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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

3. Definition of Social Media Influencers and their Relevance for Brand Management

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Abstract

“Social Media Influencers” (SMIs) became solely known through their online activities such as blogs, vlogs or Instagram posts. While celebrities are able to exert their influence online and offline, SMIs however are only able to mostly exert their influence online. Literature agrees that SMI endorsements differ from traditional celebrity endorsements, by creating opportunities for bidirectional interactions in which followers can comment on posts and receive replies from SMIs.

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Footnotes
1
Cf. KREUTZER/LAND (2017), p. 209 et seqq.; HIDDESSEN (2020), p. 7.
 
2
Cf. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), p. 253; MEFFERT ET AL. (2015), p. 132.
 
3
Cf. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), pp. 253 et seqq.
 
4
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 2; LU ET AL. (2014), p. 258; HIDDESSEN (2019), p. 6.
 
5
Cf. KIM/KIM (2020), p. 1; TIAGO ET AL. (2016), p. 175; CASALÓ (2020), p. 510.
 
6
BURMANN ET AL. (2018) notes that opinion leaders are those members of a group who exert a higher personal influence than others in the communication process and thus influence the opinion of the rest. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), p. 253; BOERMAN (2020), p. 199; SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ/JIMÉNEZ-CASTILLO (2021), p. 1137.
 
7
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 199.
 
8
Cf. DE VEIRMAN ET AL. (2017), p. 798; FREBERG ET AL. (2011), p. 90; SINNIG (2019), p. 2; HIDDESSEN (2020), p. 7;
 
9
FREBERG ET AL. (2011), p. 90; Cf. KREUTZER/LAND (2017), pp. 209 et seqq.; FINK (2020), p. 6; HIDDESSEN (2020), p. 6; KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 5.
 
10
See FINK (2020), p. 8; SINNING (2019), p. 31; HIDDESSEN (2020), p. 5.
 
11
Influencer Marketing is defined by EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 138, as “the identification and use of specific key individuals who hold influence over potential buyers of a brand or product to aid in the marketing activities of the brand”. See INSTAGRAM (2017B); BROWN/HAYES (2008), p. 10; AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), pp. 557 et seq.
 
12
Cf. GOOGLE TRENDS (2022). The values indicate the search interest relative to the highest point in the graph over the period considered. The value 100 stands for the highest popularity of this search term. The value 50 means that the term was half as popular and the value 0 equals a popularity of less than 1% compared to the maximum.
 
13
Cf. BVDW (2020a).
 
14
Cf. BVDW (2020a). The respondents (N = 1.068) were representatively selected German citizens. They answered the question: “Have you ever chosen a brand and/or bought a product because you saw the brand on in association with an influencer (YouTuber / Instagrammer)”.
 
15
Cf. BVDW (2020a).
 
16
Cf. BVDW (2019), p. 6. The online survey was carried out by Kantar TNS on behalf of the BVDW in March 2019. The respondents (N = 1,051), were comprised of a sample representative of the German population, between the ages of 16 and 64.
 
17
Cf. PHUA/JIN/KIM (2017), pp. 115 et seqq.; STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 210; CASALÓ ET AL. (2020), pp. 510 et seq.
PHUA/JIN/KIM (2017) (N = 297) examine four social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat) and their influence on online bridging social capital (distant, weak relationships between individuals that make available opportunities for information sharing) and bonding social capital (close, strong relationships providing emotional trust and social support). Findings showed that Twitter users had the highest bridging social capital, followed by Instagram, Facebook, and Snapchat. Snapchat users had the highest bonding social capital, followed by Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.
 
18
Cf. COLLIANDER/DAHLÉN (2011), p. 316.
 
19
Cf. STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 110; DE VEIRMAN ET AL. (2017), p. 798.
 
20
Cf. DJAFAROVA/RUSHWORTH (2017), p. 1 et seqq. A qualitative research method was employed. In-depth interviews with non-probability purposive sampling were used. In total, 18 face-to-face interviews were conducted with females aged 18 to 30 who were active daily of Instagram. All respondents were from the same location (the North East of England). The sample was drawn from a mixture of university students, as well as young professionals.
 
21
Cf. BURMANN (2018), pp. 237 et seqq.
 
22
Cf. BURMANN (2018), p. 237; GET SATISFACTION (2014).
 
23
Cf. STATISTA (2019d).
 
24
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 210; KELLER/BERRY (2003), p. 4; EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 138; CASALÓ ET AL. (2020), pp. 510 et seq.; BOERMAN (2020), p. 199; SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ/JIMÉNEZ-CASTILLO (2021), p. 1137.
 
25
Cf. CASALÓ ET AL. (2020), pp. 510 et seq.
 
26
Cf. STATISTA (2019c).
 
27
Cf. STATISTA (2019c). The study interviewed 162 marketers in the period January 15–25, 2019. 90% of respondents were from the U.S., while others were from: UK, Australia, Canada, Republic of Ireland, Germany, and France.
 
28
Cf. INSTAGRAM (2020E).
 
29
Cf. STATISTA (2019c).
 
30
Cf. INSTAGRAM (2019), INSTAGRAM (2020F).
 
31
Cf. INSTAGRAM (2020I).
 
32
Cf. STATISTA (2019a).
 
33
Cf. STATISTA (2019c).
 
34
Cf. MEFFERT ET AL. (2019), pp. 742 et seq.; BURMANN ET AL. (2018), pp. 221 et seqq.; TOPMEDIADVERTISING (2020).
 
35
Cf. HIDDESSEN (2019), p. 8; SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), pp. 1 et seq.; FINK (2020), pp. 23 et seqq.; HWANG/ZHANG (2018), pp. 32 et seqq.
 
36
Cf. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), pp. 265 et seq.; HIDDESSEN (2020), p. 8.
 
37
Cf. CHACON (2018), p. 1.
 
38
In line with JAAKONMÄKI/MÜLLER/VOM BROCKE (2017), the engagement rate is defined as the number of reactions that content gives rise to among users via social media. The precise way to calculate it, differs across social media platforms, but in general, it is measured as the percentage of consumers that respond or interact with a post in some way, either by commenting on it or liking it. JAAKONMÄKI/MÜLLER/VOM BROCKE (2017), p. 1152. For additional information, Cf. FINK (2020), pp. 22 et seq.
 
39
Cf. CASALÓ ET AL. (2020), pp. 510 et seq.; ASHRAF (2019).
 
40
Cf. CASALÓ ET AL. (2020), pp. 510 et seq.; INFLUENCE.COM (2017).
 
41
Cf. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), p. 239; LUECK (2015), p. 3.
 
42
Cf. MEDIAKIX (2019a); SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019) p. 1.; FINK (2020) pp. 187 et seqq.
 
43
Cf. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), p. 255; HIDDESSEN (2019) p. 8.
 
44
Cf. FREBERG ET AL. (2011), pp. 90 et seq.; BOERMAN (2020), pp. 200 et seq.
 
45
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 201; CHRISTODOULAKI (2018), pp. 1 et seqq.; JIN (2019), pp. 522 et seq.
 
46
Cf. FINK (2020), p. 10; INFLUICITY (2018), p. 4; ALASSANI/GÖRETZ (2019), pp. 252 et seq.; DE VEIRMAN ET AL. (2019), p. 11.
 
47
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 11.
 
48
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 31; ERDOGAN (1999), p. 293.
 
49
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 4; KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 5.
 
Metadata
Title
Definition of Social Media Influencers and their Relevance for Brand Management
Author
Corina Oprea
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41364-4_3

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