This article presents issues in estimating the coordinate measurement error of geometric elements’ shape characteristics of products depending on the control point number, taking into account a given confidence probability. Analytical models are proposed for estimating the error based on a priori data, similar to estimating uncertainty by type B. The correspondence of the model and experimental results are verified by the Monte Carlo method using an especially developed program in VBA and the library functions of the Statistical Analysis package of the Microsoft Excel program. The roundness characteristic is also investigated. The influence of the parameters of regular structures and the aspects of the technological processes of manufacturing of control point coordinates is revealed. Fourier analysis is performed to identify and quantify regular structures on the surface. This article also presents error sources that have a significant impact on the measurement results of the shape characteristics of products’ geometric elements. Based on the statistical calculation results, the dependence of the measurement error of the shape characteristics on the control point number is analyzed, and the scope of the application of analytical formulas for estimating the error of single measurements for a given confidence probability is determined. This study can be of use by specialists in the field of practical coordinate metrology and related fields.