Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology 3/2022

15-07-2021 | Original Paper

Does Leader Same-sex Sexual Orientation Matter to Leadership Effectiveness? A Four-study Model-testing Investigation

Authors: Gang Wang, David S. Steffensen Jr, Pamela L. Perrewé, Gerald R. Ferris, Samantha L. Jordan

Published in: Journal of Business and Psychology | Issue 3/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States (U.S.) and an increasing number of out gay and lesbian business leaders, we have little knowledge of the role played by leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation in the leadership process. To fill this important research void, we drew from a recent theoretical model on leaders’ sexual orientation and conducted four experimental studies designed to test and retest whether leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation affects followers’ leadership perceptions and conformity to influence attempts, and how the intersectionality of leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation with leaders’ gender orientation and follower characteristics may modify the influences of leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation on the follower outcomes. Based on over 2,100 working adults in the U.S., the results of the four studies, where leaders were depicted as charismatic, indicate that leaders’ same-sex sexual orientation could have negative impacts on the follower outcomes. However, same-sex sexual orientation leaders did not suffer double stigma penalization by having additional marginalized identities (e.g., also being women). Female followers were more supportive of same-sex sexual orientation leaders than male followers. Our research advances knowledge of and responds to calls for more research attention to leader sexual orientation in the leadership process. Research and practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
go back to reference Aguinis, H., & Bradley, K. J. (2014). Best practice recommendations for designing and implementing experimental vignette methodology studies. Organizational Research Methods, 17(4), 351–371. CrossRef Aguinis, H., & Bradley, K. J. (2014). Best practice recommendations for designing and implementing experimental vignette methodology studies. Organizational Research Methods, 17(4), 351–371. CrossRef
go back to reference Aguinis, H., & Lawal, S. O. (2012). Conducting field experiments using eLancing’s natural environment. Journal of Business Venturing, 27, 493–505. CrossRef Aguinis, H., & Lawal, S. O. (2012). Conducting field experiments using eLancing’s natural environment. Journal of Business Venturing, 27, 493–505. CrossRef
go back to reference Aguinis, H., & Lawal, S. O. (2013). eLancing: A review and research agenda for bridging the science–practice gap. Human Resource Management Review, 23(1), 6–17. CrossRef Aguinis, H., & Lawal, S. O. (2013). eLancing: A review and research agenda for bridging the science–practice gap. Human Resource Management Review, 23(1), 6–17. CrossRef
go back to reference Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., Volpone, S. D., & Malka, A. (2015). Are companies beholden to bias? The impact of leader race on consumer purchasing behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 127, 85–102. CrossRef Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., Volpone, S. D., & Malka, A. (2015). Are companies beholden to bias? The impact of leader race on consumer purchasing behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 127, 85–102. CrossRef
go back to reference Avolio, B. J. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory-building. American Psychologist, 62, 25–33. PubMedCrossRef Avolio, B. J. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory-building. American Psychologist, 62, 25–33. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bartol, K. M., Evans, C. J., & Stith, M. T. (1978). Black versus white leaders: A comparative review of the literature. Academy of Management Review, 3(2), 293–304. CrossRef Bartol, K. M., Evans, C. J., & Stith, M. T. (1978). Black versus white leaders: A comparative review of the literature. Academy of Management Review, 3(2), 293–304. CrossRef
go back to reference Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Free Press: Collier Macmillan. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Free Press: Collier Macmillan.
go back to reference Bialik, C. (April 15, 2011). Sexual stats in the post-Kinsey age. The Wall Street Journal. Bialik, C. (April 15, 2011). Sexual stats in the post-Kinsey age. The Wall Street Journal.
go back to reference Blashill, A. J., & Powlishta, K. K. (2009). The impact of sexual orientation and gender role on evaluations of men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10, 160–173. CrossRef Blashill, A. J., & Powlishta, K. K. (2009). The impact of sexual orientation and gender role on evaluations of men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10, 160–173. CrossRef
go back to reference Breslin, R. A., Pandey, S., & Riccucci, N. M. (2017). Intersectionality in public leadership research: A review and future research agenda. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 37, 160–182. CrossRef Breslin, R. A., Pandey, S., & Riccucci, N. M. (2017). Intersectionality in public leadership research: A review and future research agenda. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 37, 160–182. CrossRef
go back to reference Burns, C., & Krehely, J. (2011). Gay and transgender people face high rates of workplace discrimination and harassment. Working paper, Center for American Progress. Burns, C., & Krehely, J. (2011). Gay and transgender people face high rates of workplace discrimination and harassment. Working paper, Center for American Progress.
go back to reference Caleo, S. (2016). Are organizational justice rules gendered? Reactions to men’s and women’s justice violations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 1422–1435. PubMedCrossRef Caleo, S. (2016). Are organizational justice rules gendered? Reactions to men’s and women’s justice violations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 1422–1435. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carstensen, L. L. (1991). Selectivity theory: Social activity in life-span context. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 11(1), 195–217. Carstensen, L. L. (1991). Selectivity theory: Social activity in life-span context. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 11(1), 195–217.
go back to reference Carstensen, L. L. (1992). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 7(3), 331–338. PubMedCrossRef Carstensen, L. L. (1992). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 7(3), 331–338. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chatman, J. A. (1991). Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 459–484. CrossRef Chatman, J. A. (1991). Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 459–484. CrossRef
go back to reference Cheung, J. H., Burns, D. K., Sinclair, R. R., & Sliter, M. (2017). Amazon Mechanical Turk in organizational psychology: An evaluation and practical recommendations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 32(4), 347–361. CrossRef Cheung, J. H., Burns, D. K., Sinclair, R. R., & Sliter, M. (2017). Amazon Mechanical Turk in organizational psychology: An evaluation and practical recommendations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 32(4), 347–361. CrossRef
go back to reference Clausell, E., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). When do subgroup parts add up to the stereotypic whole? Mixed stereotype content for gay male subgroups explains overall ratings. Social Cognition, 23, 161–181. CrossRef Clausell, E., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). When do subgroup parts add up to the stereotypic whole? Mixed stereotype content for gay male subgroups explains overall ratings. Social Cognition, 23, 161–181. CrossRef
go back to reference Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist, 64(3), 170–180. PubMedCrossRef Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist, 64(3), 170–180. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Colella, A., & Stone, D. L. (2005). Workplace discrimination toward persons with disabilities: A call for some new research directions. In R. L. Dipboye & A. Colella (Eds.), Discrimination at work: The psychological and organizational bases (pp. 227–253). Taylor & Francis. Colella, A., & Stone, D. L. (2005). Workplace discrimination toward persons with disabilities: A call for some new research directions. In R. L. Dipboye & A. Colella (Eds.), Discrimination at work: The psychological and organizational bases (pp. 227–253). Taylor & Francis.
go back to reference Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637–647. CrossRef Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637–647. CrossRef
go back to reference Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics (pp. 139–168). University of Chicago. Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics (pp. 139–168). University of Chicago.
go back to reference Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241–1299. CrossRef Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241–1299. CrossRef
go back to reference De Cremer, D., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2004). Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader self-confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95(2), 140–155. CrossRef De Cremer, D., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2004). Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader self-confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95(2), 140–155. CrossRef
go back to reference DeRue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. E. D., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 7–52. CrossRef DeRue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. E. D., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 7–52. CrossRef
go back to reference Derks, B., Van Laar, C., & Ellemers, N. (2016). The queen bee phenomenon: Why women leaders distance themselves from junior women. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 456–469. CrossRef Derks, B., Van Laar, C., & Ellemers, N. (2016). The queen bee phenomenon: Why women leaders distance themselves from junior women. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 456–469. CrossRef
go back to reference Derks, B., Laar, C., Ellemers, N., & Raghoe, G. (2015). Extending the queen bee effect: How Hindustani workers cope with disadvantage by distancing the self from the group. Journal of Social Issues, 71(3), 476–496. CrossRef Derks, B., Laar, C., Ellemers, N., & Raghoe, G. (2015). Extending the queen bee effect: How Hindustani workers cope with disadvantage by distancing the self from the group. Journal of Social Issues, 71(3), 476–496. CrossRef
go back to reference Dodge, K. A., Gilroy, F. D., & Fenzel, L. M. (1995). Requisite management characteristics revisited: Two decades later. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10(4), 253–264. Dodge, K. A., Gilroy, F. D., & Fenzel, L. M. (1995). Requisite management characteristics revisited: Two decades later. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10(4), 253–264.
go back to reference Duehr, E. E., & Bono, J. E. (2006). Men, women, and managers: Are stereotypes finally changing? Personnel Psychology, 59, 815–846. CrossRef Duehr, E. E., & Bono, J. E. (2006). Men, women, and managers: Are stereotypes finally changing? Personnel Psychology, 59, 815–846. CrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H. (1987). Reporting sex differences. American Psychologist, 42, 756–757. CrossRef Eagly, A. H. (1987). Reporting sex differences. American Psychologist, 42, 756–757. CrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H., & Chin, J. L. (2010). Diversity and leadership in a changing world. American Psychologist, 65(3), 216–224. PubMedCrossRef Eagly, A. H., & Chin, J. L. (2010). Diversity and leadership in a changing world. American Psychologist, 65(3), 216–224. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H., & Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C. (2001). The leadership styles of women and men. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 781–797. CrossRef Eagly, A. H., & Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C. (2001). The leadership styles of women and men. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 781–797. CrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233–256. CrossRef Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233–256. CrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(5), 685–710. CrossRef Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(5), 685–710. CrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573–598. PubMedCrossRef Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573–598. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 117(1), 125–145. PubMedCrossRef Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 117(1), 125–145. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ellis, H. (1927). Studies in the psychology of sex volume II: Sexual inversion (3rd Ed.). Dortmund, Germany: Project Gutenberg. Ellis, H. (1927). Studies in the psychology of sex volume II: Sexual inversion (3rd Ed.). Dortmund, Germany: Project Gutenberg.
go back to reference Fassinger, R. E., Shullman, S. L., & Stevenson, M. R. (2010). Toward an affirmative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender leadership paradigm. American Psychologist, 65(3), 201–215. PubMedCrossRef Fassinger, R. E., Shullman, S. L., & Stevenson, M. R. (2010). Toward an affirmative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender leadership paradigm. American Psychologist, 65(3), 201–215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference French, J. R., Raven, B., & Cartwright, D. (1959). The bases of social power. Classics of Organization Theory, 7, 311–320. French, J. R., Raven, B., & Cartwright, D. (1959). The bases of social power. Classics of Organization Theory, 7, 311–320.
go back to reference Frick, J. W., Guilford, J. P., Christensen, P. R., & Merrifield, P. R. (1959). A factor-analytic study of flexibility in thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 19, 469–495. CrossRef Frick, J. W., Guilford, J. P., Christensen, P. R., & Merrifield, P. R. (1959). A factor-analytic study of flexibility in thinking. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 19, 469–495. CrossRef
go back to reference Giessner, S. R., & van Knippenberg, D. (2008). “License to fail”: Goal definition, leader group prototypicality, and perceptions of leadership effectiveness after leader failure. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(1), 14–35. CrossRef Giessner, S. R., & van Knippenberg, D. (2008). “License to fail”: Goal definition, leader group prototypicality, and perceptions of leadership effectiveness after leader failure. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(1), 14–35. CrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, J. A., Schell, J., Alexander, M. G., & Eidelman, S. (2008). The impact of a derogatory remark on prejudice toward a gay male leader. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 542–555. CrossRef Goodman, J. A., Schell, J., Alexander, M. G., & Eidelman, S. (2008). The impact of a derogatory remark on prejudice toward a gay male leader. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 542–555. CrossRef
go back to reference Grinnell, J. P. (2002). Effects of leaders’ and evaluators’ sex on sex-role stereotyping of charismatic leaders. Psychological Reports, 91, 1247–1252. PubMedCrossRef Grinnell, J. P. (2002). Effects of leaders’ and evaluators’ sex on sex-role stereotyping of charismatic leaders. Psychological Reports, 91, 1247–1252. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Grzanka, P. R., & Miles, J. R. (2016). The problem with the phrase “intersecting identities”: LGBT affirmative therapy, intersectionality, and neoliberalism. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 13, 371–389. CrossRef Grzanka, P. R., & Miles, J. R. (2016). The problem with the phrase “intersecting identities”: LGBT affirmative therapy, intersectionality, and neoliberalism. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 13, 371–389. CrossRef
go back to reference Guilford, J. P. (1975). Varieties of creative giftedness, their measurement and development. Gifted Child Quarterly, 19, 107–121. CrossRef Guilford, J. P. (1975). Varieties of creative giftedness, their measurement and development. Gifted Child Quarterly, 19, 107–121. CrossRef
go back to reference Hekman, D. R., Aquino, K., Owens, B. P., Mitchell, T. R., Schilpzand, P., & Leavitt, K. (2010). An examination of whether and how racial and gender biases influence customer satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 238–264. CrossRef Hekman, D. R., Aquino, K., Owens, B. P., Mitchell, T. R., Schilpzand, P., & Leavitt, K. (2010). An examination of whether and how racial and gender biases influence customer satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 238–264. CrossRef
go back to reference Herek, G. M. (2000). The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychology Science, 9, 19–22. CrossRef Herek, G. M. (2000). The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychology Science, 9, 19–22. CrossRef
go back to reference Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264–274. PubMedCrossRef Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264–274. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Herek, G. M. (2007). Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Theory and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 905–925. CrossRef Herek, G. M. (2007). Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Theory and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 905–925. CrossRef
go back to reference Herek, G. M. (2008). Sexual prejudice. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice (pp. 439–465). Lawrence Erlbaum. Herek, G. M. (2008). Sexual prejudice. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice (pp. 439–465). Lawrence Erlbaum.
go back to reference Hill, A. D., Upadhyay, A. D., & Beekun, R. I. (2015). Do female and ethnically diverse executives endure inequity in the CEO position or do they benefit from their minority status? An Empirical Examination. Strategic Management Journal, 36(8), 1115–1134. CrossRef Hill, A. D., Upadhyay, A. D., & Beekun, R. I. (2015). Do female and ethnically diverse executives endure inequity in the CEO position or do they benefit from their minority status? An Empirical Examination. Strategic Management Journal, 36(8), 1115–1134. CrossRef
go back to reference Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., & Hanes, T. J. (2011). Multi-study packages in organizational science research. In D. J. Ketchen & D. D. Bergh (Eds.), Building methodological bridges: Research methodology in strategy and management (Vol. 6, pp. 163–199). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. CrossRef Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., & Hanes, T. J. (2011). Multi-study packages in organizational science research. In D. J. Ketchen & D. D. Bergh (Eds.), Building methodological bridges: Research methodology in strategy and management (Vol. 6, pp. 163–199). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. CrossRef
go back to reference Hoye, G., & Lievens, F. (2003). The effects of sexual orientation on hirability ratings: An experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(1), 15–30. CrossRef Hoye, G., & Lievens, F. (2003). The effects of sexual orientation on hirability ratings: An experimental study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18(1), 15–30. CrossRef
go back to reference Jeong, S. H., & Harrison, D. A. (2017). Glass breaking, strategy making, and value creating: Meta-analytic outcomes of women as CEOs and TMT members. Academy of Management Journal, 60(4), 1219–1252. CrossRef Jeong, S. H., & Harrison, D. A. (2017). Glass breaking, strategy making, and value creating: Meta-analytic outcomes of women as CEOs and TMT members. Academy of Management Journal, 60(4), 1219–1252. CrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, S. K., Murphy, S. E., Zewdie, S., & Reichard, R. J. (2008). The strong, sensitive type: Effects of gender stereotypes and leadership prototypes on the evaluation of male and female leaders. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 106(1), 39–60. CrossRef Johnson, S. K., Murphy, S. E., Zewdie, S., & Reichard, R. J. (2008). The strong, sensitive type: Effects of gender stereotypes and leadership prototypes on the evaluation of male and female leaders. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 106(1), 39–60. CrossRef
go back to reference Keith, V. M., Nguyen, A. W., Taylor, R. J., Mouzon, D. M., & Chatters, L. M. (2017). Microaggressions, discrimination, and phenotype among African Americans: A latent class analysis of the impact of skin tone and BMI. Sociological Inquiry, 87(2), 233–255. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Keith, V. M., Nguyen, A. W., Taylor, R. J., Mouzon, D. M., & Chatters, L. M. (2017). Microaggressions, discrimination, and phenotype among African Americans: A latent class analysis of the impact of skin tone and BMI. Sociological Inquiry, 87(2), 233–255. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Key, S., Popkin, S., Munchus, G., Wech, B., Hill, V., & Tanner, J. (2012). An exploration of leadership experiences among white women and women of color. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(3), 392–404. CrossRef Key, S., Popkin, S., Munchus, G., Wech, B., Hill, V., & Tanner, J. (2012). An exploration of leadership experiences among white women and women of color. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(3), 392–404. CrossRef
go back to reference King, E. B., Mohr, J. J., Peddie, C. I., Jones, K. P., & Kendra, M. (2017). Predictors of identity management: An exploratory experience-sampling study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Journal of Management, 43, 476–502. CrossRef King, E. B., Mohr, J. J., Peddie, C. I., Jones, K. P., & Kendra, M. (2017). Predictors of identity management: An exploratory experience-sampling study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Journal of Management, 43, 476–502. CrossRef
go back to reference Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. (1987). Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(1), 83–96. CrossRef Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. (1987). Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(1), 83–96. CrossRef
go back to reference Klein, F., Sepekoff, B., & Wolf, T. J. (1985). Sexual orientation: A multi-variable dynamic process. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1–2), 35–49. PubMedCrossRef Klein, F., Sepekoff, B., & Wolf, T. J. (1985). Sexual orientation: A multi-variable dynamic process. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1–2), 35–49. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Koch, A., D’Mello, S., & Sackett, R. (2015). A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 128–161. PubMedCrossRef Koch, A., D’Mello, S., & Sackett, R. (2015). A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 128–161. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 616–642. PubMedCrossRef Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 616–642. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Krupat, K., & McCreery, P. (2001). Out at work: Building a gay-labor alliance. In Cultural Politics (Vol. 17). University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, London. Krupat, K., & McCreery, P. (2001). Out at work: Building a gay-labor alliance. In Cultural Politics (Vol. 17). University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, London.
go back to reference Lanaj, K., Johnson, R. E., & Barnes, C. M. (2014). Beginning the workday yet already depleted? Consequences of late-night smartphone use and sleep. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124(1), 11–23. CrossRef Lanaj, K., Johnson, R. E., & Barnes, C. M. (2014). Beginning the workday yet already depleted? Consequences of late-night smartphone use and sleep. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124(1), 11–23. CrossRef
go back to reference Landers, R. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2015). An inconvenient truth: Arbitrary distinctions between organizational, Mechanical Turk, and other convenience samples. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 142–164. CrossRef Landers, R. N., & Behrend, T. S. (2015). An inconvenient truth: Arbitrary distinctions between organizational, Mechanical Turk, and other convenience samples. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 142–164. CrossRef
go back to reference Lehavot, K., & Lambert, A. J. (2007). Toward a greater understanding of antigay prejudice: On the role of sexual orientation and gender role violation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(3), 279–292. CrossRef Lehavot, K., & Lambert, A. J. (2007). Toward a greater understanding of antigay prejudice: On the role of sexual orientation and gender role violation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29(3), 279–292. CrossRef
go back to reference Lewis, K. M. (2000). When leaders display emotion: How followers respond to negative emotional expression of male and female leaders. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 221–234. CrossRef Lewis, K. M. (2000). When leaders display emotion: How followers respond to negative emotional expression of male and female leaders. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 221–234. CrossRef
go back to reference Li, N., Chiaburu, D. S., Kirkman, B. L., & Xie, Z. (2013). Spotlight on the followers: An examination of moderators of relationships between transformational leadership and subordinates’ citizenship and taking charge. Personnel Psychology, 66(1), 225–260. CrossRef Li, N., Chiaburu, D. S., Kirkman, B. L., & Xie, Z. (2013). Spotlight on the followers: An examination of moderators of relationships between transformational leadership and subordinates’ citizenship and taking charge. Personnel Psychology, 66(1), 225–260. CrossRef
go back to reference Littrell, R. F., & Nkomo, S. M. (2005). Gender and race differences in leader behaviour preferences in South Africa. Women in Management Review, 20(8), 562–580. CrossRef Littrell, R. F., & Nkomo, S. M. (2005). Gender and race differences in leader behaviour preferences in South Africa. Women in Management Review, 20(8), 562–580. CrossRef
go back to reference Livingston, R. W., Rosette, A. S., & Washington, E. F. (2012). Can an agentic Black woman get ahead? The impact of race and agentic emotional expression on female leader status. Psychological Science, 23(4), 354–358. PubMedCrossRef Livingston, R. W., Rosette, A. S., & Washington, E. F. (2012). Can an agentic Black woman get ahead? The impact of race and agentic emotional expression on female leader status. Psychological Science, 23(4), 354–358. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, R. G., Foti, R. G., & De Vader, C. L. (1984). A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 343–378. CrossRef Lord, R. G., Foti, R. G., & De Vader, C. L. (1984). A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 343–378. CrossRef
go back to reference Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1993). Leadership and information processing: Linking perceptions and performance. Routledge. Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1993). Leadership and information processing: Linking perceptions and performance. Routledge.
go back to reference Lord, R. G., Phillips, J. S., & Rush, M. C. (1980). Effects of sex and personality on perceptions of emergent leadership, influence, and social power. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(2), 176–182. CrossRef Lord, R. G., Phillips, J. S., & Rush, M. C. (1980). Effects of sex and personality on perceptions of emergent leadership, influence, and social power. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(2), 176–182. CrossRef
go back to reference Lynch, E. H. (2019). An exploration of contextual factors of weight-based discrimination against business leaders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri–St. Louis. Lynch, E. H. (2019). An exploration of contextual factors of weight-based discrimination against business leaders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri–St. Louis.
go back to reference Madon, S. (1997). What do people believe about gay males? A study of stereotype content and strength. Sex Roles, 37(9–10), 663–685. CrossRef Madon, S. (1997). What do people believe about gay males? A study of stereotype content and strength. Sex Roles, 37(9–10), 663–685. CrossRef
go back to reference Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Sabat, I. E., Hebl, M. R., & Binggeli, S. (2013). The role of organizational leaders in sexual orientation equality at organizational and federal levels. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28(4), 455–466. CrossRef Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Sabat, I. E., Hebl, M. R., & Binggeli, S. (2013). The role of organizational leaders in sexual orientation equality at organizational and federal levels. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28(4), 455–466. CrossRef
go back to reference McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., & Morris, M. A. (2009). A tale of two climates: Diversity climate from subordinates’ and managers’ perspectives and their role in store unit sales performance. Personnel Psychology, 62, 767–791. CrossRef McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., & Morris, M. A. (2009). A tale of two climates: Diversity climate from subordinates’ and managers’ perspectives and their role in store unit sales performance. Personnel Psychology, 62, 767–791. CrossRef
go back to reference Ospina, S., & Foldy, E. (2009). A critical review of race and ethnicity in the leadership literature: Surfacing context, power and the collective dimensions of leadership. The leadership quarterly, 20(6), 876–896. Ospina, S., & Foldy, E. (2009). A critical review of race and ethnicity in the leadership literature: Surfacing context, power and the collective dimensions of leadership. The leadership quarterly, 20(6), 876–896.
go back to reference Pellegrini, V., De Cristofaro, V., Giacomantonio, M., & Salvati, M. (2020). Why are gay leaders perceived as ineffective? The role of the type of organization, sexual prejudice and gender stereotypes. Personality and Individual Differences, 157(109817), 1-11. Pellegrini, V., De Cristofaro, V., Giacomantonio, M., & Salvati, M. (2020). Why are gay leaders perceived as ineffective? The role of the type of organization, sexual prejudice and gender stereotypes. Personality and Individual Differences, 157(109817), 1-11.
go back to reference Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 327–340. CrossRef Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 327–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Pichler, S., & Holmes, O., IV. (2017). An investigation of fit perceptions and promotability in sexual minority candidates. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 36(7), 628–646. CrossRef Pichler, S., & Holmes, O., IV. (2017). An investigation of fit perceptions and promotability in sexual minority candidates. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 36(7), 628–646. CrossRef
go back to reference Platt, L. F., & Lenzen, A. L. (2013). Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities. Journal of Homosexuality, 60(7), 1011–1034. PubMedCrossRef Platt, L. F., & Lenzen, A. L. (2013). Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities. Journal of Homosexuality, 60(7), 1011–1034. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1181–1197. Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1181–1197.
go back to reference Powell, G. N., Butterfield, D. A., & Bartol, K. M. (2008). Leader evaluations: A new female advantage? Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(3), 156–174. CrossRef Powell, G. N., Butterfield, D. A., & Bartol, K. M. (2008). Leader evaluations: A new female advantage? Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(3), 156–174. CrossRef
go back to reference Purdie-Vaughns, V., & Eibach, R. P. (2008). Intersectional invisibility: The distinctive advantages and disadvantages of multiple subordinate-group identities. Sex Roles, 59(5–6), 377–391. CrossRef Purdie-Vaughns, V., & Eibach, R. P. (2008). Intersectional invisibility: The distinctive advantages and disadvantages of multiple subordinate-group identities. Sex Roles, 59(5–6), 377–391. CrossRef
go back to reference Ragins, B. R. (1989). Power and gender congruency effects in evaluations of male and female managers. Journal of Management, 15, 65–76. CrossRef Ragins, B. R. (1989). Power and gender congruency effects in evaluations of male and female managers. Journal of Management, 15, 65–76. CrossRef
go back to reference Ragins, B. R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2001). Pink triangles: Antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1244–1261. PubMedCrossRef Ragins, B. R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2001). Pink triangles: Antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1244–1261. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rahim, M. A. (1989). Relationships of leader power to compliance and satisfaction with supervision: Evidence from a national sample of managers. Journal of Management, 15(4), 545–556. CrossRef Rahim, M. A. (1989). Relationships of leader power to compliance and satisfaction with supervision: Evidence from a national sample of managers. Journal of Management, 15(4), 545–556. CrossRef
go back to reference Reece, R. L. (2019). Coloring weight stigma: On race, colorism, weight stigma, and the failure of additive Intersectionality. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 5(3), 388–400. CrossRef Reece, R. L. (2019). Coloring weight stigma: On race, colorism, weight stigma, and the failure of additive Intersectionality. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 5(3), 388–400. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosette, A. S., Leonardelli, G. J., & Phillips, K. W. (2008). The White standard: Racial bias in leader categorization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 758–777. PubMedCrossRef Rosette, A. S., Leonardelli, G. J., & Phillips, K. W. (2008). The White standard: Racial bias in leader categorization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 758–777. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rosette, A. S., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). Failure is not an option for Black women: Effects of organizational performance on leaders with single versus dual-subordinate identities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1162–1167. CrossRef Rosette, A. S., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). Failure is not an option for Black women: Effects of organizational performance on leaders with single versus dual-subordinate identities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1162–1167. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosette, A. S., Koval, C. Z., Ma, A., & Livingston, R. (2016). Race matters for women leaders: Intersectional effects on agentic deficiencies and penalties. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 429–445. CrossRef Rosette, A. S., Koval, C. Z., Ma, A., & Livingston, R. (2016). Race matters for women leaders: Intersectional effects on agentic deficiencies and penalties. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 429–445. CrossRef
go back to reference Ryan, M. K., & Haslam, S. A. (2007). The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 549–572. CrossRef Ryan, M. K., & Haslam, S. A. (2007). The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 549–572. CrossRef
go back to reference Schope, R. D., & Eliason, M. J. (2004). Sissies and tomboys: Gender role behaviors and homophobia. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 16(2), 73–97. CrossRef Schope, R. D., & Eliason, M. J. (2004). Sissies and tomboys: Gender role behaviors and homophobia. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 16(2), 73–97. CrossRef
go back to reference Schuh, S. C. (2014). Gender differences in leadership role occupancy: The mediating role of power motivation. Journal of Business Ethics, 120(3), 363–379. CrossRef Schuh, S. C. (2014). Gender differences in leadership role occupancy: The mediating role of power motivation. Journal of Business Ethics, 120(3), 363–379. CrossRef
go back to reference Shamir, B. (2007). From passive recipients to active co-producers: Followers’ roles in the leadership process. In B. Shamir, R. Pillai, M. Bligh, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), Follower-centered perspectives on leadership: A tribute to the memory of James R. Meindl (pp. 9–39). Information Age Publishers. Shamir, B. (2007). From passive recipients to active co-producers: Followers’ roles in the leadership process. In B. Shamir, R. Pillai, M. Bligh, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), Follower-centered perspectives on leadership: A tribute to the memory of James R. Meindl (pp. 9–39). Information Age Publishers.
go back to reference Shields, S. A. (2008). Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles, 59, 301–311. CrossRef Shields, S. A. (2008). Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles, 59, 301–311. CrossRef
go back to reference Shinar, E. H. (1975). Sexual stereotypes of occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7(1), 99–111. Shinar, E. H. (1975). Sexual stereotypes of occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7(1), 99–111.
go back to reference Smith, A. N., Watkins, M. B., Ladge, J. J., & Carlton, P. (2019). Making the invisible visible: Paradoxical effects of intersectional invisibility on the career experiences of executive Black women. Academy of Management Journal, 62(6), 1705–1734. CrossRef Smith, A. N., Watkins, M. B., Ladge, J. J., & Carlton, P. (2019). Making the invisible visible: Paradoxical effects of intersectional invisibility on the career experiences of executive Black women. Academy of Management Journal, 62(6), 1705–1734. CrossRef
go back to reference Snyder, K. (2006). The G quotient: Why gay executives are excelling as leaders…and what every manager needs to know. Jossey-Bass. Snyder, K. (2006). The G quotient: Why gay executives are excelling as leaders…and what every manager needs to know. Jossey-Bass.
go back to reference Sy, T., Shore, L. M., Strauss, J., Shore, T. H., Tram, S., Whiteley, P., & Ikeda-Muromachi, K. (2010). Leadership perceptions as a function of race–occupation fit: The case of Asian Americans. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 902–919. PubMedCrossRef Sy, T., Shore, L. M., Strauss, J., Shore, T. H., Tram, S., Whiteley, P., & Ikeda-Muromachi, K. (2010). Leadership perceptions as a function of race–occupation fit: The case of Asian Americans. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 902–919. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7–24). Nelson-Hall. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7–24). Nelson-Hall.
go back to reference Taylor, M. A. (1983). Conceptions of masculinity and femininity as a basis for stereotypes of male and female homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 9, 37–53. PubMedCrossRef Taylor, M. A. (1983). Conceptions of masculinity and femininity as a basis for stereotypes of male and female homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 9, 37–53. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, M. A. (1998). The masculine soul heaving in the female bosom: Theories of inversion and the well of loneliness. Journal of Gender Studies, 7(3), 287–296. CrossRef Taylor, M. A. (1998). The masculine soul heaving in the female bosom: Theories of inversion and the well of loneliness. Journal of Gender Studies, 7(3), 287–296. CrossRef
go back to reference Tepper, B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178–190. Tepper, B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178–190.
go back to reference Vlachos, P. A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Rapp, A. A. (2013). Feeling good by doing good: Employee CSR-induced attributions, job satisfaction, and the role of charismatic leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 577–588. CrossRef Vlachos, P. A., Panagopoulos, N. G., & Rapp, A. A. (2013). Feeling good by doing good: Employee CSR-induced attributions, job satisfaction, and the role of charismatic leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 577–588. CrossRef
go back to reference Wang, G., Holmes, M. R., Jr., Devine, R. A., & Bishoff, J. (2018). CEO gender differences in careers and the moderating role of country culture: A meta-analytic investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 148, 30–53. CrossRef Wang, G., Holmes, M. R., Jr., Devine, R. A., & Bishoff, J. (2018). CEO gender differences in careers and the moderating role of country culture: A meta-analytic investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 148, 30–53. CrossRef
go back to reference Wang, G., Van Iddekinge, C. H., Zhang, L., & Bishoff, J. (2019). Meta-analytic and primary investigations of the role of followers in ratings of leadership behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(1), 70–106. Wang, G., Van Iddekinge, C. H., Zhang, L., & Bishoff, J. (2019). Meta-analytic and primary investigations of the role of followers in ratings of leadership behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(1), 70–106.
go back to reference Warner, M. (1991). Introduction: Fear of a queer planet. Social Text, 29, 3–17. Warner, M. (1991). Introduction: Fear of a queer planet. Social Text, 29, 3–17.
go back to reference Wong, F. Y., McCreary, D. R., Carpenter, K. M., Engle, A., & Korchynsky, R. (1999). Gender-related factors influencing perceptions of homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 37(3), 19–31. PubMedCrossRef Wong, F. Y., McCreary, D. R., Carpenter, K. M., Engle, A., & Korchynsky, R. (1999). Gender-related factors influencing perceptions of homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 37(3), 19–31. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yoder, J. D. (2001). Making leadership work more effectively for women. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 815–828. CrossRef Yoder, J. D. (2001). Making leadership work more effectively for women. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 815–828. CrossRef
go back to reference Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Prentice Hall. Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Prentice Hall.
go back to reference Zapata, C. P., Carton, A. M., & Liu, J. T. (2016). When justice promotes injustice: Why minority leaders experience bias when they adhere to interpersonal justice rules. Academy of Management Journal, 59(4), 1150–1173. CrossRef Zapata, C. P., Carton, A. M., & Liu, J. T. (2016). When justice promotes injustice: Why minority leaders experience bias when they adhere to interpersonal justice rules. Academy of Management Journal, 59(4), 1150–1173. CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Does Leader Same-sex Sexual Orientation Matter to Leadership Effectiveness? A Four-study Model-testing Investigation
Authors
Gang Wang
David S. Steffensen Jr
Pamela L. Perrewé
Gerald R. Ferris
Samantha L. Jordan
Publication date
15-07-2021
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Journal of Business and Psychology / Issue 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0889-3268
Electronic ISSN: 1573-353X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09759-y

Other articles of this Issue 3/2022

Journal of Business and Psychology 3/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partner