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About this book

This two-volume set LNCS 10058 and LNCS 10059 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Digital Heritage, EuroMed 2016, held in Nicosia, Cyprus, in October/November 2016. The 29 full papers, 44 project papers, and 32 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 502 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on 3D Reconstruction and 3D Modelling; Heritage Building Information Models; Innovative Methods on Risk Assesment, Monitoring and Protection of Cultural Heritage; Intangible Cultural Heritage Documentation; Digital Applications for Materials' Preservation and Conservation in Cultural Heritage; Non-Destructive Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation; Visualisation, VR and AR Methods and Applications; The New Era of Museums and Exhibitions: Digital Engagement and Dissemination; Digital Cultural Heritage in Education, Learning and Training; Data Acquisition, Process and Management in Cultural Heritage; Data, Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies in Cultural Heritage; Novel Approaches to Landscapes in Cultural Heritage; Digital Applications for Materials' Preservation and Conservation in Cultural Heritage; and Serious Games for Cultural Heritage.

Table of Contents


Full Paper: 3D Reconstruction and 3D Modelling


Implementation and Usage Scenarios of a Participatory Platform for Cultural Environments

Raising audience awareness over the creation and evolution of a cultural participatory digital platform is a critical point for its acceptance. The proposed platform adopts user involvement in the content collection level through the implementation of a mobile application easily downloadable to the user’s smartphone and the use of a web portal application. Complementary web portal permits the management of the collected content in a trustworthy manner adopting an extended role-based access control model for authorization purposes. Users can formulate private groups to contribute and share content. Platform guarantees the soundness of contributed content through an auditing procedure requested by the contributors and conducted by experts selected randomly. In order to stress the applicability of our platform to various cultural environments, we present a number of usage scenarios targeting various stakeholders from specialists and museum curators to students, teachers and simple enthusiasts aiming in the development of coherent narrations.

Zois Koukopoulos, Dimitrios Koukopoulos

Benchmarking Close-range Structure from Motion 3D Reconstruction Software Under Varying Capturing Conditions

Structure from Motion 3D reconstruction has become widely used in recent years in a number of fields such as industrial surface inspection, archeology, cultural heritage preservation and geomapping. A number of software solutions have been released using variations of this technique. In this paper we analyse the state of the art of these software applications, by comparing the resultant 3D meshes qualitatively and quantitatively. We propose a number of testing scenarios using different lighting conditions, camera positions and image acquisition methods for the best in-depth analysis and discuss the results, the overall performance and the problems present in each software. We employ distance and roughness metrics for evaluating the final reconstruction results.

Ivan Nikolov, Claus Madsen

Proportional Systems in the Design of the Cathedral of St. George of the Greeks, Cyprus

The cathedral of St. George of the Greeks was built in the 14th–15th c. in Famagusta, Cyprus to accommodate the religious needs of the Greek orthodox community living under a Frankish aristocracy. Its design is a hybrid of western European and Greek orthodox architectural traditions which reflect the political and social circumstances of its creation. This paper examines the degree to which the underlying design methods employed can be extrapolated from the physical remains of the building, the historical sources bearing upon its interpretation and comparisons with related structures. Results are presented of a recent (2016) photogrammetric survey of the building and a new digital reconstruction of the church derived from it. These are used to quantify, assess and illustrate a three dimensional armature of regulatory proportions which it is proposed for reasons of ecclesiastical philosophy and practical execution, were employed to shape the building’s physical form.

Douglas Cawthorne, Romylos Irodotou

The Reconstruction – Argumentation Method

Proposal for a Minimum Standard of Documentation in the Context of Virtual Reconstructions

Virtual reconstructions exist for around 25 years. A documentation of the process of reconstructions was rarely made – a deficit from a scientific standpoint. One reason was that this was a relatively new discipline and there was a lack of agreement as to standards and methods. Another was that in many cases the client did not provide separate funds for a documentation and also did not require or request them.In the meantime, many involved parties have become aware of the problem of the lack of documentation and standards. Besides good scientific practice, also the guarantee to have access to knowledge embedded in reconstructions should be realized. However, up to now the proposals orientate themselves rather on extensive maximal solutions, often coupled with complex data bank applications, possibly also with annotations to 3D models, which in reality in most projects would present big challenges as far as usability and available resources are concerned.Thus it seemed more constructive to develop a minimal standard, which in practice would be manageable. The goal of the proposal presented is to compare images of the reconstruction with the sources and to link them to a written text (argumentation), which explains upon what basis, including sources, analogies etc. the reconstruction was made. The core is therefore the triad – “Reconstruction – Argumentation – Source”. In addition there exists the possibility to also depict variants for the different areas of a reconstructed building.The advantage of such a documentation method is that it would be theoretically useable for every kind of architectural reconstruction and thus also for haptic models, reconstruction drawings or actually built structures. The technical goal is a web-linked database that can serve as a platform for work, publication and discussion. The method can also be implemented as a simple text document with a series of images.

Mieke Pfarr-Harfst, Marc Grellert

Multi-scale 3D Modelling of Damaged Cultural Sites: Use Cases and Image-Based Workflows

The creation of 3D models of Cultural Heritage (CH) sites that have undergone a severe disaster due to a catastrophic incident (e.g., earthquake, explosion, terrorist attack) is of great importance for several use cases. Different actors, like Urban Search and Rescue crews, structural, civil and surveying engineers, people in charge of restoration plans, archaeologists, architects, reporters, television presenters and computer engineers, may exploit the 3D information in a different way. Hence, each of them needs models of different scales/levels of detail and under different time constraints. In this paper the need for multi-scale 3D models of severely damaged or collapsed CH sites is addressed and various use cases are discussed. Also, image-based workflows are established for creating multi-scale 3D products via UAV images of a damaged church due to an earthquake. The models of different scales require very different amounts of time for their generation and may be used for search and rescue, damage assessment, geometric documentation, planning of repair works and simple visualization.

Styliani Verykokou, Anastasios Doulamis, George Athanasiou, Charalabos Ioannidis, Angelos Amditis

Low Cost Technique for Accurate Geometric Documentation of Complex Monuments by Non-experts

This paper proposes the technique of stereo-orthoimage for reliable and accurate identification and digitization of complex features of cultural heritage (CH) monuments (e.g., edges, outlines, damages, holes, cracks) in the context of large-scale geometric and damage documentation. It is a low cost technique, which can be implemented by non-experts (architects, archaeologists, etc.). A developed plugin, named OrthoSteroMate (OSM), for the open-source GIS system QGIS that implements the stereo-orthoimage technique is presented. It introduces stereo-orthoimages in GIS environments, as complements to conventional orthoimages, allowing better interpretation of the details of built CH and enabling more accurate digitization, taking advantage of stereoscopic observation when no special equipment or photogrammetric knowledge are needed. The application of the plugin along with QGIS tools for the restitution of two CH monuments were made, yielding satisfying results and proving the applicability of the proposed low-cost method for complex CH documentation.

Charalabos Ioannidis, Sofia Soile, Styliani Verykokou

Full Paper: Heritage Building Information Models (HBIM)

Implementation of Scan-to-BIM and FEM for the Documentation and Analysis of Heritage Timber Roof Structures

Current heritage analysis applications and documentation techniques for timber roof structures rely on manual measurements to provide the spatial data. Major simplifications are made to document these structures efficiently. However, these simplified geometric models provide less reliable results. Therefore, the need exists for more realistic models. Additionally, the exchangeability of information between varying parties is paramount. Hence, the construction elements should be defined in a Building Information Model (BIM). This allows users to reuse the model, allowing the distribution of information throughout the project. The goal of our research is to create a realistic BIM model of a complex heritage roof structure employing dense point clouds. The comparison of our complex geometric model to a traditional wire-frame model proves that our approach provides more reliable results in terms of geometry and structural behaviour. Our work covers the acquisition, the modelling and the structural analysis of timber roof structures.

Maarten Bassier, George Hadjidemetriou, Maarten Vergauwen, Nathalie Van Roy, Els Verstrynge

Implementation Analysis and Design for Energy Efficient Intervention on Heritage Buildings

The study focuses on a multi-scale and multi-disciplinary approach, for energy efficient intervention on the historic centre and buildings of a town in southern Italy. The methodology involves the use of numerical simulations and building information modeling for the management optimisation of the analysis and design phases. The energy analyses are carried out with experimental measurements and numerical simulations and are integrated with traditional historical, typological and architectural analyses. The study confirms the optimal behaviour of historic settlement principle against new urbanisation and proposes a series of specific solutions to be implemented on the buildings based on improving energy efficiency and sustainability of interventions, compatibility with the restoration charts and with the historical and microclimate context of reference. The study highlighted a number of limitations still present in the interoperability between software that future research developments will have to overcome in order to improve the practical applicability of the approach.

Elena Gigliarelli, Filippo Calcerano, Luciano Cessari

Historic BIM in the Cloud

In this paper, we present a procedure which makes available an accurate historic BIM (HBIM) in the cloud. Data processing is carried out with a NURBS-based strategy to reduce the size of the final HBIM derived from images and laser scans, providing an accurate and reliable 3D model with limited memory occupation. This guarantees a remote access with PCs and mobile devices connected through a cloud service.

Luigi Barazzetti, Fabrizio Banfi, Raffaella Brumana

Building Information Modelling – A Novel Parametric Modeling Approach Based on 3D Surveys of Historic Architecture

Building Information Modelling (BIM) appears to be the best answer to simplify the traditional process of design, construction, management and maintenance. On the other hand, the intricate reality of the built heritage and the growing need to represent the actual geometry using 3D models collide with the new paradigms of complexity and accuracy, opening a novel operative perspective for restoration and conservation. The management of complexity through BIM requires a new management approach focused on the development of improve the environmental impact cost, reduction and increase in productivity and efficiency the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry. This structure is quantifiable in morphological and typical terms by establishing levels of development and detail (LoDs) and changes of direction (ReversLoDs) to support the different stages of life cycle (LCM). Starting from different experiences in the field of HBIM, this research work proposes a dynamic parametric modeling approach that involves the use of laser scanning, photogrammetric data and advanced modelling for HBIM.

Fabrizio Banfi

Full Paper: Innovative Methods on Risk Assesment, Monitoring and Protection of Cultural Heritage


Applicability of 3DVE Indicator for Cultural Heritage Landscape Management

Uniformly control of the height of buildings owned by individuals to protect cultural heritage landscape causes social conflicts. Thus, it is necessary to introduce an indicator that can simultaneously evaluate the criteria for control of the height of buildings (CCBH) for urban development and cultural heritage landscape management. We developed 3D Visual Exposure (3DVE) as a useful indicator to review the validity of the CCBH around cultural heritage. By using the 3DVE, it was possible to calculate visibility and we succeeded in mapping the opportunity of view on 3D geospatial information and evaluating landscape variation with statistics through changing building heights around cultural heritage. We predict that the 3DVE presented in this study will have high utilization as an indicator for the cultural heritage landscape management.

Jaeyong Lee, Youngmo Kim

Taking the Next Step in Digital Documentation of Historic Cities

How HERMeS Evolved in an Open Data Digital Library of Historic Buildings

When a long-term research finishes, there is always a question about implementation and further development. In the case of HER.M.e.S, the Digital Heritage Management System of the Historic City of Hermoupolis, in a Greek Aegean Island, Syros, it was also a question about raising awareness. The research proved that 2.4 historic buildings collapse every year, as a result of abandonment. This phenomenon was intensified by the severe economic crisis in Greece. The research proposed an optimal conservation plan for the city, after carefully evaluating variables through a multi-criteria model using GIS and an innovating point system. But in order to apply this plan, we need to be able to update the data, as buildings are constantly changing through time. Updating a database with more than 1000 historic buildings, with no funds, is a huge challenge. Soon, we decided that the only way to go is to use a crowdsourcing method. Developing a digital heritage collection portal, using free open source software and serving crucial data for every building, was the answer to our problem. We asked citizens to check the data base, report mistakes, updates, stories, photographs and use the portal to learn about their city. This effort led us to a big digitization project, with up to 1290 historic buildings, 14.400 geo-tagged photos and more than 15.000 fields of information. The project HERMeS, as a conservation plan and a heritage digitization project won the 2015 European Union Europa Nostra Award in Category Research & Digitalisation.

Pavlos Chatzigrigoriou

Risk Analysis and Vulnerability Assessment of Archeological Areas for the Preventive Conservation

The territorial structure of archaeological sites is often compromised by a variety of factors which, over time, can contribute to aggravate the deteriorating conditions of the archaeological areas. Natural disasters, often, have caused irreversible damage (crashes, loss of finds, etc.) at the archeological sites. The paper shows the results of research aimed at developing an innovative risk assessment model, oriented to sustainability criteria, that can provide help in making decisions process about the protection, conservation and valorisation of archaeological areas. The proposed work presents a logical and operative model suitable to estimate the actual risk condition for archeological sites developed by integrating the information concerning vulnerability of archeological areas and the danger condition of the sites upon which they are located. The determination of the risk, derived from the evaluation of potential co-presence of independent sources of danger within a given geographical area, has been modeled by a type of approach multi hazard.The methodology is applied at the case study of archaeological area of Sybari in Calabria Region, in south of Italy, where tried to develop an integrated and coordinated cognitive methodology - evaluation within an overall information system for assessing the vulnerability of archaeological heritage and environmental dangerousness in order to identify the level of risk which is under the archaeological area in relation to the territory of reference.The results obtained allow to relate the risk with the risk factors, the detection of damage on archaeological heritage in question, determine the tolerance threshold within which it is possible the preservation of goods and to propose a synthesis strategy between environmental protection and sustainable exploitation.

Giuliana Quattrone

Full Paper: Intangible Cultural Heritage Documentation


Parameterizing the Geometry and Visualizing the Lighting Method of Byzantine Church Domes

This paper introduces a computer-based tool for the analysis of the geometry and the daylighting of Byzantine church domes to facilitate experimentation with a number of cases before any fieldwork is undertaken. Starting with a geometric derivation of the relationship between dome parameters, the digital tool builds an interactive three-dimensional model of a Byzantine church dome. The model allows the user to input the properties of the dome, the drum, any windows, and the slope of their sills. The model allows the user to define the dome using three different curvatures since such a case was identified in a Mistras church. A custom ray-tracing algorithm visualizes the path of light rays falling on the windowsills and their reflections within the dome. It was found that several parameters are interrelated and that an optimal set of proportions must be established to achieve the expected behavior of light within the dome.

Wassim Jabi, Iakovos Potamianos

Digital and Handcrafting Processes Applied to Sound-Studies of Archaeological Bone Flutes

Bone flutes make use of a naturally hollow raw-material. As nature does not produce duplicates, each bone has its own inner cavity, and thus its own sound-potential. This morphological variation implies acoustical specificities, thus making it impossible to handcraft a true and exact sound-replica in another bone. This phenomenon has been observed in a handcrafting context and has led us to conduct two series of experiments (the first-one using handcrafting process, the second-one using 3D process) in order to investigate its exact influence on acoustics as well as on sound-interpretation based on replicas. The comparison of the results has shed light upon epistemological and methodological issues that have yet to be fully understood.This work contributes to assessing the application of digitization, 3D printing and handcrafting to flute-like sound instruments studied in the field of archaeomusicology.

Etienne Safa, Jean-Baptiste Barreau, Ronan Gaugne, Wandrille Duchemin, Jean-Daniel Talma, Bruno Arnaldi, Georges Dumont, Valérie Gouranton

Full Paper: Digital Applications for Materials’ Preservation and Conservation in Cultural Heritage


Evolution of Building Materials and Philosophy in Construction: A Process of Digitalization and Visualization of the Accumulated Knowledge

The long-term research on the constructional materials and techniques of monuments and historic buildings, allowed the accumulation of significant knowledge which could be further disseminated. The masons of antiquity followed principles in designing and building, established by their intuition and experience. The selection of raw materials, the way they upgraded them in constructing foundations, walls, domes, is still remarkable. In the paper, a process of using digital technology tools for making knowledge acquisition attractive is presented. By developing a specific platform, all relevant scientific knowledge can be sorted, while with a series of digital applications, the diachronic principles of construction, the ancient technology and the achievements of the past can be exploited in a friendly and interactive environment. By this way it is expected that the values of building philosophy in the context of safety, sustainability and economy will be forwarded to new generations.

Ioanna Papayianni, Vasiliki Pachta

A Study of 3D Digital Simulation Analysis of Fire Charring Degree of Wood Construction of Chinese Traditional Architecture

For the Chinese traditional architecture which uses wood construction in large quantities, the fire often causes irreversible disasters, and the cultural heritage may be lost in a flash. According to Taiwan Cultural Assets Preservation Act, the historic monuments restoration must uphold the spirit of “Restoring the Old as the Old”, so the structural safety assessment is a necessary program for what can be restored after disaster. Traditionally, the char depth data of the wood construction after fires are obtained by pore-drilling measurement. Therefore, the detection positions and quantity are determined according to the post-disaster condition. The weak structure often fails to be measured, so that the evaluation result is likely to be distorted. This study uses dynamic fire simulation theory, and takes a Chinese traditional architecture, Potzu Pei-tian Temple in Chiayi, Taiwan as an example for experiment, trying to build a digital char depth virtual detection model. The research findings show that this conception can build a virtual detection mode, which may provide more comprehensive char depth information than traditional method, assisting the safety assessment operation of post-disaster restored structures effectively.

Tsung Chiang Wu

Full Paper: Non-destructive Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation


Recovering Historical Film Footage by Processing Microtomographic Images

1960s film was typically printed on tri-acetate film base. If not preserved properly, such material breaks down at a chemical level, which is a non-stoppable process that permanently fuses the film so that it essentially becomes a lump of solid plastic. Recently, some precious films, such as the only known copy of the earliest surviving episode of ‘The Morecambe and Wise Show’ have been discovered, but they are in poor condition. They will eventually turn into a pool of sticky liquid and be gone forever. In this paper, as proof of concept, we use X-ray microtomography to provide 3D imaging of a test film of similar vintage, and propose an automatic method to extract footage from it.

Chang Liu, Paul L. Rosin, Yu-Kun Lai, Graham R. Davis, David Mills, Charles Norton

Multi-spectral Imaging System (IWN) for the Digitization and Investigation of Cultural Heritage

This research focuses on the digitization and investigation of cultural heritage liaised with the practical requirements of conservators and museum curators. Different types of information are extracted about the physical characteristics of the artifacts, pigments preliminary identification and pigments distribution in addition to the colorimetric information. In this regard, a multi-spectral digitization system – named as “iwn” was developed to collect the required information from the cultural heritage objects. The system is portable, customizable, easy to use, in-situ, non-invasive and relatively not expensive. This paper will describe the specifications of the system showing its functions and capabilities through few case studies.

Ibrahim El-Rifai, Hend Mahgoub, Ari Ide-Ektessabi

Diagnostic Activities for the Planned and Preventive Conservation of Mosaic Pavements: The Case Study of the Triclinium of the Villa Romana del Casale (Sicily)

The Villa Romana del Casale at Piazza Armerina, Sicily is known for the richness of the mosaic pavements that decorate almost every room. They are the finest mosaics from the Roman world and, even because of their exceptional extent, the Villa was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997. Their in situ conservation advocated by Cesare Brandi in the late 1950s, an exception to the typical treatment of excavated mosaics of the time, requires a regular monitoring of the physical condition and the establishment of mitigation strategies, however, difficult to implement especially for economic and technical reasons. In this sense, this paper intends to propose an innovative and user-friendly procedure based on laser scanning and thermo-hygrometric investigations able to assess the tessellatum status through time and to evaluate the maintenance work’s efficiency, which could be included in a long-term and sustainable approach to preserving our ancient mosaic heritage.

Antonella Versaci, Alessio Cardaci, Luca R. Fauzia

Full Paper: Visualisation, VR and AR Methods and Applications

A Mobile, AR Inside-Out Positional Tracking Algorithm, (MARIOPOT), Suitable for Modern, Affordable Cardboard-Style VR HMDs

Smartphone devices constitute a low-cost, mainstream and easy to use h/w for VR rendering and main component for modern, mobile VR Head-Mounted-Displays (HMDs). They support rotational tracking from on board sensors to manage orientation changes, via their Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), but they lack positional tracking to reflect head translational movements, a key feature that modern, desktop VR HMDs nowadays provide out-of-the-box. Taking advantage of the RGB camera sensor that each modern mobile device is equipped, we describe a novel combination of inside-out AR tracking algorithms based on both marker and markerless tracking systems to provide the missing positional tracking for mobile HMDs. We employed this system as an affordable, low-cost VR visualization h/w and s/w method, for heritage professionals to employ it for VR archeological sites and Cultural Heritage related monuments interactive walk-throughs. We also compared our results with a recent holographic AR headset (Meta AR-glasses) that supports gesture recognition and interaction with the virtual objects via its RGB-D camera sensor and integrated IMU.

Paul Zikas, Vasileios Bachlitzanakis, Margarita Papaefthymiou, George Papagiannakis

Virtual and Augmented Reality Tools to Improve the Exploitation of Underwater Archaeological Sites by Diver and Non-diver Tourists

The underwater cultural heritage is an immeasurable archaeological and historical resource with huge, but yet largely unexploited, potentials for the maritime and coastal tourism.In this regard, in the last years, national and international government authorities are supporting and strengthening research activities and development strategies, plans and policies to realize a more sustainable, responsible and accessible exploitation of the underwater cultural heritage.To this end, the paper presents the architecture of a new system that, taking advantage of the modern virtual and augmented reality technologies, allows diver and non-diver tourists to make a more engaging and educational experience of the underwater archaeological sites.This system has been developed and tested in the VISAS project ( that aims to the enhancement of the cultural and tourist offer related to the underwater archaeology through innovation of modes of experience, both on site and remote, of the underwater environments of archaeological interest.

Fabio Bruno, Antonio Lagudi, Loris Barbieri, Maurizio Muzzupappa, Gerardo Ritacco, Alessandro Cozza, Marco Cozza, Raffaele Peluso, Marco Lupia, Gianni Cario

Interacting with Simulated Archaeological Assets

Digital and 3D data are common components in current archaeological work, and expectations regarding their utilization in contextualizing archaeological knowledge are steadily on the rise. The rapid progress in real-time rendering software and more accessible computational power enables integrated data-sets to (re)gain relevance in the process of interpreting archaeological contexts. Retaining high level of details and correct geometric relations of a complex scene while reconciling inherent variations in the scale, format, and resolution of input data (including 2D legacy data and 3D field recordings) has been already successfully achieved in the simulation of the Temple of the Storm God of Aleppo, realized by an interdisciplinary working group in the HTW Berlin. The current paper addresses the modification of virtual and immersive environments within the field of cultural heritage, and evaluating their potential as tools in interpretative archaeological processes. Based on widely available game technology, two applications are presented, supporting real-time interaction and collaborative work within a single modeled space.

Arian Goren, Kay Kohlmeyer, Thomas Bremer, Susanne Brandhorst, Arie Kai-Browne, Felix Balda, David Strippgen, Sebastian Plesch

Virtual Reconstruction 3.0: New Approach of Web-based Visualisation and Documentation of Lost Cultural Heritage

The paper presents the project entitled “Virtual Reconstructions in Transnational Research Environments the Portal: ‘Palaces and Parks in former East Prussia”’ in the light of the Semantic Web and Open Source technologies. The researches are focused on certification, classification, annotation, storage and visualisation of 3D data sets, proposing methodology of the computer-based 3D computer reconstruction of Cultural Heritage, which are still lacking. The multinational and interdisciplinary project with interactive 3D models being part of a semantic data model, is concerned with designing a Virtual Research Environment. Our approach affects the entire process of digital 3D reconstruction with the development of an XML schema called Cultural Heritage Markup Language as a groundwork for an application ontology.The results bring new insights into areas such as effective data acquisition, documentation, semantic 3D modelling and visualisation and data management. They may be useful for the creation of Virtual Environments and other forms of Cultural Heritage’s interactive presentation that employ open source visualisations standards (e.g. WebGL technology). An aspect that needs to be improved concerns coding and uploading large 3D data sets using alternative formats, with an emphasis on art and architectural models. We have developed a technique for coding, long-term storing and decoding 3D geometrical data in 2D PNG files, which are characterised by small size and lossless compression.

Daniel Dworak, Piotr Kuroczyński

Full Paper: The New Era of Museums and Exhibitions: Digital Engagement and Dissemination


CultureCam: An Interactive Search Tool for Small Image Galleries

As a result of digitization initiatives in recent years, most galleries hold digital copies of their masterpieces. In order to attract more visitors, public galleries are interested in advertising their content on websites and tourist-centric applications deployed in public spaces. The online version of CultureCam has the goal of stimulating the reuse of cultural heritage content by creative designers. In this paper, we present the Interactive Installation version of CultureCam tool, which has the goal of attracting the interest of public users when exploring public galleries. It concentrates on enhancing the user experience, by offering access to the images in an immersive environment, using an intuitive, easy-to-use tool that supports touch free interaction with the gallery content. A novel image similarity search algorithm was developed in order to adapt to user expectations when searching in small image datasets. The user feedback collected from exhibitions in different European cities indicates a very high acceptance of the CultureCam tool by the public. The intuitive and seamless interaction with the tool, as well as the automation and enhancement of the search algorithm are the main improvements over the previous version of CultureCam.

Sergiu Gordea, Michela Vignoli, Sanna Marttila

Learning Algorithms for Digital Reconstruction of Van Gogh’s Drawings

Many works of Van Gogh’s oeuvre, such as letters, drawings and paintings, have been severely degraded due to light exposure. Digital reconstruction of faded color can help to envisage how the artist’s work may have looked at the time of creation. In this paper, we study the reconstruction of Vincent van Gogh’s drawings by means of learning schemes and on the basis of the available reproductions of these drawings. In particular, we investigate the use of three machine learning algorithms, k-nearest neighbor (kNN) estimation, linear regression (LR), and convolutional neural networks (CNN), for learning the reconstruction of these faded drawings. Experimental results show that the reconstruction performance of the kNN method is slightly better than those of the CNN. The reconstruction performance of the LR is much worse than those of the kNN and the CNN.

Yuan Zeng, Jiexiong Tang, Jan C. A. van der Lubbe, Marco Loog

Full Paper: Digital Cultural Heritage in Education, Learning and Training


“Human” Technology in the Digital Era: Freehand Images and Analysis of Cultural Heritage – The Know-How and Its Applications

Rapidly developing advanced methods and techniques often displace the traditional ones. But might such “traditional” perception of the “old” as hopelessly outdated cause us to overlook its intrinsic qualities? Could a relevance for actual disadvantages be suggested, could a traditionally time-consuming technology be transformed into an effective one, with its original values preserved? This paper reconsiders the role of freehand sketching in modern conservation of cultural heritage by shifting the main focus from the result to the process. It presents a method, combined with the rapid learning methodology for achieving this traditional artistic ability, and examines its focused application to the visual analysis of cultural heritage by non-artist users. This paper demonstrates its wide accessibility to the general public and conservation experts, and examines its uses in modern multi-and interdisciplinary conservation of built heritage through recent results of the application of the method in national and international projects.

Anna Lobovikov-Katz

Adult and Children User Experience with Leap Motion in Digital Heritage: The Cycladic Sculpture Application

Recent advances in low-cost sensor technologies, such as Microsoft Kinect and Leap Motion allow kinaesthetic interactions with interactive 3D applications. Museums and heritage institutions can significantly benefit from kinaesthetic applications that provide a more experiential approach for learning about cultural heritage; however detailed evaluations of the user experience are still scarce. This paper presents the development and user-centred evaluation of a cultural heritage application about sculpturing Cycladic figurines, which places users in the role of an ancient craftsman or sculptor who progressively creates a statue by selecting and applying the appropriate tools with bare-hand interactions tracked by the Leap Motion sensor. The evaluation of the user experience of ten adults and ten children in two subsequent studies reveals that users find the experience very positive and engaging but usability and tracking issues remain. We identify these issues and propose design guidelines to address them.

Panayiotis Koutsabasis, Spyros Vosinakis

Researching Knowledge Concerns in Virtual Historical Architecture

3D reconstructions have always been an important medium for teaching, illustrating and researching historical facts and items, especially architecture. Virtual representation is often created by cross-disciplinary workgroups, addressing a wide and heterogeneous audience. The authors investigated knowledge-related phenomena in four stages, using qualitative and quantitative research methods. The first stage focuses on the scope and overall relevance of virtual architecture within the field of digital heritage, and the second investigates phenomena related to the creation of virtual architectural representations. A third stage examines how skills and competencies for creating virtual architectural representations evolve during a project and whether teaching facilitates their development. Finally, a fourth stage evaluates how to design virtual building representations to make them comprehensible to a lay audience.

S. Münster, C. Kröber, H. Weller, N. Prechtel

Project Paper: Data Acquisition, Process and Management in Cultural Heritage


Surveying Illusory Architectures Painted on Vaulted Surfaces

This paper addresses the problem of surveying illusory architectures painted on vaulted surfaces. The survey of a quadratura, or a painting in general, requires recording the metric and chromatic characteristics of the subject and the typical characteristics of the painted surfaces, such as soot, engravings, and giornate. Our goals are the proposal of an “optimum” quality standard for surveying curved painted surfaces and testing a method to acquire and render the data that allows those standards to be met. The test, conducted on the corridor of Saint Ignatius of Loyola rooms in Rome depicted by Andrea Pozzo, shows how the quality of the texture can be measured in terms of overall sharpness and average resolution. It is also shown how it is possible to identify some reference standards that allow the quality of the final result to be determined already in the photography phase of the project.

Matteo Flavio Mancini, Marta Salvatore

The Application of Photogrammetry on Digitization and Promotion for Monuments and Temples in Taiwan - Taking Chua Family Ancestral Temple as an Example

This study carried out the digitization work for monuments and temples in Taiwan by using photogrammetry; used 3D Laser Scanning Point Cloud Data as the basic information for the result analysis of photogrammetry to get the accuracy assessment of photogrammetry and 3D laser scanning; and built the standard operation procedure of photogrammetry in Taiwan traditional temples. Moreover, in order to popularize the rapid modeling of photogrammetry, a workshop was held specially and used CIPA 3 × 3 rules which were published in annual meeting of CIPA2015 to carry out educational and learning work to combine the digitization of cultural property and public participation.

Wun-Bin Yang, Tsung-Juang Wang, Ya-Ning Yen

3D Acquisition, Processing and Visualization of Archaeological Artifacts

The Samarra Collection of the Museum of Islamic Art in Berlin

In the past decade there has been a steady increase in research projects dealing with the three-dimensional documentation of cultural heritage. While 3D-scanners and photogrammetry are widely used for documenting historical monuments and archaeological excavations, the application of this technology within museums has not yet been established within the daily work routine. Even though the benefits of 3D-documentation are quite manifold, usually only outstanding artifacts are being recorded in this manner due to the complex workflows for deriving datasets, which can be used for further research and knowledge transfer. The interdisciplinary research project MOSYS-3D has been dealing with the entire workflow ranging from data acquisition, pre- and postprocessing steps as well as testing different forms of visualizations.

Arie Kai-Browne, Kay Kohlmeyer, Julia Gonnella, Thomas Bremer, Susanne Brandhorst, Felix Balda, Sebastian Plesch, Dennis Lehmann

PHOTOCONSORTIUM: Digitizing Europe’s Photographic Heritage

Photoconsortium is an association of photographic archives that contributed over 450.000 images of early photography to Europeana. In this contribution we discuss lessons learned, in particular on digitization and copyright issues and describe the activities involved in managing state-of-the-art digitized photographic archives. We discuss follow-on project activities such as Europeana Space, which focuses on creative reuse of digitized cultural heritage and the Europeana thematic photography channel.

Frederik Truyen, Antonella Fresa

Acquisition and Processing Experiences of Close Range UAV Images for the 3D Modeling of Heritage Buildings

The use of image-based techniques to document heritage sites has seen a resurgence in recent years with advancements in optical sensors as well as computing power. The rise of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) also complements this technique, by providing the advantage of aerial view over traditional terrestrial image acquisition. Recently UAVs began to become more and more specialized towards specific tasks, 3D modeling and reconstruction being some of them. In this study the use of state of the art UAV dedicated for close range inspection is analysed. Several case studies were performed on historical buildings in Strasbourg, France. Processing was done by utilizing both commercial and open source photogrammetry and SfM (Structure from Motion) solutions. Both the quality of the aerotriangulation and the dense matching were studied. The final objective of this project is to adapt existing terrestrial image acquisition and processing protocols for use by UAVs.

Arnadi Murtiyoso, Pierre Grussenmeyer, Mathieu Koehl, Tristan Freville

Internal 3D Printing of Intricate Structures

Additive technologies are increasingly used in Cultural Heritage process, for example in order to reproduce, complete, study or exhibit artefacts. 3D copies are based on digitization techniques such as laser scan or photogrammetry. In this case, the 3d copy remains limited to the external surface of objects. Medical images based digitization such as MRI or CT scan are also increasingly used in CH as they provide information on the internal structure of archaeological material. Different previous works illustrated the interest of combining 3D printing and CT scan in order to extract concealed artefacts from larger archaeological material. The method was based on 3D segmentation techniques within volume data obtained by CT scan to isolate nested objects. This approach was useful to perform a digital extraction, but in some case it is also interesting to observe the internal spatial organization of an intricate object in order to understand its production process. We propose a method for the representation of a complex internal structure based on a combination of CT scan and emerging 3D printing techniques mixing colored and transparent parts. This method was successfully applied to visualize the interior of a funeral urn and is currently applied on a set of tools agglomerated in a gangue of corrosion.

Théophane Nicolas, Ronan Gaugne, Cédric Tavernier, Valérie Gouranton, Bruno Arnaldi

Towards Monuments’ Holistic Digital Documentation: the Saint Neophytos Enkleistriotis Case Study

The expansion of the term “monument” to include the surrounding area of the tangible cultural asset, its natural environment as well as the intangible data relating to its existence and use has gradually resulted the formation of the term “cultural landscapes”. “Monument” has evolved into “monumental place” and a “place with its own soul” and nowadays into a “unity” incorporating the multiple and diversified views which regard the one and single object, the cultural asset. In this paper and through the presented case study of Saint Neophytos Enkleistriotis monument, we attempt to move further on, from the view of the “unity” and the interdiscipilinary approach to the “holistic” view, treating the cultural asset as a “whole”; a “whole” which will have been created from the harmonious merge of all the multifaced entities of which it is comprised.

Marinos Ioannides, Charalabos Ioannidis, Archimadrite Neophytos Enkleistriotis, David Castrillo, Pavlos Chatzigrigoriou, Eirini Papageorgiou, Georgios Leventis, Vasiliki Nikolakopoulou, Vasilis Athanasiou, Fotis Bourexis, Sofia Soile, Styliani Verykokou, Maria Costi de Castrillo, Christian Sovis

Project Paper: Data, Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies in Cultural Heritage


First Experiences of Applying a Model Classification for Digital 3D Reconstruction in the Context of Humanities Research

While technological backgrounds, project opportunities, and methodological considerations for application are widely discussed, there is still no comprehensive classification scheme for digital 3D reconstruction in humanities research projects. Therefore we developed a prototype scheme in 2016. In this article we present the first results of applying this scheme and classifying five projects. Within this application we tested for intercoder reliability and for potential weaknesses of the scheme. While the reliability of the proposed scheme is generally good for categories with discrete values, qualitative categories result in highly differing coding.

Sander Münster, Cindy Kröber, Wolfgang Hegel, Mieke Pfarr-Harfst, Nikolas Prechtel, Rainer Uhlemann, Frank Henze

Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Balinese Kulkul Artefact and Practices

One of the goals of digital preservation of cultural heritage is to gather, refine, maintain, and share cultural resources that can subsequently be used and developed by scholars, members of the community, and future generations. We present the details of our research dealing with one aspect of Balinese culture, the Balinese traditional communication system (kulkul), undertaken in the Indonesian island of Bali. We introduce a new framework based on Balinese cultural principles (Tri Hita Karana and Desa Kala Patra) to capture, classify, and organize cultural artefact and practice knowledge, and design and develop an online digital portal prototype to enable the sharing and growth of knowledge related to the Balinese kulkul. This knowledge is held largely in tacit form in the Balinese community, poorly documented, and fragmented, which makes the preservation difficult and yet crucial. The aim of the project is to document, preserve, and educate the Balinese community and the younger generations in particular on an important aspect of Balinese culture. This community will be encouraged not only to learn about kulkul and related practices but also contribute their own knowledge to enable the online digital portal to evolve into a living repository of Balinese cultural knowledge. The basic kulkul knowledge and understanding was obtained through in-depth interviews with selected Balinese cultural experts and knowledgeable community members (Professors from a Balinese University, spiritual leaders, senior community leaders, and craftsmen). As part of the digital portal, our project also includes the development of a basic ontology of key kulkul-related concepts and terms, and their inter-relationships to support the semantic searching and browsing of online resources.

Cokorda Pramartha, Joseph G. Davis

Interconnecting Objects, Visitors, Sites and (Hi)Stories Across Cultural and Historical Concepts: The CrossCult Project

Human History, is a huge mesh of interrelated facts and concepts, spanning beyond borders, encompassing global aspects and finally constituting a shared, global experience. This is especially the case regarding European history, which is highly interconnected by nature; however, most History-related experiences that are today offered to the greater public, from schools to museums, are siloed. The CrossCult project aims to provide the means for offering citizens and cultural venue visitors a more holistic view of history, in the light of cross-border interconnections among pieces of cultural heritage, other citizens viewpoints and physical venues. To this end, the CrossCult project will built a comprehensive knowledge base encompassing information and semantic relationships across cultural information elements, and will provide the technological means for delivering the contents of this knowledge base to citizens and venue visitors in a highly personalized manner, creating narratives for the interactive experiences that maximise situational curiosity and serendipitous learning. The CrossCult platform will also exploit the cognitive/emotional profiles of the participants as well as temporal, spatial and miscellaneous features of context, including holidays and anniversaries, social media trending topics and so forth.

Costas Vassilakis, Angeliki Antoniou, George Lepouras, Manolis Wallace, Ioanna Lykourentzou, Yannick Naudet

Project Paper: 3D Reconstruction and 3D Modelling

Debate and Considerations on Using Videos for Cultural Heritage from Social Media for 3D Modelling

Social media can be used as a new source of information by archaeologists and cultural heritage experts to access cultural heritage-related videos for creating 3D models using Structure for Motion techniques. There is a vast amount of data now available on social media, which are posted every day on the internet. However, there is confusion regarding if such data is considered fair use, public domain, creative commons or copyrighted. Indeed, social medias, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, have different regulations regarding ownership and republishing videos. This paper will discuss how social media can be used for cultural heritage research, especially if video data is used, transformed or repurposed for 3D modelling.

Kyriacos Themistocleous

Investigations of Low-Cost Systems for 3D Reconstruction of Small Objects

In this paper geometric investigations are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the low-cost recording systems DAVID SLS-1 and Microsoft® Kinect for sustainable use in applications for architecture, cultural heritage and archaeology. From the data recorded with DAVID SLS-1 and Microsoft® Kinect 3D models were produced by different programs and these were examined in relation to handling, quality and reliability in further post processing. For the investigations a number of 3D objects with different surface forms, including a test body, were scanned using the structured light system ATOS I 2M from GOM as references. To compare the results of the Kinect and the SLS-1, digital surface models of this test body were automatically generated using image-based low-cost recording systems (Nikon D7000). As a result of these 3D comparisons to the ATOS reference data a standard deviation of 1.5 and/or 1.6 mm was obtained with the structured light system SLS-1 and/or with the Kinect, while with the image-based 3D reconstruction methods of VisualSFM/CMVS a higher standard deviation of up to 0.2 mm was achieved. Although the introduced low-cost structured light system David SLS-1 could not show the geometrical accuracy of a high end system (ATOS I) of approx. 0.04 mm, it is useful for the 3D recording of smaller objects (size up to 50 cm) with a reduced accuracy for several different applications.

Thomas P. Kersten, Daniel Omelanowsky, Maren Lindstaedt

Digital Documentation: Villa Borghese

The knowledge of historical and architectural heritage is today reinforced by the growing use of digital instruments serving the purpose of documenting and disseminating data. The development techniques to build 3D models made them pivotal elements in popularizing information on objects on the scale of architectonic structures. Digital archives supplement 3D models with heterogeneous data (2D models, images, texts, video materials, bibliographical documents) with the purpose to preserve, evaluate and popularize cultural heritage (CH) by devising an open system of knowledge. This study puts forward a critical operative method and some guidelines to record, construct, manage, visualize and navigate 3D models with a view to achieving a full comprehension of the architecture in their own context, permitting to discover their inter-relationships through a digital archive.

Martina Attenni, Cristiana Bartolomei, Alfonso Ippolito

Digital 3D Reconstructed Models – Structuring Visualisation Project Workflows

Cultural Heritage (CH) visualisations have to be understood as a combination of research sources, the contemporary historical and cultural context (Zeitgeist), project background and work process. All available information is collected, consolidated, filtered and assembled into a coherent picture. In case of digital 3D reconstructed models, the result is a digital data set that can be processed for different application fields. They are understood as a result of a complex creative process and as a synthesis of a CH research project, its CH context, the available research source material, and the modeling process itself. For all visualisation types in CH different conditions, factors, and basic rules apply to achieve a high quality result. Two examples are presented illustrating the structured view on visualisation projects as such. This paper seeks to differentiate the various research sources being the basis for digital 3D reconstructed models and defines work phases allowing a quality assessment. Furthermore, the potentials of including this structured view into the ontology COSCHKR currently under development is discussed. In combindation with traditional guidelines COSCHKR platform could open up new and flexible approaches.

Mieke Pfarr-Harfst, Stefanie Wefers

Reconstruction of Wooden “Polish Manor”

Historical manor houses form an important part of Polish cultural heritage. Manors referred to one storey bricked or, more frequently, wooden buildings. The aim of this study consists in a historical, stylistic, structural and functional analysis of Polish manors and in the reconstruction design of a wooden manor house forming part of a homestead in the Museum of Folk Culture in Kolbuszowa.

Anna Rozanska, Wojciech Koryciński

Project Paper: Heritage Building Information Models (HBIM)


Digital Tools for Heritage Preservation and Enhancement

The Integration of Processes and Technologies on 20th Century Buildings in Brazil and India

Currently the 20th century architectures are all over the world in danger and under attack: these buildings (in many cases designed by international renowned professionals) are facing a silent destruction. Day by day they are slowly modified in terms of materials, volumes, colours or even demolished. These architectures are still used for public purposes or as residential buildings but they are usually in bad conditions and their state of materials conservation is quite poor. This on-going research explores in depth the possibility to preserve and valorize modern heritage in Brazil and India by the integration of 3D tools, processes and technologies in order to face the future preservation challenges. Soon after the research process the main topics of the project were evaluated and studied to create the bases for a structured research path. In parallel the case study assessment was able to identify suitable buildings (both in Brazil and India) on the which the chosen topics are now being applied in order to improve the knowledge on the design process and reach a guidelines proposal for the preservation and enhancement of these architectures.

Luca Rossato

From Integrated Survey to the Parametric Modeling of Degradations. A Feasible Workflow

This work fits into an international research field about 3D modeling to evaluate the Building Information Model performance for infographic representation of Cultural Heritage. Modeling an historic building involves the creation of parametric objects library starting by data survey. The primary purpose of the research is the translation of these information into a parametric model, through the definition of a proper methodology. The main focus of the research is the creation of parametric object representing the preservation status of material and building components: some recurring schemes of the traditional representation have been identified, in order to find a methodology that leads to link these data to the HBIM (Historic BIM) model, improving their capabilities.

Massimiliano Lo Turco, Federico Caputo, Gabriele Fusaro

INCEPTION Standard for Heritage BIM Models

The EU Project INCEPTION will create a platform that is able to exchange content according to state-of-the-art available open BIM standards. This INCEPTION open Heritage BIM platform is not only exchanging data according to existing state-of-the-art standards, but it is based on a new Heritage BIM model using Semantic Web technology. This allows applications to retrieve content according to modern query languages like SPARQL and allows user defined ‘on-the-fly’ extensions of the standard. This paper describes the structure and development of this new Heritage BIM standard. The Heritage BIM standard is developed by several Semantic Web and BIM standardization specialists in combination with top experts in the field of Cultural Heritage, all of them partners within the INCEPTION project.

Peter Bonsma, Iveta Bonsma, Anna Elisabetta Ziri, Silvia Parenti, Pedro Martín Lerones, José Luis Hernández, Federica Maietti, Marco Medici, Beatrice Turillazzi, Ernesto Iadanza

From SfM to Semantic-Aware BIM Objects of Architectural Elements

The huge diffusion of Building Information Modeling approaches in the field of architectural design has characterized the research of the last decades; however very little research has been undertaken to explore the advantages and criticalities of BIM methodologies in Cultural Heritage domain. Moreover, the last developments in digital photogrammetry lead to easily generate reliable low cost 3D textured models, that can be used to create semantic-aware objects of reusable library of historical architectural elements. The aim is to test a novel workflow practitioner centered, based on the use of the latest solutions for point cloud managing into BIM.

Massimiliano Lo Turco, Cettina Santagati

Project Paper: Novel Approaches to Landscapes in Cultural Heritage


Observing Landscape Changes Around the Nicosia Old Town Center Using Multi-temporal Datasets

In 1980s a significant boom in construction industry was witnessed in Cyprus. This paper explores the changes of land use that have occurred over the past 30 years around the historical capital of Nicosia, in particular around the core of the historic city defined by the Venetian walls. Further to some Open geospatial Data available within the national and regional geo-portals, the research has focused on the use and exploitation of freely accessible satellite imagery (such as Landsat and Sentinel imagery) and other archive aerial datasets in order to observe the most recent modifications of the urban landscapes. The changes occurred over time were observed using multi-spectral multi-temporal dataset with main aim to create thematic maps for further interpretation. The changes were hence identified, mapped and structured so as to emphasise different types and density of urban development affecting the surrounding landscapes and potential “hot-spots”. Such observations could be a valuable input to the future urban development of Nicosia.

Branka Cuca, Athos Agapiou, Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis

Towards the Sustainable Development of Cultural Landscapes Through Two Case Studies on Different Scale

Since the beginning of the twentieth century the definition of Cultural Heritage has gradually expanded from the scale of individual monument to the scale of cultural landscapes. The broadening of the term has at the same time increased the complexity of the information originating from different domains and being on different scales and forms. In this context, the objectives as well as the challenges involved in the Cultural Heritage sector have become highly diversified, often leading to fragmented and less successful interventions which do not conform with the principles of Sustainable Development. Therefore Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development should correlate with each another. Pursuing the achievement of sustainable models of development for cultural landscapes, this paper investigates how the factor of scale can act as a linkage between the fields of Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development.

Eirini Papageorgiou

The Fortification System of the City of Urbino: The Case Study of Valbona Gate from 3D Surveys to GIS Applications for Dynamic Maps

The city walls of the city of Urbino, originally Metaurense Urvinum, today represent the result of an evolution that has antique origins, from protohistoric settlements to the first Roman ruins, up to its current conformation, expression of the important Renaissance period. We present a study of documentation, survey and analysis of the various parts of the walls, analysed in their entirety and in individual elements, among these we focus on the main access gate to the historic centre, Valbona Gate. The integration of avant-garde technologies during all the phases, from the survey to the graphic rendering, up to advanced management with GIS instruments allows us to have a picture of the architectural reality both of the present and the past, fundamental for scheduled maintenance and for planning future conservation interventions. The geometric and morphological survey brought the process to completion with the problems relating to deterioration, the understanding of the situation of the pathologies and the descriptive dimension of the architectural elements in a complete bi- and tri-dimensional GIS system that allows us to take advantage of a complete series of processing and statistical assessment capabilities. The project is part of a wider program of research on the walled city of Urbino, wherein the analysis of the city walls integrates with the diachronic analysis of its expansion and the geomorphological context in which it is found as well as a 3D City Model and the analysis and management of the built environment, current and archaeological.

Sara Bertozzi, Laura Baratin, Elvio Moretti

Project Paper: Innovative Methods on Risk Assessment, Monitoring and Protection of Cultural Heritage


Disaster-Risk Indicators and Their Evaluation, Communication for Traditional Settlement

Disaster-risk management has become an important issue in the conservation of cultural heritage since the beginning of 21st century. However the implementation procedure of the disaster-risk management was mainly focused on single monument and short of the research for the settlements which is still a big challenge for us. In 2005, to comply with the international trend, Taiwan amended the Cultural Heritage Conservation Act, in which settlements as a new category of monuments were declared – “Settlement: a group of building s, street houses, settlements which have architectural style, landscape, historical, artistic or scientific value.” This research develops disaster-risk indicators for the traditional settlement and takes Quion-lin settlement, a World Heritage potential site as an example, analyzing the procedure to set up a network of conservation value and the disaster-risk indicators for traditional settlement. GIS will play as an important tool for the integration and communication within the stakeholders.

Alex Ya-Ning Yen, Chin-Fang Cheng

Pervasive Wireless Sensor Networks for the Monitoring of Large Monumental Structures: The Case of the Ancient City Walls of Siena

In this paper, a solution for the pervasive monitoring of large monumental structures based on the use of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. In particular, the paper focuses on the case of the Ancient City Walls of the city of Siena, Italy, that still surround the whole historic centre and require a real time monitoring of the cracks present in several points.Two different network topologies are presented for the deployment of a pervasive monitoring infrastructure, and a novel sensing platform based on the use of Hall effect based sensors is presented. The architecture of the whole sensor node is described, together with the laboratory test phase that proves the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The proposed solution is expected to be deployed in a 1.8 Km section of the city walls in the next months.

Alessandro Pozzebon, Tommaso Addabbo, Ada Fort, Marco Mugnaini, Enza Panzardi, Valerio Vignoli

Project Paper: Digital Applications for Materials’ Preservation and Conservation in Cultural Heritage


The SACRE Project: A Diagnosis Tool of Built Heritage

The SACRE project is a research project which aims to create a tool to help the professionals in charge of preservation and restoration of cultural heritage buildings. The objective of this project was to develop a working methodology and create the technological tools necessary to implement this methodology. This project describes the steps the development of the digital health record of a building. This project focused on the study and understanding of the mechanisms of degradation of limestone, the main material for building construction. The Castle of Chambord was chosen to be the subject of this study.

Sarah Janvier-Badosa, Kévin Beck, Xavier Brunetaud, Muzahim Al-Mukhtar

Pigments Identification Using Raman Spectroscopy of the 16th Century Printed Book “Osorio”

Croatia has possessed books continuously since the Middle Age. One of the most beautiful examples of the 16th century Prandau-Normann collection is the description of the reign of the King of Portugal Emanuel (1st) has been written by Hieronymus Osorio − Hieronymi Osorii Lvsitani Silvensis in Algarbiis episcope, printed in the printing house of Arnold Birckmann, one of the three most famous Middle Age printers in Köln. Dr. Igor Lukačević, in his experimental work [1] showed that a pigment palette is a common one for the period between 16th and 19th century. Three complementary, non-invasive spectroscopic techniques were used: micro-Raman spectroscopy, PIXE spectroscopy and UV-VIS FORS spectroscopy. Several pigments were identified, like vermilion or cinnabar and minium, white lead and massicot. However, pigments from blue, light blue and green coloured regions could not be determined uniquely, leaving the authors’ palette incomplete. Fluorescence, coming from the usage of the Ar+ laser, was the main negative factor during the Raman experiments. For some of the pigments, it was so intense that it covered all of the pigments spectral lines. Dr. Theodore Ganetsos, during his visit in Croatia, used a portable Raman Spectrometer (laser 785 nm) [2, 3], which would not induce such fluorescence and, consequently, more Raman lines are presented, making the pigment identification more definite and authors’ palette complete. We identified ponsjakite to the dark blue area, from the results of PIXE and the Raman peaks.

Igor Lukačević, Theodore Ganetsos, Thomas Katsaros

Design and Application of a Data System for the Comparative Study of Historic Mortars

Mortars are among the first building materials used in constructions and have played a significant role in building technology’s evolution. A large number of mortar samples were systematically analyzed, leading to the need of a flexible data system in order to evaluate and comparatively study all results. This system allowed recording and classifying the data input (physico-mechanical, chemical characteristics), according to the mortar type (structural, renders-plasters, mosaic-mural substrates). With a specific toolbox all information could be easily sorted and comparatively - statistically evaluated, while the data input could be updated for future needs. The basic goal of the data system was to manage the information regarding historic mortars, but throughout its use it seems that a lot of other parameters could be also envisaged. It could therefore become a necessary tool for any scientist engaged to the field of restoration materials and techniques.

Vasiliki Pachta, Ioanna Papayianni

GIS Applications for a New Approach to the Analysis of Panel Paintings

A work of art, considered in its complexity and in its evolution over time, requires knowledge and thorough study in order to arrive at its correct interpretation, a prerequisite for any conservation and maintenance interventions. The evaluation of the preliminary information on the work of art and its analytical reading are closely interrelated to a careful and critical use of the technical and operational instruments defined in a comprehensive and focused methodological programme. Information technology and the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge lead to making even more powerful forms of support available for a phase of documentation, as a means of investigation and organisation of the information, followed by analysis and processing that implement the knowledge of the work of art. Instruments for the 3D surveys of the panels and software for processing and post-processing allow us to obtain digital models of the surveyed surfaces, which are implemented in the GIS environment. We take advantage of the advanced analytical and management capacities, normally applied to the territory, with a simple change of scale, allowing us to carry out detailed investigations on the painting, on the paint film and on the supporting panel. Quantitative evaluations of the metric/statistical type on the spatial distribution of the elements are flanked both by colourimetric analysis, vectorising the RGB components and extrapolating the useful information, and by graphic analysis of the iconographic composition and on the conservation status. We then process the three-dimensional data relative to the morphology of the panel, allowing the identification of any critical aspects or elements of deterioration, until reaching a geometrical comparison among subsequent acquisitions that allows us to identify any displacement due to modifications of the support. The application of the method also allows us to define a comparison between diverse sensing systems to verify their accuracy and effectiveness, in a perspective of programmed management of interventions that will optimise costs and benefits and predispose the elevation profiles to study the morphological evolution along particular lines of interest. The GIS application in a field which is so different from the usual context of usage provides innovative scenarios and various potentials of data analysis and processing.

Laura Baratin, Sara Bertozzi, Elvio Moretti, Roberto Saccuman

Project Paper: Visualisation, VR and AR Methods and Applications


‘Translation’ and Fruition of an Ancient Book Through Virtual Reality in the Case of Lost Cultural Heritage

Case Study: “Inscriptiones” by Emmanuel Thesaurus

This article presents a methodology for historical information fruition, such as ancient books texts, in the tourism field. The case study highlights the great possibility that virtual reality (VR) offers to Cultural Heritage professionals in terms of communication and awareness raising of end users. This methodology, applied to the rare 17th century book by Emmanuel Thesaurus “Inscriptiones quotquot reperiri potuerunt Opera ed diligentia Emmanuelis Philiberti Panealbi”, allows us to show the lost seventeenth-century traits of the Marble Hall in Palazzo di Città (Turin). Tourists can be immersed in a virtual space based on the words of the ancient book within the real space of the Hall, which let him relive the early baroque project atmosphere. Through this work, it is possible to show how the use of cutting-edge ICT, such as BIM, can impact both on research and society, by arousing the public interest for Cultural Heritage and shared understanding.

Sanaz Davardoust, Anna Osello, Rosa Tamborrino

An Interdisciplinary Study on the Ancient Egyptian Wines: The Egywine Project

This article presents the research results of the ‘Irep en Kemet’ Project that studies the Ancient Egyptian wine culture and the newly developed website of the research project [] to transfer the knowledge and disseminate the results. For the first time, the corpus of the viticulture and winemaking scenes in the ancient Egyptian private tombs has been developed, together with the bibliographical and scene-detail databases. The second phase of the ‘Irep en Kemet’ website includes an interactive archaeological map of Egypt with the viticulture and winemaking scenes, and also the databases and the results of the research. Moreover, the objectives and preliminary results of the EGYWINE project that investigates the wine jars and wine inscriptions, and the ancient DNA of the Egyptian wines, are presented.

Maria Rosa Guasch-Jané

ArchaeoInside: Multimodal Visualization of Augmented Reality and Interaction with Archaeological Artifacts

This paper reports on a system named ArchaeoInside designed in order to offer a virtual environment for archaeological exploration with large access to public, researchers and museum curators. ArchaeoInside project aims at recording, classifying, digitizing, accessing and presenting archaeological sites and artifacts in Augmented Reality.

Kadar Manuella, Domsa Ovidiu

DICE: Digital Immersive Cultural Environment

A Digital Immersive Cultural Environment (DICE) consists of a VR/AR (virtual & augmented reality) platform, a CMS (Content Management System) and a GIS (Geographic Information System) for geo-referencing both space and content and for providing immersive navigation in the VR/AR space. Such a platform offers 3D reconstruction of space, geo-coding of the virtual space in actual geographic coordinates and overlay capabilities with real georeferenced space. The coupling of a CMS with a GIS associates information and data with the geographic coordinates of the VR/AR space, thus making available content on demand in accordance to spatial point of interest within the VR/AR space and immersive navigation in both VR and AR spaces. Incorporation of simulation platforms, localization technologies, motion tracking technologies and VR UI’s, creates a fully interactive immersive VR/AR ecosystem, beyond the state of the art, with augmented capabilities in education, training, entertainment, content creation, etc.

Stelios C. A. Thomopoulos, Adam Doulgerakis, Maria Bessa, Konstantinos Dimitros, Giorgos Farazis, Eftichia Georgiou, Tassos Kanellos, Christina Karafylli, Maria Karafylli, Dimitris M. Kyriazanos, Vassilios I. Kountouriotis, Vassilis Lampropoulos, Christos Margonis, Christos Maroglou, Dionisis Motos, Alexandra Papagianni, Manolis Paterakis, Katerina Skroumpelou, Giorgos Konstandinos Thanos, Ino-Eleni Theodorou, Christina Phobe Thomopoulos, Panagiotis Tsimpiridis, Dimitris Zacharakis, Andreas Zalonis

Project Paper: The New Era of Museums and Exhibitions: Digital Engagement and Dissemination


Imaging Novecento. A Mobile App for Automatic Recognition of Artworks and Transfer of Artistic Styles

Imaging Novecento is a native mobile application that can be used to get insights on artworks in the “Museo Novecento” in Florence, IT. The App provides smart paradigms of interaction to ease the learning of the Italian art history of the 20$$^{th}$$th century. Imaging Novecento exploits automatic approaches and gamification techniques with recreational and educational purposes. Its main goal is to reduce the cognitive effort of users versus the complexity and the numerosity of artworks present in the museum. To achieve this the App provides automatic artwork recognition. It also uses gaming, in terms of a playful user interface which features state-of-the-art algorithms for artistic style transfer. Automated processes are exploited as a mean to attract visitors, approaching them to even lesser known aspects of the history of art.

Federico Becattini, Andrea Ferracani, Lea Landucci, Daniele Pezzatini, Tiberio Uricchio, Alberto Del Bimbo

Towards the Design of a User-Friendly and Trustworthy Mobile System for Museums

Designing mobile applications for enhancing user visiting experiences in museums is a current trend. This paper discusses the current work on mobile applications that are dedicated to museums. Following a specific methodology, we propose specific user and app classification requirements. Based on those requirements, we present the design of a user-friendly and trustworthy mobile system prototype that includes functionality needed from such institutions. We adopt suitable authorization mechanisms permitting specific operations to various user groups. We evaluate the proposed system design comparing it with other known systems following a specific usage scenario. We feel that this study could help on the design and implementation of trustworthy mobile-based museum visiting applications.

Kostas Koukoulis, Dimitrios Koukopoulos

Project Paper: Serious Games for Cultural Heritage


Project iMARECULTURE: Advanced VR, iMmersive Serious Games and Augmented REality as Tools to Raise Awareness and Access to European Underwater CULTURal heritagE

The project iMARECULTURE is focusing in raising European identity awareness using maritime and underwater cultural interaction and exchange in Mediterranean Sea. Commercial ship routes joining Europe with other cultures are vivid examples of cultural interaction, while shipwrecks and submerged sites, unreachable to wide public are excellent samples that can benefit from immersive technologies, augmented and virtual reality. The projects aim to bring inherently unreachable underwater cultural heritage within digital reach of the wide public using virtual visits and immersive technologies. Apart from reusing existing 3D data of underwater shipwrecks and sites, with respect to ethics, rights and licensing, to provide a personalized dry visit to a museum visitor or augmented reality to the diver, it also emphasizes on developing pre- and after- encounter of the digital or physical museum visitor. The former one is implemented exploiting geospatial enabled technologies for developing a serious game of sailing over ancient Mediterranean and the latter for an underwater shipwreck excavation game. Both games are realized thought social media, in order to facilitate information exchange among users. The project supports dry visits providing immersive experience through VR Cave and 3D info kiosks on museums or through the web. Additionally, aims to significantly enhance the experience of the diver, visitor or scholar, using underwater augmented reality in a tablet and an underwater housing. The consortium is composed by universities and SMEs with experience in diverse underwater projects, existing digital libraries, and people many of which are divers themselves.

D. Skarlatos, P. Agrafiotis, T. Balogh, F. Bruno, F. Castro, B. Davidde Petriaggi, S. Demesticha, A. Doulamis, P. Drap, A. Georgopoulos, F. Kikillos, P. Kyriakidis, F. Liarokapis, C. Poullis, S. Rizvic

Immersivity and Playability Evaluation of a Game Experience in Cultural Heritage

The introduction in the market of head-mounted displays (HDMs), originally used for gaming, opens the door to a wide set of application fields that could benefit of characteristics, such as immersivity, presence as well as a high degree of realism. In the field of Cultural Heritage, an immersive virtual experience can enhance playfulness and involvement in the fruition of a cultural experience, by determining a more efficient knowledge absorption and retention of the learnt content.In this work we introduce a prototype of a Serious Game in Cultural Heritage, named HippocraticaCivitasGame, designed and implemented to foster playfulness and learning effectiveness. We also performed an evaluation study to assess users’ perceived immersivity and playability, as well as the effectiveness when analyzing the acquired knowledge about the archaeological site structure and the proposed learning goal.

Roberto Andreoli, Angela Corolla, Armando Faggiano, Delfina Malandrino, Donato Pirozzi, Mirta Ranaldi, Gianluca Santangelo, Vittorio Scarano

Tirolcraft: The Quest of Children to Playing the Role of Planners at a Heritage Protected Town

The main goal of the article is to explore the potential of Minecraft as a platform to engage children into participatory planning. The game enables the players to easily design using blocks to build structures like houses, playgrounds, lakes, vegetation, agriculture, etc. The area of study is a town called Tirol, a heritage protected settlement built by austrian immigrants in the municipality of Santa Leopoldina, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This article advances on the state of the art by articulating the potential of Minecraft as a game-based learning into urban participatory planning with children as protagonists actors of rethinking the city. Also, the game enables children to design appropriating themselves on the concept of “child-friendly city” and discussing their design ideas with each other collaboratively. The results indicate that children can learn and work on a playful way to collaborate on urban planning processes, and widens open new researches possibilities.

Bruno Amaral de Andrade, Ítalo Sousa de Sena, Ana Clara Mourão Moura

Pervasive Game Utilizing WiFi Fingerprinting-based Localization

The ability to find out a geographical position of a user is one of the unique features of today’s mobile devices. The aim of this work is to suggest and implement a pervasive game for the Android operating system which will utilize two methods of the localization of the mobile device simultaneously. The application should guide the user through historical sites and other places of interest in the town. It could increase their attendance as well. The combination of the two ways of the localization will allow us to achieve two goals. First, to verify if the user is really located at the given place (i.e. that he/she did not mock his/her position via Developer Options at the Android system). Second, to create and update our own database of WiFi fingerprints usable for faster WiFi-based localization.

Filip Maly, Pavel Kriz, Michael Adamec

Project Paper: Digital Cultural Heritage in Education, Learning and Training



An Educational Experiment with Augmented Reality, Cityscapes and Campusscapes in Brussels

In 2015 in Flanders (Belgium) an ErfgoedApp (heritage app) was launched. It was developed by Vidinoti and FARO with PixLive. The program allows to construct and use Augmented Reality applications, linked to heritage items, collections and institutions. In 2015–2016 master students in archaeology, arts sciences and archivists experimented with the app, as part of the course work. They managed to produce applications that work, provided feedback to further develop the App and offered reflection on the relation between heritage work, cityscapes and augmented reality and the differences between working with or towards texts or visual information. Low or no cost for distributing and using the applications in practice in heritage and academic contexts proved possible.

Marc Jacobs, Morien Schroyen, Joke Vanderschoot

Contextualizing 3D Cultural Heritage

An increasing number of cultural heritage 3D models are being made public via the 3D-party platform, ‘Sketchfab’. This is a hugely popular way to share cultural heritage with a wide audience. The British Museum’s model of the Granite head of Amenemhat III has been viewed online 61,500 times and downloaded 3,000 times (as of writing). This paper will explore Ancient History Encyclopedia’s project to include 3D models on their website, and how doing so helps contextualize an object, creating a deeper learning experience for the reader of our content and the viewer of a model.

James Lloyd

Crowdsourcing Cultural Heritage: From 3D Modeling to the Engagement of Young Generations

Monitoring, digitizing and archiving museum artworks represent an important socio-cultural accomplishment and an overcoming in digital preservation today. Cultural heritage is constantly under threat of terrorist attacks and natural disaster. The high costs related to documentation task have prevented a constantly and massive survey activity. The low cost 3D image based acquisition and elaboration techniques of an object, allow to carry out a 3D photorealistic model in a short time. Therefore, a lot of museum adopted these techniques for the artworks archiving. Crowdsourcing activities can significantly speed up survey and elaboration procedures. If, on the one hand, these initiatives can have a positive impact, on the other hand involve the online user with a marginal role. In this paper we demonstrate how it is appropriate thinking the museum visitor as “museum operator/maker” of the digital model overstepping the outcomes achieved so far.

Laura Inzerillo, Cettina Santagati

Training Schools for Conservation of Cultural Heritage: Between Expertise, Management and Education

Training schools make an important feature of the European research landscape, fostering exchange in frontier research, and building basis for further research and development. How the cross-area, management and educational issues can be effectively put together in training schools, and specifically, for the benefit of a multi- and interdisciplinary field of conservation of cultural built heritage? This paper showcases the experience from the first lessons of the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action i2MHB (Innovation in Intelligent Management of Heritage Buildings), to examine and suggest tools useful for further multidisciplinary synergies and networks in this and other frameworks.

Anna Lobovikov-Katz, Gumersindo Bueno Benito, Vanesa Marcos Sánchez, Joao Martins, Dalik Sojref

Educational Creative Use and Reuse of Digital Cultural Heritage Data for Cypriot UNESCO Monuments

Nowadays, there is a rising demand of reusing the constantly enriched information from heritage digitalization in different ways. One of the objectives of the EU Europeana Space project is the development of a holistic approach for educating people (grown-ups and kids) on Monuments that are listed at UNESCO world heritage list, in Cyprus. The proposed model action is based on the cross cultural approach which, at the same time, responds to the contemporary pedagogical and methodological directions. The system uses innovative digital heritage resources to help the user learn about the different phases of the monument, the history, the architectural value and the conservation stage. The result is a responsive educational platform, where every Monument is a different course and every course is addressed to different age groups. Moreover, part of our future work is the evaluation of the platform by particular groups of our target users.

Marinos Ioannides, Pavlos Chatzigrigoriou, Vasilis Bokolas, Vasiliki Nikolakopoulou, Vasilis Athanasiou, Eirini Papageorgiou, Georgios Leventis, Christian Sovis

Time-Travelling with Mobile Augmented Reality: A Case Study on the Piazza dei Miracoli

This paper presents a new application in the field of cultural heritage, allowing outdoor site exploration throughout different periods of time, based on Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) technology. The purpose of this research is to allow a free interaction metaphor between users and heritage landmarks, and to enrich their travel experience with important historic facts. We use Metaio SDK to implement this concept within an Android application. We take the specific case of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Cathedral and the Baptistery, all key landmarks from Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, to prove the usefulness of this paradigm. Five epochs are presented within the application, together with key data about each of them. We assess the usability and engagement of this application by conducting a study with 15 users. The results obtained from the user evaluation show that the concept is not only valid, but also attracting to most of the people. The findings suggest that this kind of applications may attract more visitors while also enhancing their visiting experience.

Mihai Duguleana, Raffaello Brodi, Florin Girbacia, Cristian Postelnicu, Octavian Machidon, Marcello Carrozzino


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