An important problem for the domestic machine building industry involving the development and introduction of modern means of monitoring the geometric parameters of shells of revolution as basic details of aerospace technology, oil and gas, chemical, and power production equipment is examined. The main methodological and instrumental errors in a design-control and measurement robot for determining the geometric parameters of large-scale shells of revolution which depend on the parameters of the computer vision system are analyzed. A scheme for measuring the geometric parameters of a shell is proposed, the methodological and instrumental errors of the robot and their analytic dependences on the computer vision system are obtained, and ways minimizing these errors are identified. The analytical dependences are used for a metrological analysis of a real prototype computer vision system and the applicability of the chosen robot structure is demonstrated. The relative measurement error is less than 0.3%, which meets the requirements of standards documents.