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About this book

This book gathers the proceedings of the 7th International Conference, with the theme “Culture and Tourism in a Smart, Globalized and Sustainable World,” held on Hydra Island, Greece, on June 17–19, 2020, published with the support of the International Association of Cultural and Digital Tourism.

Highlighting the contributions made by numerous writers to the advancement of tourism research, this book presents a critical academic discourse on sustainable practices in the smart tourism context, improving readers’ understanding of, and stimulating future debates in, this critical area. In addition to the knowledge economy and the concept of smart destinations, the book addresses new modes of tourism management and development, as well as emerging technologies, including location-based services, the Internet of things, smart cities, mobile services, gamification, digital collections and the virtual visitor, social media, social networking, and augmented reality.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Sports Tourism

Frontmatter

Sport Tourism: An Analysis of Possible Developmental Factors in Sport and Recreation Centers

The development of sport tourism is determined by several factors. Various models’ and factors’ typologies have been identified in the literature. The aims of the present study were (a) the identification and classification of factors affecting the development of sport tourism, (b) the investigation of the level to which these factors are met by a sport and recreation center, and (c) the comparison of opinions of the users of the center regarding these factors. The methodology of the structured questionnaire was adopted. The results revealed that (a) the most important factors are the changing rooms/bathrooms/resting rooms, the security, the healthcare and the injuries’ rehabilitation, and the accommodation facilities (camp—rooms) and the less important factors were the proximity to a port and marinas, as well as the access through the railway network, (b) these factors were met by the sport and recreation center under study in a very high either adequate level, and (c) there were significant differences in the opinions of the users of the center.

Georgia Yfantidou, Charalampos Spiliakos, Ourania Vrondou, Dimitris Gargalianos, Antonia Kalafatzi, Eleni Mami

Cycling Tourism: Characteristics and Challenges for the Developments and Promotions of a Special Interest Product

The growth of cycling tourism over the past decade emerges the need for the development of unique tourist products by the destinations in order to stand out in an increasingly competitive marketplace. This paper explores the challenges and possibilities of developing cycling tourism in Greece as a special form of tourism, offering multiple economic, social and environmental benefits. At first, important aspects and international trends related to cycling tourism are examined, focusing in particular on the conditions for its development, such as the development of cycling routes, the types of cycling, the existence of appropriate infrastructure, the transport of bicycles by public means of transportation, the design and promotion of the cycling tourism product. The next section explores the conditions for the development of cycling tourism in Greece through quantitative opinion research on domestic and foreign cyclists. The results of the survey illustrate important issues on the development of cycling tourism in Greece and establishes policy guidelines useful to stakeholders interested in the development and provision of cycle tourism.

Elina Tsitoura, Paris Tsartas, Efthymia Sarantakou, Alexios-Patapios Kontis

Evaluating the Economic Impact of Active Sports Tourism Events: Lessons Learned from Cyprus

It is widely acknowledged that Major Sport or Mega Sport Events have a huge economic impact and help in promoting sports tourism at the host destination. In fact, many works examine and demonstrate the economic impact of major (passive) sport events, but the importance of active sports events in promoting sports tourism is scarcely examined in the literature. This paper outlines, examines, and critically describes the case study of “Active Sports Events for Tourism”. This case study aims at exploring the economic impact of active sports events, through a major international swimming event performed in Cyprus. The work is performed in the Research-in-Startups local project, which developed a web platform and recommender system dedicated to a niche market (i.e., active sports events) and conducted a survey with a sample of $$N = 51\left( {{\text{out of the}}\,512} \right)$$ N = 51 out of the 512 participants in an international swimming event. The emphasis in this paper is placed on the analysis of the survey results, which demonstrates the economic impact of active sports events and the potential that such events offer to the growth of a niche market; i.e., active sports tourism.

Achilleas Achilleos, Christos Markides, Michalis Makrominas, Andreas Konstantinides, Rafael Alexandrou, Effie Zikouli, Elena Papacosta, Panos Constantinides, Leondios Tselepos

The Effects of PUSH and PULL Factors on Spectators’ Satisfaction Attitudes. A Mediation Analysis of Perceived Satisfaction from a Small-Scale Sport's Event

The purpose of this study was to identify spectators–visitors’ motivation by PUSH and PULL factors that affected their satisfaction attitudes toward a small-scale sport's event in Skyros Island, and Greece. This paper aims to explore empirically the causal relationships among travel motivations of spectators–visitors and their satisfaction perceptions on the organization of a small-scale sport's event by local authorities, and the image of destination hosted the sport event. 108 non-local visitors who attended Skyros Half-Marathon were defined as spectators and used as sample of the study. A structured questionnaire was employed as a tool in collecting the primary data, conducted in Skyros, on September 15, 2018. In order to distinguish the factors of motivational and satisfaction attitudes, a principal component analysis was applied, providing two components for independent (PUSH and PULL) and two for dependent variable (satisfaction of sport’s event organization and destination satisfaction). The classification of PUSH–PULL-based motives and satisfaction attitudes suggested the construct of theoretical conceptual framework, as linear regression and path analyses tested research hypotheses. The findings revealed that PUSH motivations would influence mainly the spectators’ satisfaction of sport’s event organization, and PULL motivations would accordingly lead to higher destination satisfaction. The results of mediation analysis showed that neither PUSH, nor PULL factor indirectly affect spectators’ satisfaction of sport's event destination through spectators’ satisfaction of sport’s event organization. Discussion and recommendation were concluded this summary, providing empirical evidences to policy makers, event organizers, and destination managers, in order to facilitate them to understand the travel motivations of specific target groups and assist them to develop sustainable strategies and plans for local tourism development.

Konstantinos Mouratidis, Maria Doumi

Strategic Negotiation Factors in Participating at Recreational Sport Activities Aiming at the Well-being and the Presentation of Perma Scale for the Greek Population

The engagement of people with physical activity is an indication in modern societies of the physical, spiritual and mental health as well as of the living standards and quality of life of the community. The creation of green recreation areas contributes to the increase of individual viability and quality of life by connecting modern people to the natural environment. They promote both outdoor physical activities and social activities as well as mental health. The purpose of this research is as follows: (a) to investigate the negotiating strategies for engaging in recreational sports and how they are associated with well-being and (b) to adjust the PERMA-profiler questionnaire for the Greek population, on a sample of 233 people living in the urban area of Athens in Greece. This research tested the link between different profiles and negotiation strategies. The PERMA-profiler scale provides another tool for the wellness measurement toolbox and demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties in a large, varied, international sample and was piloted in the present study in the urban area of Athens. This tool, combined with negotiation strategies, would help people understand better themselves, note their strengths and weaknesses and find ways to develop more fully in life while exercising.

Georgia Yfantidou, Alexia Noutsou, Panagiota Balaska, Evangelos Bebetsos, Alkistis Papaioannou, Eleni Spryridopoulou

Exploring Scuba Diving Tourism Sector in Malta and Its Sustainable Impact on the Island

Scuba diving is not only a sport, but a niche sector contributing to Malta’s tourism product. During 2018, 4.9% of all inbound tourists were motivated to visit Malta by scuba diving, whereas if one includes those who decided to try it during their stay, the figure goes to 6.5%, which in numeric terms translates to a total of almost 170,000 people. This entails the use of marine environment which outlines the issue of sustainability. Therefore, the scope of this study is to examine legislation and its enforcement in relation to scuba diving but also other sectors ‘competing’ within the marine environment such as fishing and vessel anchoring. A qualitative approach was adopted, where interviews were held with the key stakeholders within the sector. Secondary research was also carried out, in particular documentary analysis of all the legislation that may in one way or another affect the scuba diving sector. A key document was a master plan for the diving industry that was conceived in 2011 and still in the process of implementation. The findings suggest that more laws are needed especially regarding protection of the marine environment upon which the industry depends. However, many of the stakeholders interviewed see the enforcement of existing marine-related legislation as insufficient. They pointed out the lack of coordination between the different bodies entrusted with different aspects of marine law enforcement. A solution would be to have one body with representatives from all the agencies to ensure better coordination of enforcement efforts.

Simon Caruana, Tiffany Sultana

eSports Tourism: Sports Tourism in a Modern Tourism Environment

One of the challenges emerging from the ever-growing tourism market is the utilization of new technologies and trends to create new and attractive tourism products. eSports are a modern Web-oriented, technological trend that has the potential to create new tourism products and destinations. The “eSports tourism” has many similarities to traditional sports tourism, with the exception that the main attraction, in the case of eSports tourism, is that the speculators are watching video game players instead of athletes participating in traditional individual or team sports. The worldwide growing market of eSports with a buyer size of $906 million in 2018 (Influencer Marketing Hub. (2020). https://influencermarketinghub.com/growth-of-esports-stats/ ) creates promising opportunities for the development of eSports tourism in Greece as well. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the potentials of such a special tourism form by studying and describing the context of eSports tourism, under the following aspects: (a) the consuming behavior of a eSports tourists, (b) the economic impact, in terms of tourism-related revenue, mainly spread in the destination, and (c) the case of eSports tourism as an event or congress tourism form as well as its differences with sports tourism and other special and alternative tourism forms. The opportunities arising in Greece and especially in cities like Patras are discussed, mostly due to the congress venues and the existing technological infrastructures. The paper is conceptual and the methodology followed focuses mainly on Internet research, related articles, social media, and scientific papers.

Ioannis A. Nikas, Ioulia Poulaki

Nostalgia Sport Tourism: An Examination of an Underestimated Post-event Tourism Proposal

Sport has been the predominant incentive in numerous expressions of the tourism demand and offer. Despite the gigantic and comprehensive literature produced during the last few decades related to the sport tourism phenomenon, the ‘nostalgia’ sport tourism type has been overlooked and thus is in need for further analysis. Sport events historical sites, venues’ magnitude and architectural significance, and more vividly, funs emotions constitute a complex but also an appealing tourism proposal especially after the completion of large sport events. With the contemporary inclusion of technology, the sport nostalgia experience could be enhanced further leading to new tourism development paths combining different leisure industries. The study investigates the role of the sport bodies, the local cultural/historical organizations, and the tourism business that consist the policy community needed to materialize related proposals especially post-events. Paradoxically, this sport tourism approach despite its powerful role in creating cultural, societal, sport, and tourism synergies around the historical sport events areas, venues, and legacies remains underestimated by scholars, policymakers, and the industry. The present study uses cross-case analysis and theoretical paradigms to conceptually set the basis of a generalizable platform for future planners through the understanding of all critical aspects involved in the development of nostalgia sport tourism post-events.

Ourania Vrondou

The Role of Sports Tourism Infrastructures and Sports Events in Destinations Competitiveness

This study reports two thematic areas that have been very relevant, in the last years, to Oporto as a tourism destination, focusing on attraction and competitiveness: sports and tourism. In this context, this research aims to understand the relevance of sports tourism, in Oporto as a tourism destination, using the analysis of two infrastructures, relevant to the city, which are still poorly explored, the Dragão Stadium and the FC Porto Museum. This study intends to be an important contribution to the scientific literature in the field of sports tourism, namely in the relationship between the Porto Football Club and Oporto as a tourism destination, regarding the definition of future strategies for collaboration and strengthening partnerships in a competitive perspective for both. Visioning the research objectives, a quantitative methodology was employed through the application of a questionnaire to 400 tourists/visitors in the city of Oporto. The data gathered confirm that the main reasons for the trip influence the visit to the Dragão stadium and the FC Porto Museum, and the assistance to a football game at the Dragão stadium influences the visit to the Dragão Stadium and the FC Porto Museum.

Dália Liberato, Pedro Liberato, Catarina Moreira

Sustainable Tourism

Frontmatter

Case Study Protocol for the Analysis of Sustainable Business Models

This paper is encompassed in the process of the development of a theory about sustainability. Our aim is to present a case study protocol for performing multiple-case studies about corporate sustainability. It has been designed according to the methodology about case study research. It includes a combination of frameworks that will help researchers to draw and understand how sustainability is integrated through the value chain of the company, and it also has a set of questions that will help to know the environmental practices that the target company deploys from a strategic point of view to the most common operations. Finally, once all the information has been retrieved, it will be possible to identify the way that value generated by sustainability practices flows through the company’s activities and the way customers perceive it.

Joaquin Sanchez-Planelles, Marival Segarra-Oña

Examining the Relationship Between Tourism Seasonality and Saturation for the Greek Prefectures: A Combined Operational and TALC-Theoretic Approach

Tourism seasonality is a major issue for regional and tourism development because it concerns the uneven distribution of tourism demand that tourism destinations have throughout the year. This phenomenon is complex and is related to sustainable tourism development to the extent that it concerns very resource-intensive tourism activities during the period of high demand, while it delivers a large volume of inactive tourism capital the rest period of the year. Within this context, this paper examines the relationship between tourism seasonality and saturation of the Greek prefectures, on data referring to overnight tourist stays for the period 1998–2018. The analysis builds on the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) theory to measure tourism saturation and on operational research to compute an indicator capturing tourism seasonality, for the period being under consideration. The available variables are compared by using empirical and statistical techniques, which allow classifying the Greek prefectures into groups in accordance with their combined saturation and seasonal performance. The analysis provides insights about the relationship between tourism seasonality and saturation and allows distinguishing the geographical patterns emerging by the common consideration of these variables, for the case of Greece. The overall approach proposes a useful quantitative tool for tourism management and regional development because it allows considering in common the temporal and spatial dimensions of the tourism seasonality phenomenon.

Thomas Krabokoukis, Dimitrios Tsiotas, Serafeim Polyzos

Sustainable Tourism Development in the Ionian Islands. The Case of Corfu Island

This manuscript analyzed a priori the major trends and key figures of tourism in Greece, Ionian Islands region, and Corfu Island over the last decade, and attempts to explore the emergence of sustainable tourism development for Corfu Island, based on special interest tourism and alternative tourism products that should be considered as the key axis of local tourism development, providing a pattern of tourism development aimed to the balance among local community, economy and the environment of the area. Principal parameters of sustainable tourism, factors underlying the importance of Special Interest Tourism (SIT), and Alternative Tourism products and sustainability indicators, such as Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) for Ionian Islands region, have also been discussed in this survey. The methodology used is the critical review of the existing literature and the bibliographic references described more of an illustration of the topic. Results, discussion, and implications conclude this summary reporting the parameters for sustainable tourism development in Corfu Island, as the implementation of sustainable development programmes can systemically be developed and delivered at the local level by local authorities, government, private and public sector executives and with the participation of local community, in order to reproduce the “locality” as a key factor for local tourism development. The success of sustainable programmes for tourism development can lead to the protection of the environment and historical- cultural characteristics of each region and determine the long-run benefits of the sustainability agenda, providing products and activities that were thought to be more appropriate than conventional mass tourism.

Konstantinos Mouratidis

Sustainable Tourism; Vector of the Social and Solidarity Economy: Case of Region Souss Massa, South of Morocco

Tourism industry is placed among the largest industries in the world. However, the degrading effects of tourism have become a big concern and need to be addressed quickly. With this in mind, the concept of sustainable tourism has emerged with the aim of reducing the negative effects of tourism activities, which has become almost universally accepted as a desirable and politically appropriate approach to tourism development (Sharpley, 2003). In recent decades, sustainable tourism has been one of the most significant subjects among academics and practitioners. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review will be presented in order to clarify, categorize, and interpret the current research on sustainable tourism definitions and its role in Social and Solidarity Economy in the region of Souss Massa. Hence, the research question is how does the development of sustainable tourism promote socio-economic growth in the Souss Massa region located in the south of Morocco. The choice of this region is due to the fact that today, tourism in Morocco is largely focused on this particular region, which represents more than half of international overnight stays. This geographic concentration does not highlight the full potential of Morocco. This is why a new policy of development has been launched. It is hoped that this paper provides the needs of researchers and practitioners with easy references for sustainable tourism and its definitions and applications, and also presents future research opportunities.

Asma Edaoudi, M’bark Houssas, Abdelhaq Lahfidi

Overtourism and Tourism Carrying Capacity: A Regional Perspective for Greece

Tourism can be a powerful economic growth driver but also a risk to ongoing development of a region or even a country, if not managed correctly. It will only be sustainable if developed and managed considering both visitors and local communities. The aim of this study is to explore open data quantitative analysis through the construction of two composite indicators measuring overtourism and tourism carrying capacity in specific geographical regions. By evaluating these indices in the 13 administrative regions in Greece, one can easily identify regions that are close to saturation level as well as regions that have potential for further tourism development in the country. Hence, these indicators can be a useful tool for planning tourism policy that respects the specificities and the limits of the regions, protecting a destination from overtourism and averting tourism development from becoming an overwhelming constraint to the growth of the region, the well-being of the local population, and the satisfaction of visitors.

Sophia Panousi, George Petrakos

Tourism Transportation Services Provided on the Principle of Sharing Economy

The article deals with the issue of transportation services, provided on the principle of the sharing economy. It is focused on Slovakia, a country where the sharing economy is a new concept and legislation is only gradually being formed. The aim of the paper is to analyze the public's awareness of transport services provided on the principle of sharing economy, their usage and motivation of potential providers of such services. The article provides answers to the research questions: What is the motivation for the potential providers of the transportation services in the sharing economy platforms? What needs to be changed in Slovakia in order to expand the possibilities of the offering the tourism transportation services provided on the principle of the sharing economy? The article uses the results of the primary research carried out by the method of questioning by the technique of structured questionnaire conducted with the current and potential users and providers of the transportation services provided on the principle of the sharing economy (727 respondents).

Radka Marčeková, L’ubica Šebová, Kristína Pompurová, Ivana Šimočková

Integration of Sustainable Practices in Firms: The Specifics of the Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Sectors

At this point, sustainability is a business imperative for companies all around the world and one of the keys to guaranteeing their long-term prosperity. In our current society, there is an increasing commitment to sustainability, which is evidenced through a growing sustainable social consciousness, and efforts that are being made by international organizations and governments to develop new regulations and policies. Thus, firms’ approach toward sustainable practices has also changed. From an inconspicuous role, mostly evidenced through corporate philanthropy, sustainable considerations have evolved to be a key topic considered as a business imperative. Geographical areas and industries approach sustainability differently, and there is a wide spectrum of patterns regarding sustainability integration tools, triggers, and the implementation of these practices. In the case of firms related to the tourism, leisure and hospitality industries, many sustainability management practices are put in place. This paper explores the three dimensions of sustainability; environmental, social and economic, showing best practices developed by firms belonging to the above sectors. On the environmental dimension, practices target the creation of a more eco-friendly service or product along with the focus on improving resource efficiency related to energy and water consumption and reduce waste. On the social side, practices focus on increasing the well-being of the community or the staff, frequently merging both through the promotion of local employability and training. Finally, the economic dimension is mainly evidenced by cost-saving initiatives.

Inés Díez Martínez, Ángel Peiró Signes

Trending World Changes

Frontmatter

Environmentally Friendly Tourists Ιn Morocco

The global threat of climate change, diminishing natural resources, and significant socio-economic inequalities is forcing companies and individuals to evaluate the impact they are having on the natural, social, and economic environments. This trend has led to an increased availability and demand for socially, environmentally, and economically responsible products. The tourism industry relies heavily on the sustained beauty and hospitality of the places and communities it operates in and has come under pressure to manage its negative and positive impacts. Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations, and national, regional, and local authorities in order to cover a wide group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. This paper investigates the current situation of what tourist behavior can be considered as sustainable and little consensus about who environment-friendly tourists are. This study reviews theoretical and empirical studies by tourism researchers and explores work done on environmentally friendly behavior.

Charef Kenza, D. M. Bark Houssas

Tourism and Contact Tracing Apps in the COVID-19 Era

The COVID-19 pandemic brought major changes to humanity in a very short period of time. Things that had been established for years no longer apply and a “new normal” has been abruptly introduced into people's lives. At a time when the global tourism industry is struggling to restart, this paper looks at how tourism destinations around the world could benefit by adopting contact tracing applications. The authors argue for a contact tracing application implementation in tourism and propose possible improvements to the Apple/Google implementation of the Exposure Notification System. These improvements include a notification feedback mechanism that will potentially improve the validity of future notifications and a built-in global COVID-19 information feature. Findings acquired through a survey conducted in Greece are analyzed with the aim to investigate whether a contact tracing app is considered useful by the public, tourism destinations and local health authorities.

Agisilaos Konidaris, Ourania Stellatou, Spyros E. Polykalas, Vicky Katsoni

Tourism Customer Attitudes During the COVID-19 Crisis

Tourism is an escape door to a better, nicer, cleaner and most of all peaceful world—the world of dreamed and long-awaited vacation, which rejuvenates with positive emotional experiences for the time our next escape. In the era of global tourism, every whim can be satisfied at a very reasonable price, every destination is relatively affordable, and every tourist is a citizen of the world. Although the tourism development was on cloud nine, there were at least a dozen thunder clouds during the past few decades, such as economic, social and political crises and unrests, pandemics, terrorists’ attacks, natural and man-made disasters, climate change and last but certainly not least the current pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the outbreak COVID-19. Could this be the extinction of the global tourism or at least the end of its golden ages? Therefore, the aim of the report is to establish Bulgarian tourists’ attitudes towards travelling before and after the COVID-19 crisis. The elaborations are made by the computer language Python and a Web-based interactive computing environment for creating documents—Jupyter Notebook, in order to answer the above question, analysing a survey implementing statistical models and tools. The research data are primary and were derived of a questionnaire survey of 121 individual respondents. Consequently, the research results outline the extent to which customers incline to travel before, in the post-self-isolation period and after the crisis. The survey can be used as a model for data analysis of tourist’s attitudes towards during crises.

Ivanka Vasenska, Blagovesta Koyundzhiyska-Davidkova

Solo Female Travelers as a New Trend in Tourism Destinations

Currently, several new trends are emerging in the tourism demand. One of them is an independent travel, which is becoming more and more attractive among women. Women are increasingly emancipated, longing for rest, new discoveries and adventures. The subject of the research is solo female travelers, whose independent traveling represents a new trend in tourism. The paper contains an analysis of the requirements and preferences of women in terms of independent traveling, which is a basis for product creation for this segment. The study of demand represents a starting point for the creation of desired products, which can stimulate an increase in the independent participation of women in tourism in Slovakia. Making the offer of products in Slovakia more attractive can thus reduce the tendency to prefer visiting destinations abroad and help to support the tourism after Coronavirus crisis. The expected benefit of the paper is an increase in awareness of the segment and its requirements and needs when traveling in Slovakia and abroad, which may have a positive impact on participation in domestic and inbound tourism in Slovakia.

Lubica Sebova, Kristina Pompurova, Radka Marcekova, Alica Albertova

Strategic Hotel Management in the “Hostile” International Environment

This paper examines the perspectives of using effective strategic management in the hotel industry in order to overcome the extended difficulties of the hostile international environment. Hotels are facing increasing challenges. Globalization, high competition of different tourism markets, technological developments, political and social circumstances (such as coronavirus), various needs and demands of multinational customers and many other factors are leading hotel industry to activate a more strategic perspective in order to deal successfully with the elements affecting them. The international developments gradually lead even small hotel enterprises to adopt extensive tools of strategic management in order to increase their competiveness. The article is aimed at exploring the increasing necessity of using extending strategic management approaches to anticipate threats and possible opportunities by exploiting the advantages and dealing with the weak features of hotel enterprises, providing a framework of interrelated issues based on the existing literature in this research field.

Ioannis Rossidis, Dimitrios Belias, Labros Vasiliadis

Strategic Human Resource Management in the International Hospitality Industry. An Extensive Literature Review

This review takes an evolutionary perspective on the development of strategic human resource management literature. Managing human resources strategically, provides to a hotel business the opportunity to develop its plans for recruitment, training, and compensation based on the goals of the organization, ensuring a greater chance of organizational success. The paper focuses on how the field has evolved to its current state, articulates many of the major findings and contributions, and discusses how its potential future evolution. This approach contributes to the field of strategic human resource management by analyzing cases and good practices from the international environment. The article is aimed at exploring human resource management from a strategic perspective, tracing and exploiting effective managerial approaches of hospitality industry in the global environment.

Ioannis Rossidis, Dimitrios Belias, Labros Vasiliadis

From Mass Tourism and Mass Culture to Sustainable Tourism in the Post-covid19 Era: The Case of Mykonos

One of the key challenges that tourist destinations have to face today is mass tourism and its impact on local culture. Indeed, during the past years, tourist development had relied on mass tourism, which meant that the destinations had to accommodate a significant number of tourists, something that had an impact on the destination’s culture. Such an example is the case of Mykonos. This a case of an island that has constructed its brand name as a high-end cosmopolitan destination by including mass tourist activities on its product offering but also with mass culture activities, such as major dance music events. Nonetheless, the current situation has found Mykonos, like many other destinations, without tourist demand and with the need to reposition its tourist product. In the post-covid19 tourist industry, it seems that sustainable tourism can be the answer on how Mykonos shall develop so as to recover from the current crisis. Therefore, the suggested strategy is to shift from mass tourism and mass culture into sustainable tourism and emphasis high culture. This means that the destination will have to rely on a “less tourists and more income per tourist” model of development while Mykonos can focus on cultural tourism as part of its shift into sustainable tourism.

Konstantinos Skagias, Labros Vasiliadis, Dimitrios Belias, Papademetriou Christos

Smart Analysis of Volatility Visualization as a Tool of Financial and Tourism Risk Management

Volatility is important for option traders because it affects options prices. Generally, higher volatility makes options more valuable, and vice versa. During periods of high volatility, financial markets are relatively more efficient. Volatility falls when markets rise and rise as markets fall. This paper focuses on examining the dynamics of European capital markets, S&P 500, GEPU, and VIX. Also, we observe the performance of S&P 500, Stoxx 600, and Stoxx Europe 600 Travel and Leisure price index. The analyzed period is 2003–2016. The results show that studied stock indices tend to move synchronously during the examined period. We register a high level of volatility for the period 2007–2011. The first major bottom of VIX is in December 2007. We can conclude that there is a strong correlation between VIX, GEPU, and S&P500 measuring “investor risk appetite”. GEPU fluctuates around consistently high levels since mid-2011 until the beginning of 2013. The dynamics of GEPU and VIX are not synchronized for the period 2013–2016. In the crisis period, travel and leisure stock performance lower because of increasing global uncertainty.

Ani Stoykova, Mariya Paskaleva

The Productivity Puzzle in Cultural Tourism at Regional Level

The distribution of labour productivity of tourism firms across regions has not received considerable attention until now. To address this concern, an empirical analysis at firm level is used to calculate the labour productivity across seven Portuguese NUTS II regions. Using data from 2866 firms’ financial reports obtained from SABI database, over four years, this paper analyses the regional inequalities and its consequences in terms of economic and tourism development. The findings show that, at the national level, the mean labour productivity has increased around 1.9% on average from 2015 to 2017 and dropped 3.9% in 2018. At the regional level, the results suggest that firm performance regarding productivity is not related to the dynamics observed in neighbouring regions but to the resources and conditions available in each region separately. Such results confirm the assumption of spatial inequality in the distribution of labour productivity among cultural tourism firms. The results presented in the article can be of significant use to further understand the productivity dimension of tourism production at regional level. Finally, by identifying the areas where tourism management needs to be improved, this paper provides suggestions on measures to increase regional productivity and thus regional competitiveness.

Eleonora Santos, Inês Lisboa, Jacinta Moreira, Neuza Ribeiro

Factors Affecting Destinations

Frontmatter

Capital Structure Determinants of Greek Hotels: The Impact of the Greek Debt Crisis

This paper studies the firm-specific determinants of capital structure during the period of debt crisis utilizing panel data of 120 Greek hotel firms during the period of 2003–2016. A random effect panel regression analysis was performed on firm-specific determinants of capital structure before (2003–2010) and after (2011–2016) the Greek sovereign debt crisis. This study tests the efficiency of trade-off theory and pecking order theory, finding that asset tangibility is directly and positively related to total leverage and long-term leverage especially during the debt crisis period, while non-debt tax shields and tax payments are negatively and significantly impacting total leverage for both sub-periods. Finally, growth opportunities seem to have a differential impact on both total and long-term leverage between the pre- and post-crisis periods. Specifically, firms with high growth opportunities were associated with lower long-term and total leverage after the crisis suggesting a reduction of growth firms’ debt exposure during that period. This is the first study in the literature considering a vast sample of non-listed hotel firms and utilizing a sample period before the Greek sovereign debt crisis; thus, we are able to extract more efficient inferences regarding the impact of firm-specific determinants on the capital structure of hotel corporations.

Panagiotis E. Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos Koronios

Human Resource Empowerment and Employees’ Job Satisfaction in a Public Tourism Organization: The Case of Greek Ministry of Tourism

This paper aims to examine: (a) the extent to which human resource empowerment is applied to the Greek Ministry of Tourism, (b) the extent to which the job satisfaction of employees was existed in this public tourism organization and (c) the relationship between human resource empowerment and employees’ job satisfaction. For the purpose of this study, two questionnaires were used: (a) the questionnaire of human resource empowerment (developed by Vogt, Empowerment in organizations: how to spark exceptional performance, University Associates Inc, USA, 1990 and modified and simplified by Kriemadis (2011) Proceedings the 19th international congress on physical education and sport, ICPES; Komotini and Papaioannou (2011) Proceedings of the 19th international congress on physical education and sport, ICPES, Komotini), and (b) the questionnaire of employees’ job satisfaction (developed by Warr et al J Occup Psychol 52:129–148, 1979). The sample was composed by 142 full-time employees of the Greek Ministry of Tourism. The participants were surveyed by using 48 items (variables) in a questionnaire. The results of the data analysis indicated that human resource empowerment is applied to a mediocre extent by the Greek Ministry of Tourism, while the overall employees’ job satisfaction was above average. Furthermore, significant and positive relationships among the key factors of human resource empowerment and employees’ job satisfaction were highlighted. This study is useful in extending the concept of human resource empowerment to the public tourism sector. Additionally, the outcomes may be useful in helping directors to further understand the human resource empowerment process in their respective tourism organizations.

Alkistis Papaioannou, George Baroutas, Ioulia Poulaki, Georgia Yfantidou, Alexia Noutsou

The City of Thessaloniki as a Culture Tourism Destination for Israeli Tourist

Culture is the cornerstone where societies have always supported their respective identities. It is a way of life, as long as it expresses not only the values, but also the education, the art, and the daily life of all those who live and work in a society. Thessaloniki has been a multicultural city, gathering populations from different nations and religions over time. The city was a refuge destination for many persecuted Jews in Europe, between 1492 and 1943, which led to the creation of a large Jewish community. As a result, the long tradition combined with the several elements of Jewish cultural interest attracts a large number of tourists from Israel every year. This paper presents the main research results conducted in Thessaloniki regarding tourists’ from Israel motivations and characteristics, but also their main elements of interest. Thessaloniki has all the essential elements, such as history, tradition, monuments, infrastructure, and services for the development of cultural tourism. These, however, need to be improved, so that the city of Thessaloniki becomes a more popular tourist destination for Israelis.

Efstathios Velissariou, Iliostalakti Mitonidou

Place Attachment Genesis: The Case of Heritage Sites and the Role of Reenactment Performances

The literature about place attachment and its role as antecedent of destination loyalty focussed in the last decade on the sunny side of tourism (recreational and beach tourism), more market(ing)-oriented. Despite the considerable growth in heritage, reenactement and place attachment research literature, studies about the later did not test models on the context of heritage tourism, nor assessed the implication of the reenactment activities in visitor’s experiences and their long-term bond genesis. We used correlation, multilinear regression, and mediation analysis in order to explore the perceived instrumental role of reenactment representations in tourists’ experience at heritage sites and how tourists with different levels of reenactment activities seeking, form their complex bond with heritage tourism sites. The results showed that variables such as the strength of destination’s identification with a reenactment site, the tourist’s level of reenactment attending motivation, independent motivation to visit or the perceived role of reenactment in enhancing patriotic feelings explain a significant part of place identity component in place attachment genesis. The evaluation of alternatives inspired from the transactional theory in the functional attachment genesis from the previous place attachment models does not verify, on heritage sites, as a block. The evaluating process of places against alternatives will take place in some cases, but not in others such as heritage sites with great historical significance for their national or social group. The perceived instrumental role of reenactment in the national identity affirmation seems to partially mediate the level of destination’s identification as an impact of the reenactment site’s impact on place identity.

Simona Mălăescu

Conditions for Creating Business Tourism Offers and the Regional Potential in Poland

This paper reports on an empirical analysis of the readiness of Polish regions to develop business tourism products. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of hotel facilities to support business tourism in Poland. The objective of this study was to identify and analysis of the potential of business tourism in Poland, and what internal and external conditions are important for business tourism development. The authors researched these issues by analyzing the statistical data of the Polish Central Statistical Office. Based on the collected data, the components of the business tourism potential were specified. Two analytical methods—Hellwig’s and TOPSIS—were implemented, and then, the strength of interdependence of both rankings was analyzed by using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results of the analysis indicate that particular conditions for shaping business tourism products existing in the country. However, the diversity of business tourism potential in Poland is clearly visible. The highest value of synthetic measures of the potential attractiveness of business tourism was characteristic for those regions which have a wide range of tourist attractions. In order to verify how the regions used their potential to attract business tourists, a comparison of the obtained results and coefficients related to density of tourist movement and Schneider’s intensity of tourist movement was made. The analysis of both indicators showed that some of the Polish regions used their possibilities in an appropriate way.

Ewa Lipianin-Zontek, Zbigniew Zontek

The Role of Fashion Events in Tourism Destinations: DMOs Perspective

Fashion events have the particularity of adding recognition and value to host cities, which is reflected in a competitive advantage over competing destinations. However, the tourism of fashion events is not properly valued by the tourism industry, and therefore, this investigation aims to deepen scientific knowledge about this tourism segment. The general objective of this study is to understand the role of fashion events in the northern region of Portugal, in general, and in the city of Porto as tourism destinations. The selected instrument for data collection was the semi-structured interviews, which were conducted with three representatives of DMO’s. Respondents believe those fashion events held in the city of Porto would be more advantageous for the tourism sector if they were promoted on a wider scale; fashion events have the ability to add value to the city of Porto and are directly related to its image and the personality of the city and its active, cultured and cosmopolitan lifestyle; there is a general concern, by the organization of these events, for the valorisation of tourist resources and emblematic places of the city. Finally, respondents recognize that the participants of the fashion events, in addition to the innovation, presentation, organization and experience of the events, value Portugal, in general, and the city of Porto, in particular as tourism destinations and in this perspective, take advantage of the participation in the event to get to know the city. Most participants return in subsequent editions extend their stay and travel accompanied by family and/or friends.

Dália Liberato, Benedita Barros e Mendes, Pedro Liberato, Elisa Alén

Wellness Tourism Resorts: A Case Study of an Emerging Segment of Tourism Sector in Greece

Wellness tourism has recently been a fast-growing form of tourism, with continuously developing aspects that can produce massive profits. In Greece, health and wellness have been interconnected since the ancient times. The current objective is how to connect wellness to tourism. Wellness resorts are an aspect of wellness tourism which has only recently appeared in Greece. This type of hotels can be successful and competitive toward the resorts that operate abroad only if they focus on combining qualitative and innovative services with the local features of the area in which they operate. This paper aims to fill in the research gap that exists about wellness resorts in Greece, as well as about the specific characteristics of the visitors and the prospects of growth that wellness tourism has in Greece. Initially, it presents statistics related to health and wellness tourism, as well as to wellness resorts in Greece and worldwide. Secondly, it includes the primary research that has been conducted at two levels: The first level of research, which was conducted on the general public, resulted to conclusions on the public’s viewpoints about wellness resorts. The second level of research was conducted on wellness resorts in Greece, in order to define the specific characteristics of their visitors. The study offers conclusions as well as potential policies for the state and the entrepreneurs that can be implemented for the publicity and the promotion of this profitable form of tourism.

Marilena Skoumpi, Paris Tsartas, Efthymia Sarantakou, Maria Pagoni

Digital Innovation

Frontmatter

Policy Responses to Critical Issues for the Digital Transformation of Tourism SMEs: Evidence from Greece

Digitalization affects all links in the tourism value chain, as it transforms the way businesses communicate with tourists, creates new business models, and introduces innovative tourism products to the market. However, tourism businesses present a varying degree of digital transformation, depending on the size and type of business. Tourism SMEs are struggling to remain competitive and reap the benefits of digital transformation. Empowering tourism SMEs in the digital age is increasingly becoming a strategic priority for governance. However, research on policies to enhance the digitalization of tourism SMEs is limited. The paper attempts to fill this gap. Based on a review of official policy documents and governmental and industry associations’ sites, it looks into ongoing policy initiatives in Greece to support the digital transformation of Greek tourism SMEs at a national level. Desk research was coupled with in-depth interviews, conducted in autumn 2019, with key informants in Greek tourism industry associations and in the tourism departments of Regional Authorities. Policies to build digital skills, to support start-ups and bring innovation to the market, to enhance e-governance, and to provide financial assistance have been implemented in Greece to tackle structural barriers to digital transformation owing to the limited resources, the traditional business model, and the state of ownership (family-run businesses) of Greek tourism SMEs. The aforementioned policy responses are in line with critical issues identified in the academic literature and official policy reports at EU and OECD level concerning the digital transformation of tourism SMEs.

Panagiota Dionysopoulou, Konstantina Tsakopoulou

Security and Safety as a Key Factor for Smart Tourism Destinations: New Management Challenges in Relation to Health Risks

The competitiveness of a smart tourist destination is based on its natural and cultural attractions, its tourism infrastructures and facilities, and the quality of the services it has to offer. These services include security and safety, both of which are key elements in the tourist’s choice of destination. The aim of this paper is to analyse the elements that make up the concepts of security and safety in tourism. Then, a review of the existing literature on security and safety is carried out and a risk classification is presented. A distinction has been made between territorial, socio-economic and political risks as well as the action measures to fight them. In addition, the key factors that influence the tourist’s perception of security have also been addressed. Beyond the personality traits of an individual, other factors such as the visibility and tangibility of how dangerous the risk is, the information about security or the public administration’s capacity to address risks has also been considered. Furthermore, the evolution of security and safety issues in the tourist context has been studied up until the current, unprecedented, situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, together with the importance of knowing how to address new management challenges when faced with health risks.

Salvador Ruiz-Sancho, Maria José Viñals, Lola Teruel, Marival Segarra

An Evaluation of Hotel Websites’ Persuasive Characteristics: A Segmentation of Four–Star Hotels in Greece

The principal scope of the study was to investigate the Greek four-star hotels’ Web sites persuasiveness. In more detail, this research classifies four-star hotels in Greece in clusters in accordance with their Web sites’ persuasiveness, utilizing latent class segmentation. Six factors of Web site persuasiveness (informativeness, usability, credibility, inspiration, involvement, and reciprocity) were examined in a sample consisted of 404 four-star hotels’ Web sites. The outcomes gathered permit to portray critical contrasts on persuasiveness level demonstrated by the sites. The outcomes of the class cluster analysis proposed that the two-cluster arrangement was the most consistent. The present study gives proof of current Web pages persuasiveness and correspondence and guidance for its advancement in a particular hotel industry.

Konstantinos Koronios, Lazaros Ntasis, Panagiotis Dimitropoulos, John Douvis, Genovefa Manousaridou, Andreas Papadopoulos

Pilot Study for Two Questionnaires Assessing Intentions of Use and Quality of Service of Robots in the Hotel Industry

This paper is a pilot study for a questionnaire assessing intentions and expectations of use of robots in the hotel industry, as well as for an adaptation of the quality of service questionnaire Servqual adapted for use with robots in the hotel industry. Toward that aim, a sample of 157 hotel staff and owners in Greece completed the new 28-item intentions questionnaire and the adapted 22-item Servqual questionnaire. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was examined with the use of principal components analysis with direct obliging rotation. Intention and expectations of the use of robots in the hotel industry (Intention-Expectations of Robot Use) were comprised of six factors (convenience and advantages of use of robots in the hotel industry; staff familiarization with new technologies and auxiliary work of robots; anthropomorphic characteristics of robots; absence of concern for human position loss or role change; high cost of buying and using robots; financial improvement in hotels and robot discretion), which showed high and acceptable reliability. Quality of service of robots in the hotel industry (Servqual of Robots) was comprised of three factors (tangibles and reliability; individualized fulfillment of needs; exceptional service), which deviated from the five-factor solution for Servqual (Parasuraman et al., J Retailing 67:420–450, 1991), a finding that may be attributable to the fact that a differential factor structure may be needed to explain quality of service in the novel application of robots in the hotel industry. The three factors of Servqual also showed high reliability. Face validity and content validity were satisfactory for both scales, and there was statistically significant evidence for the concurrent validity of the two scales.

Dimitrios Belias, Labros Vasiliadis

Spatial Patterns of Tourism Activity Through the Lens of TripAdvisor’s Online Restaurant Reviews: A Case Study from Corfu

Researchers seeking robust insights into the spatial distribution of visitors within given destinations are making increasing use of social media user-generated content (UGC) harvested from sources such as TripAdvisor.com, which sheds light on matters such as visitor concentrations and tourist interests. The current paper aims principally to contribute to the literature on the spatial distribution of tourism and to formulate insights which may be leveraged by decision- and policy-makers in the sector. The focus of the paper is the Greek island of Corfu, a well-known holiday destination in the Ionian Sea. An analysis was carried out of reviews of Corfu restaurants left by visitors to the island on TripAdvisor to gain an enhanced understanding of their behavioral patterns. Two approaches were taken to the analysis, namely hot spot, and cluster and outlier (COType). Both yielded valuable data revealing spatial clustering patterns across the island, indicating the extent to which different areas have undergone “tourismification.” These spatial patterns may be used to underpin local-level policy-making by commercial and official bodies in the region. Moreover, insights offered by the current research will be of use in the formulation of strategic tourism plans aimed at improving destination management.

Christina Beneki, Thanassis Spiggos

Online Platforms for Tourist Accommodation from Economic Policy Perspective in Greece: Case for Further Digitalization

People all over the world are increasingly using modern ways of communication when they travel. Tourism contributes a significant share to economic growth in Greece and has been robust in recent years. That was helped by communication and information technologies and new business models that enable households to offer their spare accommodation to tourists via various online platforms. In that respect, it is Internet connectivity and digital skills that are crucial to be able to participate in the digital economy. This paper focuses on the economic viewpoint of digitalization enabled through Internet in Greece. The paper is organized with a twofold aim. On one hand, the aim is, by analysing data from the Eurostat database and other sources, to explore the evolution of digitalization enabled through Internet in Greece in the last few years. On the other hand, by exploring data about financing opportunities available via European Union funds, the aim is to review the argument that, as a result of further digitalization, households’ disposable income would get a boost, and hence, aggregate demand would rise. The conclusion of the in-depth look at the economic argument is that further digitalization would help Greece towards achieving its macroeconomic policy goals. That is crucial considering that the country has very high public debt and that the economy has not yet fully recovered from the financial crisis that started in 2008. This is especially relevant now considering the coronavirus outbreak in the first quarter of 2020 causing a set-back to achieving some goals.

Vesna Luković

The E-Tour Facilitator Platform Supporting an Innovative Health Tourism Marketing Strategy

Health tourism is a special form of tourism that refers to international patients who wish to combine diagnosis, prevention, or treatment with a holiday. In health tourism marketing, services are designed, produced, and promoted in the market to meet specific both health and tourism need or desires of the people who want and can accept them. In general, the rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in tourism sector has led to new touristic and thematic tourism products tailored to the preferences and characteristics of the tourists. The hotel industry could benefit from its cooperation with thematic tourism platforms to address the seasonality, expand its target audience, and enhance the effectiveness of its marketing strategy. Nevertheless, most tourism providers in Greece, being small family businesses, lack the necessary information and communication technologies (and inherent technologies) to become globally competitive. Given the growing trend in the interest in health tourism, this paper aims to present the case of “e-Tour Facilitator Platform,” an intelligent information system aiming at supporting an Innovative Health Tourism Strategy. The platform focuses on the end-users, namely the patients/tourists, matching their profile to characteristics of both medical and tourism services. It exploits state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in order both to help end-users to view/select the proper health tourism product (recommender system) with respect to their profile as well as to automatically handle their comments (text mining) for evaluating purposes.

Constantinos Halkiopoulos, Eleni Dimou, Aristotelis Kompothrekas, Giorgos Telonis, Basilis Boutsinas

The Evolution of Online Travel Agencies in the Last Decade: E-Travel SA as an Exceptional Paradigm

The recent evolution in tourism industry driven by the technological advances is really significant. This paper aims to highlight the development of the online travel agencies (hereinafter OTAs) and the way that technology has contributed to this direction by investigating the case of an OTA company, namely e-Travel SA. The Internet seems to have changed dramatically and in a positive way the tourism industry. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, virtual and augmented reality, Internet of things as well as gamification, offer valuable tools and applications both to businesses and to customers. At the same time, the increased use of mobile devices, digital tools and social media along with the unlimited access to information has made consumers demanding and updated. Consequently, they require more and more useful services based on their needs. Considering the aforementioned, it is easy to understand that marketing strategies of many companies have changed and that these companies are now exploiting the state of the art in digital marketing tools in order to get the best possible result. E-Travel is a real example of the OTAs’ evolution during the last decade, and their success proves that opportunities may be generated by exploiting the technological advancements.

Dimitra Psefti, Ioulia Poulaki, Alkistis Papaioannou, Vicky Katsoni

Do Hotels Care? A Proposed Smart Framework for the Effectiveness of an Environmental Management Accounting System Based on Business Intelligence Technologies

Last decades, tourism, which has grown rapidly worldwide, is highly interconnected with environment quality. Specifically, many activities in hospitality industry have adverse impacts on environment. Hotels are customer-oriented organizations, operating within a complex structure aiming to provide services to people that travel for a variety of reasons, i.e., business, leisure, etc. To provide “guest experience” and gain profit, hotels consume a large amount of resources (energy, water, and non-durable products) which result in creating waste of various kinds and influences the environment in many ways. Firstly, the present paper investigates the characteristics of an Environmental Management Accounting system (EMA). It also illustrates the innovative structure of accounting for the environmental costs which are normally hidden into overheads or are totally ignored. More specifically, this research proposes a smart framework that focuses on the Industry 4.0 innovations in order to collect the appropriate data in a hotel setting. Since a large amount of such data emerges from devices connected to the Internet of things (IoT), business intelligence techniques are proposed for big data analytics. Finally, an EMA system is used to transform data into monetary units. Thus, the proposed smart framework comprises a system of measuring environmental costs in both physical units and in monetary terms for hotels sector, implementing Industry 4.0 elements. This framework can be used as an innovative tool for waste management, and the enhancement of sustainability and environmental protection.

Christos Sarigiannidis, Constantinos Halkiopoulos, Konstantinos Giannopoulos, Fay Giannopoulou, Anastasios E. Politis, Basilis Boutsinas, Konstantinos Kollias

An Innovative Recommender System for Health Tourism

The recommender systems process data for extracting information relevant to the user profile. In this study, we present an innovative recommender system aiming at matching health tourist preferences to health/tourism providers. It focuses on providing complete health tourism products, by matching the user profile to characteristics of both health and tourism service providers, in order that users receive the treatment they choose in the right location, the right period and at the right cost. The proposed recommender system is implemented by applying a facility location problem which employs a parameter that controls the diversity of the recommendation list and thus the variety of the proposed results. It incorporates a database of cases, i.e., medical, wellness and tourism service providers. A case is described by a set of attributes such as medical service category, spa category, wellness category, cost, infrastructure, accreditations, communication languages and so on. Users that have already acquired a health tourism package provide ratings for certain categories of attributes. A new user expresses her preferences in the form of a query, and then, the system tries to match this query to the cases that exist in the database. At first, the best possible cases are extracted, by applying a sorting procedure based on comparisons to the ideal one, i.e., that containing the best ratings for each attribute of the database. Then, the facility location method is applied to provide the final recommended cases to the user that are both similar to the provided query and diverse to each other.

Antiopi Panteli, Aristotelis Kompothrekas, Constantinos Halkiopoulos, Basilis Boutsinas

Cultural Innovation

Frontmatter

Enhancing Revisit Intention Through Emotions and Place Identity: A Case of the Local Theme Restaurant

Food tourism is a unique segment of tourism that contributes to the development of tourist destinations. Recent researches show that local food experience can positively affect trip satisfaction, revisit intention, and destination’s attractiveness. However, there is still a lack of research focusing on the relationship between experience of regional theme restaurants and destination’s place identity. Our study aims to examine the relationships among tourist experience, emotions, and behavioral intentions based on a case of the local-specific theme restaurant Zaboi (“Coalface”) located in Kemerovo, Russia’s largest coal-mining region. Research design is based on a combination of a content analysis of online reviews and a visitors’ survey followed by regression analysis. We focus on various aspects of visitor emotions, behavioral intentions, and relationships between visitor experiences and place identity. In line with previous studies, our results confirm a significant positive relationship between emotions and revisit intention. In addition, our results provide new evidence on the role of place identity in shaping visitors’ emotions. The authentic coal-mining theme provokes a positive emotional response for both tourists and local residents. This response, in turn, is positively associated with intentions to revisit and to recommend.

Alexander M. Pakhalov, Liliya M. Dosaykina

Anticipated Booking on Touristic Attractions: Flamenco Show in Seville

Flamenco is considered such an UNESCO Universal Heritage since 1990. As a tourist attraction in most destinations in Spain, it has special significance in Andalusia and especially in high growth destinations such as Seville. The anticipation of the reservation in a “Tablao” flamenco in Seville and in two periods distinguished by the milestone of the realization of marketing actions by own online channels versus that of external channels and Online Travel Agencies (OTAS) before. To do this, we use a sample of 2759 bookings to a local flamenco show in Seville, of daily representation and that are offered by various channels both online and offline and which the anticipation on the reservation is evaluated. Hence, a logarithmic scale regression is presented in addition to an analysis of associations between different categorical variables. To determine this partnership, machine learning techniques have been used with the Big ML program that leads us to conclusions about advance bookings that can be of practical use in the marketing actions of local tourist attraction operators. As a consequence, a good practice own channels drives to get a better results on booking anticipation based on branding techniques of branding: the purpose of tourist marketing is to anticipate the reservations.

Fernando Toro Sánchez

The Fisheries Local Action Groups (Flags) and the Opportunity to Generate Synergies Between Tourism, Fisheries and Culture

The last two European fisheries funds have provided an opportunity to finance projects seeking the development and job creation in fishing dependent areas. In this line, Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs) have been created and they have been financing different types of projects, many of them linked to fisheries diversification through tourism. A part of these projects is linked to the recovery and enhancement of the marine and fishing culture, which has made possible the creation of a very complete network of maritime museums, cultural routes, etc. This work aims to identify, quantify and characterize cultural projects related to fishing financed in Spain through European fishing funds. A total of 136 cultural projects in five different categories have been found. The most popular projects through the two founding programs are related to tangible and intangible heritage projects and museums. The number of projects more or less maintained throughout the two periods is analyzed. Projects related to routes have been reduced by half from the first founding program, while festival projects more than doubled in the second founding program over the first.

Luis Miret-Pastor, Ángel Peiro-Signes, Marival Segarra-Oña, Paloma Herrera-Racionero

Cultural and Tourism Promotion Through Digital Marketing Approaches. A Case Study of Social Media Campaigns in Greece

Digital Marketing is an emerging interdisciplinary field in the process of designing a successful marketing strategy. A plethora of Social media has transformed radically the way that people interact with their everyday lives. Thus, the integration of social media tools for promoting marketing policies has become an indispensable form of social strategies for all enterprises and organizations. A crucial factor that could augment popularity of an enterprise is through social media campaigns which have a critical role in web page promotion of social networks. The purpose of this work is to present the case study of the European Program named “Regio-Gnosis - Information and updating on cohesion policy in Greece”. The project has launched at May of 2020 and it is based mainly on the use of promoted social media campaigns and many contests with cultural and tourism material. It managed to accomplish its target to reach over 4.5 million people. By analyzing data for the Facebook campaigns of “Regio-Gnosis”, it is examined how helpful are the promoted social media campaigns to the increasing of popularity of a social media page, what is the role of social media contests and how the large audiences can be reached.

Constantinos Halkiopoulos, Maria Katsouda, Eleni Dimou, Antiopi Panteli

Challenges and Opportunities for the Use of Indoor Drones in the Cultural and Creative Industries Sector

This work summarises The AiRT project’s results, achieved jointly by all partners between January 2017 and January 2019. Significant innovative progress has been made in this short period of time. The far-reaching effects on the drone manufacturing industry as a whole, as well as in the cultural and creative industry (CCI), will likely only be precisely quantified in the coming years. This is primarily due to the fact that the innovative integrated indoor positioning system not only brings advantages to the creative industries, but will certainly inspire other industries in the future that will adapt this innovative product to their specific needs. Overall, however, we hope that the AiRT project has drawn attention to the needs of the CCCIs, especially for SMEs, so that they will be able to strengthen their economic position within the EU through the solution we offer.

Virginia Santamarina-Campos, María de-Miguel-Molina, Blanca de-Miguel-Molina, Marival Segarra-Oña

Intangible Cultural Heritage in Spata Greece: From Mythology to Gastronomic Folklore and from Tradition to Contemporary Culture

The article critically engages with the articulations and manifestations of a clear shift UNESCO has made by suggesting a new definition of intangible cultural heritage. The historic development of the notion of intangible cultural heritage within UNESCO is considered in order to explore some of the implication and opportunities that may arise from this shift in approach (Whitaker, 2017). The dynamic nature of culture is now adapted in this new era and greatly encourages the performing and recreation of various cultural expressions. The focus of this paper is on a folklore (intangible cultural activity) taking place in Spata Greece and involves festivities and the communal cooking of a traditional meal. The images of communal co-creation and participation present a living tradition that has been neglected and overlooked for many years. This article, aims to explore the potential for revitalizing and promoting an old tradition, through the use of technology. Issues such as networking, community participation, digital community participation, physical and digital experience and more will be discussed in detail. Using and analyzing the example of Spata, the proposed approach aims at conceiving folklore and intangible heritage not only as the ways of a distant past but also as a symbolic and living space to be appropriated by local communities who are the bearers of a collective and active memory. Following the trend for digital experiences, the new tradition is not only revived or viewed as a representation but it becomes an active agent for creating and promoting social cohesion, sense of community and civic pride far beyond the physical frontiers.

Dionysia Fragkou, Loukia Martha, Maria Vrasida

Silk Road Regionalism and Polycentric Tourism Development

Regionalism as a cognitive paradigm, explains the essence and principles of cooperation between the country (national) and global (supranational) levels of organization of world space. In tourism development the modern concept of regionalism processes of the formation of large multi-dimensional spaces and other territorial groupings (e.g. regional intra-state communities) that have a common cultural code, seeking the most effective use of internal and external factors of tourism development. This may be achieved by constructing a polycentric regional tourism architecture, reorganizing as well as boosting regional tourism and investment patterns being the vital challenge. In this paper analysis is focused on designing a polycentric network of regional tourism destinations related to Silk Road cultural heritage, where interregional tourism alliances will connect regions through entrepreneurial connectivity, based on the notion of polycentricity. Polycentricity indicates the connection of neighboring centres that have common characteristics, and their integration in wider spatial networks. Τhe interest is focused on cross-border linkages among polycentric regional networks of Silk Road cultural heritage destinations, creating tourism development entrepreneurial networks that could take advantage of historically cumulative relations. These polycentric tourism networks may emerge due to a number of factors falling under the rubric of Silk Road regionalisation and its attendant tourism dimensions. The potential for building an interregional Black Sea Silk Road tourism cooperation polycentric network focusing on active societies engaging in new types of cultural tourism experiences is being put in place.

Stella Kostopoulou, Evina Sofianou, Dimitrios Kyriakou
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