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About this book

This book introduces readers to the topical area of CSI: critical space infrastructure, which is defined as an emerging domain of systems-of-systems encompassing hardware, workforce, environment, facilities, business and organizational entities. Further, it includes unmanned air systems, satellites, rockets, space probes, and orbital stations, and involves multi-directional interactions essential for maintenance of vital societal functions (i.e., health, safety, economic and social well-being), the loss or disruption of which would have significant impact on virtually any nation. The topics covered include the main elements of CSI, CSI taxonomy, effects of CSI on other infrastructure systems, establishing quantitative and qualitative parameters, global and national effects of CSI failure, cascading disruptive phenomena, chilling effects in various fields, CSI protection, deliberate threats to space systems (e.g., electromagnetic pulse attacks), space governance, and a path forward for CSI research. Modern society is highly dependent on the continuous operation of critical infrastructure systems for the supply of crucial goods and services including, among others, the power supply, drinking water supply, and transportation systems; yet space systems – which are critical enablers for several commercial, scientific and military applications – are rarely discussed. This book addresses this gap.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Critical Infrastructure

Abstract
This introductory chapter articulates the topics of critical infrastructure , key resources , and key assets (CIKRKA). The aim is to offer the reader a clear definition of the notions, explain their relevance and the need to develop intelligible and robust models to diagnose and predict risks, vulnerability , resilience , fragility , and perception. The chapter reveals space, undersea, and belowground as three privileged sectors of human endeavor were critical infrastructures, resources and assets coexist in the guise of complex systems that tend to assume a leading position in the overall, global CIKRKA system of systems. This chapters sets the stage for the reminder of the book.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 2. Critical Space Infrastructures

Abstract
This chapter provides the basics of space as a critical infrastructure including elements of key resources and assets. Critical space infrastructure (CSI) is presented as a set of interdependent system-of-systems encompassing workforce, environment, facilities and multidirectional interactions essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security , economic or social well-being of people, whose destruction or disruption would have a significant impact in a given state. Topics of orbits are also discussed in the context of critical infrastructures.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 3. Critical Space Infrastructure Taxonomy

Abstract
This chapter is developed to provide categories of critical space infrastructures . This include remote sensing, communication, meteorological, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, and framework for administrative and legislation. These categories are discussed in this chapter as well as their implications for the development and exploration of critical space infrastructures .
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 4. Critical Space Infrastructure Interdependencies

Abstract
This chapter elaborates on a key theme of critical space infrastructure: interdependency . In the context of present discussion, interdependency is described means being influenced, determined by, conditioned by, or subject to another—relationships to other systems. These relationships are examined in relation to, among other critical systems: water, energy , chemical , transportation, and food supply along with potential effects.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 5. National and Global Effects—Malfunction and Destruction of CSI

Abstract
Critical space infrastructures , similar to other systems, can fail. These failures can have national and global effects . The effects of critical space infrastructures malfunctions and destructions are the basis for this chapter. Specifically, effects are seen through global clientele and significant percentage of critical services output per unit. These are examined through a number of characteristics.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 6. Critical Space Infrastructure Protection

Abstract
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a forward-looking summary to protection of ‘critical space infrastructures ’. Critical space infrastructure protection is necessary due to increasing potential failures as well as impact on space systems as well as interconnected systems on surface and underground systems. Emphasis is placed on need for protection measures against special phenomena including space weather , space debris , electromagnetic pulse, and anti-satellite attacks.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 7. Crisis and Emergency Situation Management

Abstract
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a forward-looking summary to critical space, undersea, and underground systems. Proposed areas of research at the methodological, epistemology, ontological, and nature of man are then presented.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 8. Serious Gaming and Policy Gaming

Abstract
Over the last few decades, practitioners and management scholars increasingly criticized the conventional strategy making methods, arguing that rapidly changing environments require emerging and creative approaches. Serious gaming (simulation game or gaming, used interchangeably within the text) discipline is found to be increasingly useful within mainstream strategy literature involved with former strategy making approaches. Serious gaming as an approach for understanding infrastructure is disused in this chapter. This discussion includes concepts game cycle, data negation, scenario development as well as model for estimating consequences and probabilities.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 9. Space Capabilities—A Critical Tool for Nuclear Issues

Abstract
In this chapter, the increasing role of space systems in the functioning of the critical infrastructures which are part of the Nuclear Industry is discussed. This discussion includes the role of feasibility and environmental studies required for the approval of new reactors, as well as the security of the nuclear industry ’s various processes, permanent security for the waste disposal sites, non-proliferation efforts and issues of support of decision makers and investigators.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 10. Governance by Emerging Technologies—The Case for Sand and Blockchain Technology

Abstract
Emerging technologies can also be used for governance . This is the case for sand. Sand is a key ingredient for many industries, including concrete, glass, and electronics. In this chapter, sand governance framework is suggested through the applying blockchain technology with the aim of regulating sand extraction and trade. In this case, blockchain is the technology that can be used for distributed concurrency monitoring. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS) is applied to demonstrate the application of the model.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 11. Establishing Governance for CSI: An MCDA Approach

Abstract
Indeed, the domain of space infrastructure systems has evolved from a benign environment, with a relatively small number of satellites scattered over vast distances, to an increasingly complex, crowded, and hostile ‘system-of-systems ’. In this chapter, three proposed governance scenarios for the space domain are evaluated efficacy using principles of Complex System Governance . First is a scenario derived from an official document of the United States’ National Academies of the Sciences and Engineering. Second is based on an article from the European Institute for Security Studies. A third option is developed based on assumption of accelerating growth in space commercialization and evolution to an Internet-like environment. The three governance scenarios are evaluated using single utility analysis, Fuzzy Sets-based decision analysis, Evidential Reasoning, the Analytic Hierarchy Process , and Logical Decisions for Windows multi-utility software. The results are discussed along with strengths and weaknesses of the tools.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 12. CSI—A Complex System Governance Approach

Abstract
Given the inherent complexity of space systems, a Complex System Governance (CSG) model may be appropriate. Keating and Ireland (2016) call CSG ‘transdisciplinary,’ stating that it does not belong in any particular industry or commercial sector, but instead reaches across traditional disciplines and domains. They also acknowledge that by nature, CSG inherits the strengths and weaknesses of all its parent fields, not all of which are subsumed in the integration. CSG is a new field, so it may not be mature enough to address the problem of governing ‘critical space infrastructure.’
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Chapter 13. CSG: Towards CSI Research

Abstract
This chapter is developed with an inside out and forward-looking view of governance for the current topic: ‘critical space infrastructure’. The need and utility of CSG field are provided. The nature and definition of CSG are explored. Applicability of CSG to the design, execution, and development of governance functions is explored. As part of this exploration advantages, limitations, and challenges brought by CSG to practitioners and the practices for governing complex systems are suggested. Implications of CSG development to enhance practice are examined. The chapter closes with some concluding thoughts and several exercises that serve to underscore central concepts tenets of present research. Explorations in this chapter includes several vignettes and scenarios that serve to demonstrate the utility and contributions offered by CSG.
Alexandru Georgescu, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Marius-Ioan Piso, Polinpapilinho F. Katina

Backmatter

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