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2018 | Book

Cyber Physical Computing for IoT-driven Services


About this book

This book presents the cyber culture of micro, macro, cosmological, and virtual computing. The book shows how these work to formulate, explain, and predict the current processes and phenomena monitoring and controlling technology in the physical and virtual space.The authors posit a basic proposal to transform description of the function truth table and structure adjacency matrix to a qubit vector that focuses on memory-driven computing based on logic parallel operations performance. The authors offer a metric for the measurement of processes and phenomena in a cyberspace, and also the architecture of logic associative computing for decision-making and big data analysis.The book outlines an innovative theory and practice of design, test, simulation, and diagnosis of digital systems based on the use of a qubit coverage-vector to describe the functional components and structures. Authors provide a description of the technology for SoC HDL-model diagnosis, based on Test Assertion Blocks Activated Graph. Examples of cyber-physical systems for digital monitoring and cloud management of social objects and transport are proposed. A presented automaton model of cosmological computing explains the cyclical and harmonious evolution of matter-energy essence, and also a space-time form of the Universe.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Cyber Physical Computing
This section includes the basic definitions, models, and structures of cyber physical computing, as the essence of the Internet of Things (IoT) cyberculture of monitoring and management of virtual and physical processes and phenomena. The main attractors of the development of the IT industry in the next 10 years are represented. An automaton computing model for the creation of cyber physical systems for monitoring and management based on cloud services is described. An evolutionary classification of architectural computing solutions in time and space is represented. A perspective on ways of development of cyber physical computing for moral solving of technological, technical, biological, social, and cosmological problems related to the future of humanity is given.
Vladimir Hahanov, Eugenia Litvinova, Svetlana Chumachenko, Anna Hahanova
Chapter 2. Multiprocessor Architecture for Big Data Computing
The architecture of a vector logical multiprocessor for parallel analysis of big data in cyberspace aimed at searching, pattern recognition, and decision making is proposed. Vector logical architectures for solving market-focused problems are investigated, including embedded diagnosis and repair of digital system-on-a-chip components. The quality of the problem solution is estimated by an innovative nonarithmetic metric of Boolean vector comparison.
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Eugenia Litvinova, Alexander Adamov
Chapter 3. Big Data Quantum Computing
A universal criterion and structures for evaluating the quality of object interaction in deterministic cyberspace through the use of only logical operations to determine the distances between the processes and phenomena by developing high-performance parallel processors, focused on effectively solving the problems of searching, pattern recognition, and decision making, is proposed. The quality evaluation criterion for computing structures is represented. The criterion is focused for choosing the best topology, leveraging the sum of all paths between pairs of nodes and the number of edges in the graph. The advantages of triangular cyberspace for the creation of reliable and high-performance cyber physical systems and networks, which stay in operation with a large number of failed connections, are shown. An innovative model of quantum computing is proposed to solve the coverage problem, which leverages the Hasse structure to significantly increase the performance of vector logical operations on big data represented in the form of tables.
Vladimir Hahanov, Eugenia Litvinova, Svetlana Chumachenko, Tetiana Soklakova, Irina Hahanova
Chapter 4. Qubit Description of Functions and Structures for Service Computing Synthesis
Qubit models for defining structures and functionalities are developed to improve the performance of the analysis of digital devices by increasing the dimensions of the data and memory structures. The basic concepts, terminology, and definitions necessary for the implementation of quantum computation in the practice of modeling computer structures are introduced. Examples proving the efficiency of qubit data structures for parallel operations on the data are represented. “Quantum” data structures for synthesis of digital systems based on transactions between addressable memory components to implement any functionality are also proposed. A new approach of logic function minimization for synthesis of digital systems is proposed. It uses a vector form (quantum) of combinational and sequential structure description for implementation in memory elements. This approach differs markedly from the common synthesis theory of discrete devices based on truth tables of components. It is based on an opportunity to apply quantum or qubit data structures (Nielsen and Chuang, Quantum computation and quantum information. Cambridge University Press, 2010; Whitney, Practical fault tolerance for quantum circuits. PhD dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, 2009; Nfrfhara, Quantum computing. An overview. Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, 2010; Kurosh, The course of higher algebra. Publishing House Nauka, Moscow, 1968; Gorbatov, Basics of discrete mathematics. Higher School, Moscow, 1986) in modern computers when making calculating processes with the purpose of unary coding states of input, internal and output variables, and also the technology of qubit vector implementation in FPGA memory elements, which realize combinational and sequential primitives. The use of quantum memory-only-based models for describing digital components in computer systems design would allow researcher to increase yield, enhance the reliability of computers, make the process of design and production of devices cheaper, and also provide remote and online human-free repairs.
Ivan Hahanov, Igor Iemelianov, Mykhailo Liubarskyi, Vladimir Hahanov
Chapter 5. Quantum Computing for Test Synthesis
The methods and hardware/software implementations of quantum parallel synthesis of tests based on Boolean derivatives for black box logic defined by qubit coverage are represented. A theoretical background of methods application and assessment of their effectiveness for a wide class of digital circuits implemented in programmable logic devices are given. Innovative methods for taking Boolean derivatives and deductive fault simulation for functional elements described by qubit coverage are proposed. The structure of the processor for fault and fault-free simulation to address problems of test synthesis and fault diagnosis, which can be implemented in a system-on-a-chip (SoC) I-IP infrastructure or cloud service, is shown. Numerous examples show easy implementation of methods for the development of built-in self-test (BIST) infrastructure and cloud service components for SoC design and verification.
Vladimir Hahanov, Tamer Bani Amer, Igor Iemelianov, Mykhailo Liubarskyi
Chapter 6. QuaSim Cloud Service for Quantum Circuit Simulation
A cloud service, QuaSim, designed for fault-free simulation and verification of a system on a chip (SoC), based on interactions between the addressable memory primitives representing any functionality, is proposed. An innovative idea for synthesis and analysis of digital systems, leveraging the qubit vector form of logical and sequential structures implemented in the memory elements, is described. It is substantially different from the discrete device design theory based on truth tables of the circuit components. Quantum or qubit data structures are used for implementation of computational processes in order to improve the performance of digital systems analysis and reduce memory volume through unary state coding of circuit signals (input, internal, and output), and also insertion of qubit vectors in PLD memory components, which realize logical and sequential elements. Leveraging qubit memory-driven models for digital component description of computer system design directly affects the increase in yield. It allows improvements in the dependability, reliability, and quality of computing, reducing the time to market, reducing design and manufacturing expenses, and providing online human-free remote repair.
Ivan Hahanov, Tamer Bani Amer, Igor Iemelianov, Mykhailo Liubarskyi, Vladimir Hahanov
Chapter 7. Computing for Diagnosis of HDL Code
This chapter describes a structural method for system-on-a-chip (SoC) Hardware Description Language (HDL) model diagnosis, based on redundancy, called a Transaction-Level Test Assertion Blocks Activated Graph (TABA graph). The structural method of faulty block diagnosis is aimed at decreasing the time needed for detection of faulty HDL blocks and the memory needed for storage of a Test Assertion Blocks Activated Matrix (TABA matrix) in the hardware design. The objects are solved: creation of an HDL assertion-based transaction-level graph and fault detection table of HDL blocks, as a matrix for activation of the functional HDL components by leveraging the selected assertions and test patterns; creation of diagnosability metrics for evaluation of an assertion-driven HDL diagnosis model; and development of a method for assertion-driven analysis of the activation matrix to diagnose errors in blocks with the given depth of the HDL code. The developed structures and method for assertion-driven diagnosis are implemented in the design verification software tools.
Vladimir Hahanov, Eugenia Litvinova, Svetlana Chumachenko
Chapter 8. Qubit Computing for Digital System Diagnosis
A theory and case studies of quantum models, methods, and algorithms for improving the performance of existing software and hardware applications for analyzing digital computing devices due to increasing the dimension of the data structures and memory, aimed at simultaneously storing states under processing, are proposed. The results of investigations regarding models and methods for diagnosing digital systems, fault-free simulation, and repairing faulty primitives are offered.
Vladimir Hahanov, Svetlana Chumachenko, Eugenia Litvinova
Chapter 9. Cloud Service Computing: The “Smart Cyber University”
The cyberculture of the smart university creates the social significance of technological leadership. The Internet and cyberspace change all the processes of life of each person. It is necessary to create a new market-oriented model of scientific and educational processes within the smart cyber university (SCU). The concept integrates the achievements of classical universities, technological cyberculture, and humans’ desire for perfection through continuous education throughout their lives. The basis of the SCU is the structural organization of a cyber physical system, focused on cloud management of scientific and educational processes through precise digital monitoring. The structure of the classical university includes the following components, which have to be digitized: science, education, human resources, infrastructure, relationships, management, road maps, resources, and products. Legitimate relations are the main part of the SCU, which are based on a metric for measuring the quality of all processes and phenomena. This makes it possible to completely eliminate corruption in the processes of resource distribution and personnel management through metric evaluation of the activities of university departments and employees. SCU cloud services are focused on developing countries in order to help progressive university leaders to eliminate corruption, implement paperless technology for monitoring and management of scientific and educational processes, and significantly reduce time costs for organizing educational and scientific processes through online cooperation. Cloud–mobile management of the SCU based on metric measurement of all processes allows attraction of foreign investment in scientific research and improves the quality of educational services and scientific results, the performance of the creative work of scientists, and their standard of living.
Vladimir Hahanov, Oleksandr Mishchenko, Eugenia Litvinova
Chapter 10. Transportation Computing: “Cloud Traffic Control”
The new cyber technological culture of transport control based on virtual road signs and streetlight signals on the screen of the car is the future of humanity. A cyber physical system (CPS) of smart cloud traffic control, which realizes the abovementioned culture, is proposed; it is characterized by the presence of digitized regulatory rules, vehicles, and infrastructure components, and also accurate monitoring, active cloud streetlight-free cyber control of road users and traffic lights, and automatic output of operational regulatory actions (virtual traffic signs and traffic signals) to monitor each vehicle. The main components of the cyber physical system are infrastructure, road users, and rules with digital representations in cyberspace to realize a route, based on digital monitoring and cloud–mobile control. We offer innovative services that implement digital monitoring and cloud control as a scalable prototype of a global system that uses the following technology: precise positioning of moving and stationary objects, digital cartography, cyber physical systems and the Internet of Things, advanced wireless communications, and big data analytics. The basic idea is to improve the quality and safety of traffic through the implementation of metric regulation of traffic, based on digital monitoring and active cloud cyber control, and also the use of intelligent virtual traffic lights and signs, providing opportunities to significantly improve the comfort of a car trip and to reduce overheads in time and costs of route execution. The components of the implementation of global cloud traffic control services are as follows. (1) The term “smart” defines a process or phenomenon associated with network interaction of the addressable system components in time and space between themselves and the environment, based on self-learning technologies to achieve their goals. (2) A smart cyber physical system is a set of communicatively network-connected addressable virtual and real components in a digitized metric space with features of adequate physical monitoring, optimal cloud control, and self-learning in real time to achieve goals. (3) The Internet of Things is a structure of cyber physical systems, combining centers of large data, knowledge, services, and applications aimed at monitoring and controlling smart processes and phenomena in a digitized physical space by using sensors–actuators to provide high standards of living and save the planet’s environment. (4) Computing is a branch of knowledge, focused on research, design, and application of systems, networks, and cloud–mobile services for monitoring and control of cyber physical processes and phenomena. The development of computing, the main function of which is cyber control, should only be considered in conjunction with the real or physical world, a part of which is humanity. There is interaction between the real and virtual worlds: humanity always poorly manages the real world and creates computing as his assistant. As a perfect mechanism, computing takes control of technological processes for humanity. (5) The market feasibility of global cloud services for traffic control without a physical infrastructure, traffic lights, and road signs is at least US$100 billion. The economic effect of the transfer of road infrastructure to cyberspace, including vehicle license plates, is US$500 billion a year.
Vladimir Hahanov, Artur Ziarmand, Svetlana Chumachenko
Chapter 11. Cosmological Computing and the Genome of the Universe
A cyber culture of cosmological computing, which formulates, explains, and predicts current monitoring and control technology for processes and phenomena in physical and cosmological space, is proposed. The verbal and structural definitions of the main components for cosmological computing based on current research trends are represented. The harmonic genome of the universe as a computing metric system of varying entities (energy–matter) and forms (space–time), infinitely and mutually transformed into each other, are determined.
Vladimir Hahanov, Eugenia Litvinova, Svetlana Chumachenko
Chapter 12. Cyber Social Computing
A cyberculture of computing, aimed at moral metric cloud management of social groups through the use of digital monitoring and expert evaluation of social processes and phenomena is proposed. Cyberculture is the development state of social, technological, moral, and material relations between society, the physical world, and cyberspace, determined by the quality of Internet services for accurate digital monitoring and reliable metric management of processes and phenomena in all spheres of human activity—including education, science, production, and transport—in order to improve the quality of life of the people and preserve the ecosystem of the planet. An additivity law of the social group intellect defined by the metric of distance between members of the community is formulated. Prospective directions for creating smart е-infrastructures, states, cities, universities, companies, and houses, with a high level of capitalization at Nasdaq, are considered. Electronic technologies of e-document circulation are offered, which can save several hundred million dollars and offer green ecology on the state scale. The technologies of human-free management of social groups are considered on the basis of the creation of cyber democracy, cyber governance, and a cyber parliament, which could destroy corruption across the state.
Vladimir Hahanov, Tetiiana Soklakova, Anastasia Hahanova, Svetlana Chumachenko
Chapter 13. Practical Conclusion
According to quantum theory, a particle (electron) can be in two places simultaneously. This statement does not contradict the Schrödinger equation, where the coordinate of a (cyber) space can have at the same time two particles (electrons) or two stable states. Qubit Q = (Q 1, Q 2,  … , Q i ,  … , Q n ) is the discrete state of a point in a cyberspace defined by the superposition of a finite number of primitives (carriers) of the universe represented by a vector. A quantum of functionality (XQY) is a universal elementary structure (particle) focused to create any complex memory-driven computer architecture, free of logic. The quantum of functionality is a qubit with identifiers of input and output variables that form the addresses of primitives (memory cells) for purpose-driven execution of transactions (read–write).
Vladimir Hahanov
Chapter 14. Cyber-Physical Technologies: Hype Cycle 2017
This chapter offers an analytical review of the cyber-physical technologies identified in the Gartner’s Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies 2017, as well as some explanations related to their application in science, education, transport, industry, and government. Some directions are shown that are not included in the cycle of market-oriented technologies that relate to cyber social monitoring and management of society. An expanded description is offered for technologies related to the smart digital world, green cities, and 5G telecommunications. Recommendations are given for leveraging the top 10 components of the supercycle 2017 in the business and scientific-educational process of universities. The memory-driven, innovative architecture of quantum computing is presented, characterized by the effect of photon write-read transactions on the structure of electrons in the absence of logic associated with superposition and entanglement of states.
Vladimir Hahanov, Wajeb Gharibi, Ka Lok Man, Igor Iemelianov, Mykhailo Liubarskyi, Vugar Abdullayev, Eugenia Litvinova, Svetlana Chumachenko
Cyber Physical Computing for IoT-driven Services
Dr. Vladimir Hahanov
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