods, properties, and the nanomaterials’ use in different aspects of biomedical, energy, polymers, material construction, biosensors, coatings, and catalysis. Moreover, commercialization challenges and environmental risks of nanomaterials are also covered in depth. The book provides an understanding of the fundamental properties, limitations and challenges in nanomaterials synthesis, serving as a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students, academicians, and consultants working with nanomaterials for engineering applications.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Importance of Nanomaterials in Engineering Application

Abstract
Nanomaterials have gained prominence in technological advancement due to their exceptional tunable properties and enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. These nanomaterials are revolutionising various industrial applications due to their outstanding, and unique characteristics. In this chapter, a summary of the fundamental engineering concept of nanomaterial, particularly carbon nanomaterials are included. Besides, this chapter also highlights the engineering applications of nanomaterials in diverse industrial fields, such as biomedical, food processing, biotechnology, environmental remediation, construction, renewable energy, electronics, and energy storage. Lastly, the potential effects of nanomaterials on human health are briefed. In short, nanomaterials are expected to bring breakthrough development field of the leading cutting edge of nanotechnology.
Lau Yien Jun, Fahad Saleem Ahmed Khan, Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak, Lau Sie Yon, Chua Han Bing, Mohammad Khalid, E. C. Abdullah

Graphene and Its Composites

Abstract
Recent years have seen many innovations of graphene in various fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. Graphene-based materials and their composites have a wide range of promising applications including electronics, biomedical devices, membranes, wearable sensors, and actuators. Graphene is a 2-dimensional (2D) array of carbon atoms in planar and hexagonal forms. Each carbon is sp2-hybridized and connects three stable bonds C–C–μ at 120° apart. The unhybridized p-orbital, together with the same p-orbitals across the entire 2-D plane, is perpendicular to the sp2-hybridization plane on other carbon atoms by Ś interaction. Graphene-based nanocomposites have drawn a great deal of attention in scientific communities, due to its extraordinary magnetic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties, and a large surface region. This chapter, therefore, presents different techniques in the graphene synthesis method and its excellent physical and chemical properties. Various manufacturing processes of graphene-based composites are introduced. In conclusion, the remaining challenges and perspectives in functional science and engineering for graphene nanocomposites are discussed.
Marlinda Ab Rahman, Suresh Sagadevan, Mohd Rafie Johan

Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites: From Synthesis to Applications

Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), accidentally discovered wonder material from fullerene, is still a material of researcher's interest because of its superior properties and ability to transform/bind into different material via different hybridisations (sp, sp2, sp3). After the structural identification of carbon nanotubes in 1991by Iijima, the different types of carbon nanotubes, such as single, double and multi-walled have become one of the potential candidates of the study. In the 1990s and 2000s, the physics and chemistry behind the carbon nanotubes have been developed from both conceptual and experimental studies. After that, the introduction of different synthesis methods and the evolution of properties for different applications are isolated and intensively studied. Besides, CNT based composites have grabbed a lot of attention in the scientific world due to their superior properties that are beneficial for various commercial purposes. This chapter aims to provide different properties of CNTs, synthesis techniques of CNTs, CNT-based composites and their applications in different fields. In conclusion, current challenges and future perspectives for the development of low-cost synthesis and production for commercialisation and material/device development.
Mahesh Vaka, Rashmi Walvekar, Swarnalatha Yanamadala

Synthesis of Nanoclay Composite Material

Abstract
The immense research interest in clay sciences is driven by the easy availability in nature, extraordinary properties, wide range of applicability, cheaper and less toxicity. Clay minerals have a huge potential to explore and/or manipulate application specific physical properties in the lab. Nano-structured clay broadly can be classified as aggregated nano-clay, isolated nano-clay particles (tactoid), intercalated clay and exfoliated clay. Clay shows the properties related to nano-structuring to its fullest when exfoliated and many interesting physical, morphological characteristic and improved properties are observed. Clay based nano-composites materials provide significant properties improvements even at low nanoparticles content. Effort is made to strengthen the understanding on effect of size, shape and the chemical compositions to properties relations. The optimization of adsorption properties, swelling behavior, rheological properties optimization, nano-sized clay development and design of polymer–clay composites development opens the new prospect of research and application of clay minerals. To obtain a uniform distribution with strong linking between polymer to particles remains a critical challenge in order to obtain properties like flame retardant, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties, etc. This chapter focuses more in-depth on the synthesis and properties of clay-polymer composite. Processing of Clay-polymer nano-composites such as conventional solution blending, melt blending, in situ polymerization and the use of ultrasounds in enhancement of nanoparticles dispersion has been discussed. To reach the optimal properties that is required for specific applications, selection of composition, clay microstructure and processing is the key and has been elaborated in this section.
Pratap Kumar Deheri, Biswabandita Kar

Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

Abstract
This chapter outlines the design and synthesis of a class of highly functional porous materials known as MOFs (Metal-Organic Frameworks) by various techniques including conventional, microwave-assisted, electrochemical, mechanochemical and sonochemical methods. The physical attributes of various MOFs like the strength of the frameworks and surface area, thermal stabilities, chirality, luminescence and magnetic properties are also elaborated upon, citing recent literature. MOFs as composites, specifically with nanoparticles, metal oxides, organic polymers and polyoxometalates are outlined. The use of MOFS in engineering applications, especially in CO2 capture, storage of gases, catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and as semiconductors are discussed, using specific and recent examples.
Nurul N. M. Ishak, N. N. M. Khiruddin, N. Nasri, T. B. S. A. Ravoof

Conducting Polymers and Their Composites

Abstract
The on-going shrinkage in the size of electronic devices and the high-power generation of electrical appliances have led to new challenges in insulating polymers for packaging applications. The main aim of this review is to study fabrication of polymer composites coupled with improved electrical properties and thermal resistivity, with lower dielectric constant, lowers thermal expansion and the cost associated with the production of such composites. Polymeric materials are an excellent choice for production of electronic materials as they can be processed with ease and are economical. The disadvantage of using polymers for processing of electrically conductive materials is that they possess low thermal conductivity. However, the properties can be enhanced by incorporating appropriate fillers that have high thermal conductivity; these include boron nitride, aluminium oxide and silicon nitride. This chapter aims to review the available conducting polymers, fillers, processing techniques, final properties, and the end use applications of such conducting polymer composites.
Ankit Jadhav, Sundus Saeed Qureshi, Harshit Jadhav, Sabzoi Nizamuddin, Abdul Sattar Jatoi, Shaukat Ali Mazari, Israr Ahmed, Humair Ahmed Baloch, M. T. H. Siddiqui, Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak

Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes): Synthesis to Applications

Abstract
Recently, a novel family of two-dimensional materials, called MXenes, comprising of early transition metal nitrides and carbides was discovered with intriguing characteristics and potential applications. MXenes are synthesized by adopting various top down and bottom up approaches such as selective etching of “A” element from MAX phases result in a new MXene element, for instance, Ti3C2, V2C, Ti3CN, MoC2, Ta4C3 etc. MXenes exhibit high metallic conductivity in which solid layers are bonded together with strong ionic, covalent and metallic bonds. The hydrophilic nature of MXene enhance its practical applications such as electrocatalyst, energy storage devices and in biomedical applications. Here, the chapter reviews the basic structure of newly discovered MXene materials, different synthesis techniques, structural, electrical and optical properties. Some potential applications in the field of biomedical, energy conversion and electrochemical energy storage systems and electrocatalyst are also presented in this chapter.
Muhammad Zahir Iqbal, Saman Siddique

Chalcogenides Nanocrystals and Its Applications

Abstract
Chalcogenides nanocrystals, one of the emerging hot topics in the field of research offers the characteristics that are unparalleled by conventional materials in their respective field of applications. In recent years, chalcogenides nanocrystals are holding significant impact in various applications such as lighting, displays, photovoltaics, sensors, imaging devices, etc. owing to their shape, size and tunability of composition. Moreover, most of the chalcogenides nanocrystals are deployed in large-scale devices due to its sustainability, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. This chapter emphasizes the concise overview of chalcogenides nanocrystals, sketching the state of the art of synthesizing materials along with strategies to circumvent the limitations arise during ternary and quaternary compositions. A discussion highlighting on shape, size, composition controlled growth of chalcogenides are provided. Followed by the synthesis, functional properties (structural, optical, electronic and magnetic) and its ubiquitous applications are addressed in a detailed manner. Finally, as a summary, track of the rapidly advancing field and their key challenges have been discussed.
Arunachalam Arulraj, U. Mehana Usmaniya, Govindan Senguttuvan, Vadivel Sivakumar, Mohammad Khalid

Quantum Dots Synthesis and Application

Abstract
Zero dimensional nanostructures that are electronically confined in all directions are called quantum dots. These nanosized dots are usually crystallized semiconductor with enhanced properties of fluorescence. Unlike the one- and two-dimensional nanoparticles such as thin films and rods, quantum dots can be fabricated from a widespread range of elements such as metals, metal complexes, carbon, and rare earth elements. Quantum dots can be used as molecular carriers without any loss of energy whilst enhancing the properties and functional characteristics of the foreign molecule. Thus, quantum dots are utilized in applications including electronics, delivery of drugs, solar panels, medical imaging and waste treatment. The present chapter discusses various approaches for synthesizing quantum dots and their associated physical and chemical properties. In addition, nanocomposites are discussed along with their recent applications in various fields as they are synthesized by blending different materials with quantum dots.
Jaison Jeevanandam, Satheesh Kumar Balu, Swetha Andra, Michael K. Danquah, Manisha Vidyavathi, Murugesan Muthalagu

Synthesis of Thin Film and Its Application

Abstract
Thin film technology is a major area of scientific research in the modern world because of its fascinating surface properties and wide range of applications from microelectronics to optics, space science to aircraft, and superconductivity to photovoltaic and solar cells. The performance of the thin films depends on the atomic structure, composition, microstructure, defects and interfaces that are controlled by thermodynamics and kinetics of the synthesis. The major advantage of thin film fabrication is its lower production temperature, facil fabrication process and offer to produce flexible and transparent films. High quality, compact and multi shades crystalline thin films can be fabricated using low cost, robust and highly efficient deposition techniques. However, there are lot of challenges to fabricate desired thins films for the latest technological and industrial applications. This chapter will cover different thin film technologies, challenges and future prospects.
Sohail Ahmed, Shahzad Abu Bakar

Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Applications of Tin Dioxide

Abstract
Metal oxides are useful for the detection and sensing of combustible and toxic gases, and for use in lithium batteries and solar cells. The present study focuses on the spectroscopic investigation of commercial and in-house laboratory synthesized tetragonal tin dioxide (SnO2), aimed at studying its physical and chemical properties at nanoscale levels and in bulk. We have investigated the pure powder form and thin films prepared on two different types of substrate, silicon and UV-Quartz, each with five different thicknesses (i.e. 41, 78, 96.5, 373, and 908 nm). Raman spectroscopy with two different laser excitation wavelengths, namely 780 and 532 nm, has been used to investigate the various SnO2 vibrational modes. Thermal effects on the primary vibrational features in the Raman spectra have been studied in the range 30–170 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have been recorded to confirm the rutile structure of tin dioxide and to obtain information on the spherical grain particle size of SnO2 with EDS analysis for the thin film samples. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images have been recorded in order to understand the morphology of the particles of SnO2 at the nanoscale level. In addition, FT-IR spectra have been obtained to study the IR-active vibrational modes for the bulk and thin film samples on the two substrates. Moreover, UV-VIS spectra have been employed to determine the energy band gap for the SnO2 film samples by an efficient process facilitated by a Tauc plot technique utilizing an in-house developed python script.
Hawazin Alghamdi, Benjamin Concepcion, Shankar Baliga, Prabhakar Misra

Perspective Future Development of Nanomaterials

Abstract
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and nanotechnology are revolutionising the world. Especially in the twenty-first century, it has gathered considerable interest from the society, academic world, researchers and the industrial sector. Nanotechnology is now an established scientific area that has undergone an exciting growth phase with a wide range of applications in different fields. Although the field of nanomaterials is mature and well established, the scale-up from research and development to commercialisation remains tedious due to the reliability and reproducibility of technology. To overcome the limitation, there is a need to standardise, validate and evaluate each stage of process development. Extensive research has been done at the institutional and investors level for the modernisation and smooth technology transfer. This chapter emphasises the significant progress, applications and challenges in nanotechnologies and ENMs. In the end, the application properties of this specific topic and future directions for research are discussed.
Jamal Akhter Siddique, Arshid Numan
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