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E-Commerce

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Exploration of New Marketing Methods

Under the influence of the arrival of the new media wave and the emergence of endless social platforms, marketing models have also appeared more ways to play. These new marketing models are easier than before to unknowingly implant products and concepts into users’ brain, it also governs the user's purchase and use behavior. Here are a few so-called new marketing models.

Yang Guang
Exploration of Time Bank Elderly Care Service Restructuring—Based on the Profitable Mode

This paper analyses the current situation and existing problems of traditional time bank based on voluntary work. In order to solve these problems, this paper illustrates the idea of restructuring traditional time bank on the basis of blockchain technology and creating a new elderly care service platform consisting of both the non-profit part and the profit part, which is of vital significance to better deal with the aging society. The paper comes to the conclusion that the two parts will share income and potential customers to ensure daily operation of the system.

Yiwen Yang, Jingqiu Wang, Jing Liu, Jingying Wu
The Impact of COVID-19 on Chinese Stock Market in Two Outbreak Periods

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on many aspects of society. The pandemic not only poses threat to public health but also causes emergence of the medical resources. From the information published by the media, we can suspect that COVID-19 also has negative impacts on the global economy when it is spreading. To figure out the impact of COVID-19 on China, this paper studies the influence on the Chinese stock market and stocks of different industries. Using data of share price in the two outbreak period of COVID-19, this work targets the different impacts during the two-period and in different industries. Analyzing the correlation between data from the stock market and the data of COVID-19 published by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China, this work concludes that the outbreak of pandemic has significant negative impacts in the initial outbreak period but do not have obvious impacts on the subsequent period. In addition, the impact on different industries is not the same due to the nonconformity of the nature of the industry.

Zheping Wang, Xuting Gui, Chuheng Ding, Lan Lan
The Impact of Covid-19 Epidemic on Global Food Security and Countermeasures

The global pandemic of COVID-19 epidemic poses a severe challenge to the maintenance of global food security. In the paper, the impact mechanism of Covid-19 epidemic on global food security is deeply analyzed, and the measures taken by China to deal with food production governance are taken as a case to prove it. On this basis, the governance measures to alleviate the impact of Covid-19 epidemic on global food security are put forward from many links of food supply chain, such as food production, food demand, food trade and food aid, which can provide reference for countries and international organizations to formulate effective policies to maintain food security.

Haowei Jiang
The Influence of Talent Policy on Labor Mobility: A Case Study of Chongqing

This paper mainly studies the impact of talent policy on labor mobility, and takes Chongqing as an example for in-depth discussion. The study found that the current trend of talent flow in China is from inland to coastal, from central and western to eastern, from economically underdeveloped areas to economically developed areas, etc. Among them, the talent policy has an important impact on the flow of labor. However, the talent policy in Chongqing has the problems of blindness and backwardness. It is urgent to further optimize the guarantee of talent introduction policy, establish scientific concepts of personnel selection, broaden the channels of talent introduction publicity and innovate the talent incentive mechanism. The research in this paper is of great practical significance in formulating a reasonable talent policy, promoting the flow of labor and improving the coordinated development of the regional economy.

Hanyin Zhang
Salesforce and Possible Future of Its Industry

This paper analyzes one of the leading SaaS providers Salesforce.inc using the SWOT method, and provides a relative valuation of the company to determine its position in the market. With those, this paper takes a insight on the SaaS industry as a whole and discusses its possible future development ways. Taking one leading company, I tried looking for connections and reflections it can give to other SaaS competitors. This paper concluded that although we need time to see solutions of problems that the SaaS providers are facing, for now the industry shows mostly positive trends and aspects that may be an indicator of future investment.

Ziyao Lei Michael
Venture Capital’s Performance in China Under the Influence of Various Government Policies

The national strategy of China decides the future of all industries for the guidance of economic development. With the maturation of venture capital industry, the incubation and boost of start-up companies have become the core for the drive of economy. Steered by the national policy, venture capital has become the new engine of economy. In search of variations on venture capital industry under the guidance of different policies in China, this article predicts the tendency of venture capital industry in future, with a particular focus on the tendency of investment fund raising under the influence of regulatory policies in China, the transformation and preference of investment style for investment institutions under the strategic policy and the support and boost for the venture capital industry by the preferential policies released by the Chinese government in recent years.

Ye Tao
A Summary of Platform Strategy in the Digital Age

New digital technologies are transforming how value is created and harnessed in modern businesses. They are empowering revolutionary business models that are upending the traditional anchors of competitive strategy. These momentous changes are also ushering in new opportunities. Nowhere are the new opportunities more evident than in the spectacular success of modern “digital natives” such as Alibaba, Amazon, Facebook and Airbnb, to name a few. These “natives” have pioneered new ways of unlocking unprecedented value from data through their digital platforms. They have also created and framed their business models around rich digital ecosystems. Similar successes are possible for traditional firms too. But it needs new strategic thinking. Traditional firms must understand the new potential of data and learn how to unlock it. They must move from their prevailing “industry” mind-sets to new “digital ecosystem” mind-sets. They should elevate their traditional product-value chain- industry centric focus onto a new data-digital platform-digital ecosystem centric mindset. That is what modern-day digital transformation entails. This paper summarizes some of the existing research on digital transformation, platform strategy and suggests some future research topics.

Yiwen Li
The Effectiveness Between Influencer Marketing and Traditional Advertising in the Cosmetics & Skin Care Industry

Gen Z, China’s rising consumer force, yet there is few research on influencer marketing and traditional advertising on Gen Z in mainland China. This work analyses the benefits between emerging influencer marketing and traditional counterparts and indicates that influencer marketing often costs less and has a better performance in reaching numerous consumer groups. Nevertheless, the mistakes of influencers’ choice will lead to the failure of marketing campaign. By contrast, traditional advertising can reach a larger number of consumer groups, and high-quality advertisements are more likely to help leave distinct brand images. Taken together, influencing marketing does better in persuading stage, whereas traditional advertising has more advantages in informing stage and reminding stage.

Weiying Ren, Benyu Liu, Lin Liang, Xin Li, Haotian Li
Valuation Analysis of Delta Airlines Based on ROPI Model

In the sudden coronavirus epidemic, 2020 has become the year of darkness for the entire global airline industry, which is facing the combined adverse and severe impact of an unprecedented decline in travel demand and a deep global economic recession. This research conducts a comprehensive stock examination of Delta Airlines, as one of the tops four U.S. airlines, through a combination of SWOT analysis techniques and Residual Operating Income (ROPI) valuation model, to explore whether Delta is significantly undervalued by the market in light of the huge impact on the airline industry from COVID-19. Based on the results of the study, the purpose of this paper is providing a demonstrate of the future growth potential of Delta Air Lines and to give recommendations for investment in the company's stock.

Xiaoyi Duan
The Impact of BYTEDance's Development and Strategy on the Information Industry

With the rapid development of Information technology, the distance between people to people become more and more closer. Information technology allows people to contact with other at anytime and anywhere, which makes people life colorful. Especially the social media softwares are now frequently used by people around the world. Those new media now are not just a way to contact with people, but people could use it do various things. Therefore, this article investigates the most popular social media application’s company, which is Tiktok’ company, ByteDance, in order to analyze their strategy and why they become dominant in the market. The article uses Porter Five Forces to learn about their competitive rivalry in the market and Product lifecycle to find which stage is the company current in. The result shows that ByteDance are in the growth stage and thanks to ByteDance first-mover advantages which allow it become dominant in the market. No only that, the article also predict the development of ByteDance future and indicate that the future of it is would be fantastic.

Catherine Lan
The Effect of Pinduoduo’s Current Marketing on Customer Retention

With the rapid development of e-commerce, many e-commerce platforms emerge endlessly. In order to stand out from the crowd, every platform is looking for its own “unrepeatable success”. In China, Pinduoduo is one of them. Different from the traditional e-commerce model, Pinduoduo is a social e-commerce platform. With its low-price group shopping model, rich game-like shopping experience and a partnership with WeChat, China’s largest social networking platform, Pinduoduo stands out in an online shopping industry crowded with giants and is growing fast. This paper mainly studies whether the existing marketing model of Pinduoduo is positive for customer retention through a questionnaire survey and relevant data about Pinduoduo. Finally, according to the conclusions, to give some relevant suggestions for Pinduoduo’s sustainable development.

Wenyi Kuang, Siqi Mao, Liyun Yao
Netease Company Analysis Based on SWOT Analysis Theory

With the development of technology, video games take up a large part of people’s time and is becoming inseparable for human. Buying game companies’ stocks seems a good choice for people to increase their wealth. But many of them don’t know what game companies they should buy, or how to analyze game companies. In this article, I introduced a top game company, Netease, in China and used SWOT analysis and other indexes, P/E ratio, P/B ratio, and ROE, to analyze this company. It concluded that Netease a company that is worthy to invest after finishing analysis. I hope this article can help people learning how to analyze companies basically and offer some useful information or thoughts to my readers.

Yijun Wu
Chapter 6. To Be or Not to Be a Muslim Mompreneur in Indonesia

How do Muslim women become mompreneurs? This chapter focuses on the perceptions of younger Muslim women in Indonesia to explore what motivates them to or hampers them from becoming mompreneurs. This chapter shows becoming good Muslim mompreneurs following their role model of Khadijah is a way to balance work and family, and to make social contributions among middle-class women. The increased emphasis on entrepreneurship education at university and the rapid spread of digital marketplaces are further facilitating this social trend. Yet due to the need for an education and technological and digital competence to operate a business, the opportunity to become a mompreneur is largely limited to middle-class women.

Minako Sakai
Lithuania: Are We Ready for Tomorrow Challenges? A Thematic Analysis of Career Development and Prospects within Lithuania

This chapter focuses on the current challenges of Lithuania’s career sector. The research highlights the systematic problems that the institutions delivering career guidance face. As a result of this study, the recommendations that could help in dealing with these challenges will be suggested. The key challenges arise from lack of developed guidelines and policies within the careers sector and recommendation aim to develop further steps that would help to achieve positive outcomes. The research of this chapter has been conducted by analysis of existent literature and news outlets. However, some areas of work such as future jobs require separate research as information about this is not widely accessible and offers limited insight. The chapter results highlights that there is an urgent need for the government to act in developing the career sector while recognising the importance of career education and integrating it centrally within the overall strategy of education.

Liepa Mikulevičiūtė
Greece: Challenges and Perspectives in Vocational Guidance in a post-crisis era

The aim of the chapter is to examine some of the challenges and perspectives of vocational guidance in Greece, focusing mainly on counselling for migrants and refugees, the demographic change, the ageing workforce and the jobs of the future. A knowledge of the language and the recognition of their skills are important aspects of the integration of migrants and refugees into society and the labour market. However, access to education and training is fragmented, is inconsistent and largely fails to recognise prior qualifications. Access to the labour market, although it is officially relatively simple, is prohibited by several obstacles, such as a lack of language skills, a maze-like bureaucracy, high unemployment rates and discriminatory practices. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and international organisations are usually the main providers of support, training, vocational guidance and employability services for refugees. Some successful examples of supportive measures and programmes will be presented. However, further support is needed for the refugees’ economic and social inclusion. Demographic change and the ageing population, coupled with the brain drain of the last decade, is another challenge for Greece. For the older workforce, outdated skills and perceptions, a lack of high digital literacy, employers’ negative perceptions and, most importantly, a lack of motivation and despair due to long-term unemployment during the recession are important challenges that a vocational counsellor needs to help people to overcome. Finally, the digitalisation of the Greek public sector and job market, although it has been delayed, has moved faster over the last decade and has been seriously accelerated by the effect of COVID-19 pandemic. This is a rapid but much-needed change for the Greek economy, transforming most of the traditional professions. The role of vocational guidance in Greece is critical for the integration of the skills and knowledge of refugees, which can balance out the effects of the ageing workforce, and for the bridging of the acceleration of technology with the individuals’ career goals and plans.

Kalliopi Marioli, Dimitrios Sannas, Evangelia Tsilimigkra
Application of Blockchain Innovative Technology in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: A New Paradigm for Future Logistics

The paper provides an overview of the practice of using blockchain technology in the digitalization process of logistics and supply chain management of leading companies in different countries. The key global issues are observed to the essence of blockchain technology, practice, and prospects of its application in various industries and fields of activity. This study illustrates the examples of using blockchain technology by leading companies, particularly, in retail. It is indicated that the integration of key business processes in supply chains today needs adequate information support that can be provided through technology of blockchain, which also provides transparency and traceability of up to date.The study indicates that blockchain technology has the potential to improve supply chain sustainability performance in retail sector and it is expected blockchain technology to rise in popularity in supply chain management information.

Almaz Sandybayev, Benjamin Silas Bvepfepfe
Responding to COVID-19 Emergency: The Packaging Machinery Sector in Italy

The COVID-19 pandemic has crushed the main world economies, including the Italian economy. In 2020, a world recession of −3.1% is estimated and for Italy of −8.9%. However, the negative economic effects have not affected all productive sectors similarly. In Italy, the pharmaceutical, food, and packaging machinery sectors have gone against the trend. This study analyses how companies in the packaging sector reacted to the pandemic through the use of Industry 4.0 technologies; their sentiments and expectations during the pandemic; and measures established. Two surveys were administered by the Manufacturing Economic Studies (MECS), to packaging companies in Italy one year apart. The first, in 2020 aimed at detecting the sentiments and expectations of 135 companies. The second, in 2021, aimed at identifying how Industry 4.0 technologies helped 30 individual companies and within the supply chain to react to the market. Just under 80% of the companies recorded a decline in turnover, 20% have not suffered any decline and even a small part recorded an increase in turnover. The latter, those oriented toward a sustained growth in production, have already partially implemented technologies and “production environments” that are typical of Industry 4.0 even before COVID-19, on the supply and demand sides.

Lucio Poma, Haya Al Shawwa, Ilaria Vesentini
Digitalization in Passengers’ Air Travel

This study aims to analyze how digitalization and digital technology impact passengers’ air travel, specifically in the door-to-door air travel process. As a booming industry that involves advanced technology, the aviation industry attracted an increasing number of passengers and occupies a large position in the global market. However, it is also one of the industries which are most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, looking insight into how advanced technologies can help the industry to reverse the negative situation and get better performance is urgent. A survey has been conducted to investigate the extent that passengers were satisfied with current digital tools in their door-to-door travel process. Actually, more than half of the participants used digital tools every time when they were traveling, and the most common digital tool they used was airline apps. Besides, a majority of participants showed a positive attitude toward the digital technologies applied in different stages of their air travel. However, some issues, like security issue and less efficiency, need to be further improved to satisfy passengers’ requirements. All in all, the analyses and results of this study can provide a useful guideline for the aviation industry to develop an effective digital strategy and to identify how to help passengers enjoy a more satisfying journey.

Jiezhuoma La, Iryna Heiets, Cees Bil
The Use of Human Resources to Drive Business Transformation Through Digital Evolution

The article examines the mechanisms for assessing the scale of development of the digital economy, analyzes the data of digitalization of Russian society in comparison with other countries. A hypothesis is put forward that there is a relationship between the level of human development and the level of digital intelligence which is tested using regression analysis tools. Human potential is a unique resource that determines the success of initiatives to digitalize the economy and the level of public confidence in digital technologies in general. Therefore, it needs increased attention and responsible management on the part of the state. Recommendations on the use of human resources for business development in the Digital Evolution are offered. As a result of the study, it was proved that the level of human development largely determines the level of digital intelligence in the study area. Consequently, the rate of development of the digital economy and the level of public confidence in digital technologies depend on the duration and quality of life, the duration of education and the gross national income.

Yulia S. Chernysheva, Zhanna V. Gornostaeva, Andrey B. Mikhailov
Development of the Russian Consumer Market in Conditions of Global Instability

The state of the world economy is characterized by growing crisis phenomena caused by the coronavirus epidemic and measures to combat it. One of the important features of the modern period is the high rates of global inflation and the logistics crisis. In Russia, the state of the consumer market is further influenced by the decline in real incomes of the population that has been going on for several years. The article examines the challenges faced by the consumer market at the present stage, analyzes its current situation and suggests ways out of the crisis.

Maxim V. Prokopenko, Natalia F. Cheremisova, Anastasiya Yu. Chmyryova
Cold start and Data Sparsity Problems in Recommender System: A Concise Review

An enormous amount of data available on the e-commerce sites are of different forms as ratings, reviews, opinions, remarks, feedback, and comments about any item, and it is difficult for the system to search the user interest and predict the user preference. The recommender system (RS) came into existence and supports both customers and providers in their decision-making process. Nowadays, recommender systems are suffering from various problems such as data sparsity, cold start, scalability, synonymy, gray sheep, and data imbalance. One of the major problems to be considered for better recommendation is data sparsity. Cross-domain recommendation (CDR) is one way to address data sparsity problems, cold start issues, etc. In the most traditional system, cross-domain analysis is used to understand the feedback matrices by transferring hidden information and imposing dependencies across the domains. There is no vast comparison of existing research in CDR. This paper defines the problem, related and existing work on CDR for data sparsity and cold start, comparative survey to classify and analyze the revised work.

M. Nanthini, K. Pradeep Mohan Kumar
Digital Image Watermarking Techniques Using Machine Learning—A Comprehensive Survey

Digital image watermarking is the most interesting and active field for research as it prevents unwanted access to multimedia data. The trade-off between imperceptibility, robustness, capacity and safety must be maintained for the conception of an efficient and strong digital picture watermarking system. Different studies have been conducted in order to ensure that these needs are hybridized by many domains, including spatial and transformational fields. An analytical analysis is performed on existing digital picture watermarking systems in this research. The digital information that has resulted in the request for a safe ownership of the information may recently be readily changed, reproduced, distributed and stored. The watermark solution for the authentication of content and copyright protection is quite good. This paper discusses basic concepts and features of digital watermarking, important attacks on watermarking systems, general embedding and extraction processes for watermarking marks, and important techniques for the transformation using machine learning are analysed. The objective of this paper is to provide an ephemeral study and background on the definition, and idea and major contributions of watermarking the techniques are classified according to different categories: host signal, sensitivity, robustness, kind of watermark, essential data for extraction, processing domain and applications.

Satya Narayan Das, Mrutyunjaya Panda
IoT and RFID: Make Life Easier and Shake up E-commerce Processes with Smart Objects

In the field of technological development, Internet of Things (IoT) presents diverse mechanisms to companies to expand their business transactions with customers anywhere and anytime. Processes of selling and buying are getting to be much easier using IoT; therefore, IoT will change the customer's ideas and help them choose the appropriate products. This research article presents the advantage of the Internet of Things and RFID technology in the E-commerce system. From the last year, RFID technology becomes one of the few methods for managing products to guide and help the customer in buying the foremost suitable product which answers his need. This paper explains the use of IoT-supported architecture for E-Commerce with the goal to automate the sale transaction process with physical interaction. It solves problems that companies and customers face in shopping, as knowing our customer desire or knowing which the successful products within the supermarket are.

Shili Mohamed, Kaouthar Sethom, Ahmed J. Obaid, Salwa Mohammed Nejrs, Saif Al-din M. Najim
Modified ElGamal Algorithm Using Three Paring Functions

Cryptography defines different methods and technologies used in ensuring that communication between two parties over any communication medium is secure, especially in presence of a third part. This is achieved through the use of several methods, such as encryption, decryption, signing, generating of pseudo-random numbers, among many others. Cryptography uses a key or some sort of a password to either encrypt or decrypt a message that needs to be kept secret. This is made possible using two classes of key-based encryption and decryption algorithms, namely symmetric and asymmetric algorithms. The best known and the most widely used public key system is ElGamal. This algorithm comprises of three phases, which are the key generation phase, encryption phase, and the decryption phase. Owing to the advancement in computing technology, ElGamal is prone to some security risks, which makes it less secure. The following paper previews combination of three paring function used to enhance the ElGamal algorithm and increase its security. The results showed that the modified algorithm gives 93% accuracy.

Eman Hatem Omran, Rana Jumaa Sarih Al-Janabi
Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Multi-deep Learning Models

CBIR—content-based image retrieval is commonly known as the process or technique to the “image retrieval” problem that is the problem of analyzing and searching for a real content of images. Image search is a search technique that uses images as a source to retrieve an image that is similar to the given image. This technique has many applications in various fields and industries: securities, banking, education, business, etc. For the past decade, a variety of approaches has been introduced to solve image search problem, and one of the approaches which proves to deliver the highest results is the deep learning CNN model. This paper presents the approach of using multi-deep learning algorithms and similarity measurement. The problem is solved with three pre-trained CNN deep learning models: RestNet50, RestNet101, and VGG19 to extract features, then based on these features to calculate the cosine similarity between images to find the mostly similar images with the given query image. We obtain some encouraging results from several experiments on flower dataset. The results show that the CNN method has succeeded in supporting the retrieval task and therefore has huge potential for practical applications.

Bui Thanh Hung
8. Externe KommunikationskanäleKommunikationskanal

Dieses Kapitel gibt eine Übersicht zu externen Kommunikationskanälen und beleuchtet folgende Punkte: Kooperationsformen mit Experten, Advisory Boards, Veranstaltungen, große Kongresse versus regionale Workshops, Checklisten für Veranstaltungen (Einladung, Durchführung, Nachbereitung), Online-Marketing und Internetstrategien, Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Social Media und Fach-Communities, effektive Newsletter erstellen, Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, klassische Werbung, Vertrieb/Außendienst, Print-Mailings, Telefonmarketing, wissenschaftliche Studien, Patientenorganisationen/Selbsthilfegruppen, Inbound-Marketing sowie das immer wichtiger werdende Content-Marketing.

Günter Umbach
Kapitel 7. Wissen und Kognitionen als Instrumente zur Reduktion von Kontingenz

Bereits frühere Autoren haben sich mit Bestimmungsgrößen für unternehmerische Leistung auseinandergesetzt und einen Zusammenhang mit kognitiven Ressourcen (aka Wissen) der Entscheidungsträger:innen innerhalb von Organisationen betont. Wissensprobleme respektive mangelnde Kognitionen gelten als erkenntnistheoretische Hindernisse für strategisches Handeln. Zur Erzeugung eines besseren Verständnisses von Entscheidungsfindungen in Situationen variabler Kontingenz ist daher eine ausführliche Untersuchung von Kognitionen im Hinblick auf unterschiedliche Wissenstypen erforderlich. Das Kapitel klassifiziert unterschiedliche Typen von Wissen (deklaratives/ akkumuliertes Wissen [was?], prozedurales/ strukturelles Wissen [wie?] und konzeptuelles Wissen [warum?]), die sich unterschiedlich gut eignen, Kontingenz zu bearbeiten. So ermöglicht beispielsweise strukturelles Wissen zwar die Bearbeitung einer prädisponierten Aufgabe, lässt jedoch ohne konzeptuelles Wissen keinen Transfer der Prozesse in andere Bereiche zu. Konzeptuelles Wissen hingegen greift auf strukturelles Wissen zurück und ermöglicht Akteur:innen die Verknüpfung unterschiedlicher Bereiche. Dabei ist strukturelles Wissen äußerst bedeutsam für die effiziente Erschließung neuer Wissensbereiche.

Sebastian L. Grüner
Kapitel 6. Konzeptualisierung eines kontingenzbasierten, epistemologischen Entscheidungsrahmens

Unsicherheit gilt als zentraler Begriff der Entrepreneurshipforschung und des Unternehmertums. Da Unsicherheitsempfinden konstitutiv für Entscheidungsfindungen ist, zielt das Kapitel auf eine differenzierte Schematisierung des Begriffes ab. Die Notwendigkeit dafür ergibt sich aus einer bisweilen uneinheitlichen und undifferenziert-synonymen Verwendung von Unsicherheitsbegriffen (bspw. radikaler Unsicherheit, Komplexität, Ambiguität, Ungewissheit). Die Arbeit begegnet dieser Tatsache mit Einführung des übergeordneten Begriffes Kontingenz, welcher sämtliche Formen von Informationsunsicherheit oder -mangel umfasst und innerhalb dessen graduelle Abstufungen von Informationsunsicherheit oder -mangel konzeptualisiert werden. Der auf diese Weise erzeugte Kontingenzrahmen mit dem ihn inhärenten Graden Sicherheit, Risiko, Unsicherheit (im engeren Sinne), Komplexität, Ambiguität und Isotropie dient als Grundlage zur Ab- und Herleitung von Entscheidungsparadigmen. Der Rahmen berücksichtigt dabei auch, dass Kontingenz objektiv und subjektiv bestehen und sich unterscheiden kann.

Sebastian L. Grüner
4. Practice: AI Tools and Their Application Possibilities

In this chapter, the possibilities of artificial intelligence in the sales area are explained in more detail and concretized. For this purpose, the countless AI tools and their application possibilities are summarized in 20 supercategories that are described in detail. You will learn how AI systems can improve the respective sales activities and processes and which concrete application possibilities there are for sales. For each category, examples of tools are given as well as a concrete practical example is described. The chapter is intended to enable you to find concrete possibilities for the use of AI tools for your company. In addition, the goal is for you to get a better idea of the potential that artificial intelligence offers for the sales area, so that you can derive concrete need for action for your sales organization.

Livia Rainsberger
1. Künstliche Intelligenz als der Katalysator für die Modernisierung des Marketings

Die Marketingwelt hat sich in den letzten Jahren grundlegend gewandelt. Dieser Wandel erfordert von vielen Unternehmen eine umfassende Erneuerung ihrer Marketingstrategie, -organisation, -kompetenzen und -abläufe. Der Einsatz von Verfahren der Künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) kann hierbei eine zentrale Rolle einnehmen, erfordert aber einen gesamtunternehmerischen Veränderungsprozess der vom CMO orchestriert werden muss. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt wesentliche Aspekte dieses Veränderungsprozesses und zeigt auf, wie KI den Prozess unterstützen kann. Neben einer kurzen Definition von KI wird deren Funktionsweise und Relevanz am Beispiel eines Chatbots beschrieben.

Marko Sarstedt, Bernhard Wecke
The Ease of Doing Business and International Indices in the BRICS Countries: Evaluating Their Relationship

Purpose The purpose of the research is to analyse favourable conditions for doing business amongst the BRICS countries and assess how international criteria influence the Ease of Doing Business IndexIndex. Methodology The main methods of the research are statistical ones: correlation analysis and regression analysis. The authors use comparative analysis, synthesis, and method of analysis of cause-and-effect relationships. Findings The authors analyse the countries of the international association BRICS. The results of the study show that the Ease of Doing Business Index has close ties with some international indices designed to determine the place of the state according to a certain criterion. However, the effective trait can form a statistically significant regression equation, but not with every factor. Originality The article shows that it is possible to compare various international ratings to identify the relationship and mutual influence within any interstate group.

Nadezhda K. Savelyeva, Victoria A. Saidakova
Features of the Formation and Development of Competitive Relations in the Conditions of Digitalization

The processes of globalization and digitalization have penetrated into all spheres of society, including the economy. The development of competitive relations is a necessary component of the process of stimulating economic growth. Globalization and digitalization have made it possible to expand the composition of competitors and the geographical boundaries of markets in the framework of the Pull Economy. But, at the same time, they have created a platform to activate unfair competitors. This article reveals the features of the formation of competitive relations due to the widespread introduction of digitalization. The article also analyzes the opportunities for the development of competitive relations, the problems that arise when competitors carry out economic activities and also suggests measures to stimulate competition to ensure the economic growth of the national economy.

Nataliya S. Nemykina
Pandenomic Transformation of the Modern World Economy and International Business

The purpose of the article is to analyze the changing conditions of the world economy and the transformation of the mechanism of international business during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the formation of a system of pandenomics and its impact on the directions and conditions of the development of the world community. The authors highlight the structural shifts of the modern world economy associated with the pandemic conditions, in which it has to operate. The main systemic changes include: pandenomic disruption of supply chains, changes in the structure of international trade and other forms of international economic relations, changes in the role and priority of the development of industries and the conversion of enterprises in accordance with the requirements of pandenomics, restructuring of the consumption system, transformation of the globalization process itself, its content and forms of manifestation. It is shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has changed most of the basic principles of the functioning of the world economy and international business, affected and transformed all aspects of life, in one way or another changed the activities of all actors of the world economy. The presented systematic view of the transformational processes that have occurred and are occurring in the modern practice of international business and the entire global economic system allows us to understand the new reality that is being formed under the influence of changes taking place in life in the conditions of pandenomics.

Elena V. Fomicheva, Alla V. Temirkanova, Kseniya Y. Boeva
Chapter 11. Applications of IoT and Cloud Computing: A COVID-19 Disaster Perspective

The utility of Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing has become indispensable in various industrial sectors. This chapter provides a brief insight into the application of IoT and cloud computing in education, entertainment, transportation, manufacturing, healthcare and agriculture. Besides, it also discusses the future opportunities for such emerging technologies in these sectors. Further, there have been massive developments in the field of cloud computing which has played a crucial role in ensuring a proper learning environment and resources.The entertainment industry has also seen changes similar to the ones in the education industry. The transportation and logistics industry was impacted heavily during the COVID-19 pandemic. With technologies breaking benchmarks time and again, technology will soon make a huge difference with respect to transportation. The need and ability to control various aspects of a manufacturing pipeline remotely and wirelessly has been a domain of interest for many researchers and scholars and the need is increasing day by day. The healthcare industry envisions transforming a hospital-centric approach into a complete healthcare experience at the comfort of your home using the latest technologies including IoT and cloud computing. This crisis due to the pandemic has forced farmers to look towards technology; therefore, IoT-based agricultural solutions have become popular all across the world. Finally, this chapter also discusses the future opportunities provided by these technologies in handling the day-to-day livelihood during such pandemic disasters.

Kshitij Dhyani, Thejineaswar Guhan, Prajjwal Gupta, Saransh Bhachawat, Ganapathy Pattukandan Ganapathy, Kathiravan Srinivasan
Multimodal Deep Learning and Fast Retrieval for Recommendation

We propose a retrieval architecture in the context of recommender systems for e-commerce applications, based on a multi-modal representation of the items of interest (textual description and images of the products), paired with a locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) indexing scheme for the fast retrieval of the potential recommendations. In particular, we learn a latent multimodal representation of the items through the use of CLIP architecture, combining text and images in a contrastive way. The item embeddings thus generated are then searched by means of different types of LSH. We report on the experiments we performed on two real-world datasets from e-commerce sites, containing both images and textual descriptions of the products.

Daniele Ciarlo, Luigi Portinale
A Comparative Study: Classification Vs. Matrix Factorization for Therapeutics Recommendation

Hospital information systems (HIS) hold various healthcare information of patients. Most of them are held as structural data by a database table. This information include history of diagnoses, medications, applied procedures and laboratory results of patients which can be used by machine learning methods to predict some useful information about patients. These predictions can be the progress of a disease, which is called prognosis, or it can also be therapeutics which includes medications and procedures. In this paper, we explain how to recommend therapeutics using various machine learning approaches, especially by comparing classification methods with matrix factorization (a recommender systems approach). In order to evaluate the performance of compared methods, we applied experiments on real patients’ electronic health records (EHR). We observed that matrix factorization outperforms the compared classification approaches in terms of accuracy. Therefore, it is feasible to employ matrix factorization in clinical decision support systems to provide therapeutics recommendations which improves the daily performance of physicians, so the life quality of the patients.

Seda Polat Erdeniz, Michael Schrempf, Diether Kramer, Alexander Felfernig
Chapter 6. Managing Differences Constructively

In the Sixth Round of China-US Strategic and Economic DialogueChina-US Strategic and Economic Dialogues (S&ED) (S&ED) held in July 2014, China and the United States reaffirmed the commitment to the shared goal of developing over time a “new model” of China-US relationsChina-US relations defined by “increased practical cooperation and constructive management of differences.” Besides the difference over the Western Pacific discussed in Chapter Four, China and the United States also disagree on cybersecurity, human rights, and military-to-military relationsMilitary-to-military relations.

Wenzhao Tao
Open Source Discovery, Adoption, and Use: An Informal Perspective

While the number of open source software projects and related businesses has grown rapidly, it remains difficult for those unfamiliar with open source to take advantage of what it has to offer. Newcomers often have a difficult time finding suitable projects to use, understanding the rules imposed by their licenses, and making contributions of their own to an open source project. Large high-tech companies have led this rapid growth and have cooperated to produce “best practices” guidelines to help others improve their internal governance of open source practices and their participation in the larger community. However, many individuals and organizations that could benefit from open source software, as well as contribute to open source projects, face barriers to doing so. This paper takes their perspective and informally presents these key issues and roadblocks, as well as addressing some of the questions that they often raise in their efforts to find, adopt, and use open source software.

Anthony I. Wasserman
Zero-Knowledge Age Restriction for GNU Taler

We propose a design for a privacy-friendly method of age restriction in e-commerce that is aligned with the principle of subsidiarity. The design is presented as an extension of a privacy-friendly payment protocol with a zero-knowledge scheme that cryprographically augments coins for this purpose. Our scheme enables buyers to prove to be of sufficient age for a particular transaction without disclosing it. Our modification preserves the privacy and security properties of the payment system such as the anonymity of minors as buyers as well as unlinkability of transactions. We show how our scheme can be instantiated with ECDSA as well with a variant of EdDSA, respectively, and how it can be integrated with the GNU Taler payment system. We provide formal proofs and implementation of our proposal. Key performance measurements for various CPU architectures and implementations are presented.

Özgür Kesim, Christian Grothoff, Florian Dold, Martin Schanzenbach
COVID-19: Effect on Indian Beauty Industry

The coronavirus COVID-19 has affected 213 countries and territories around the world, with over 23 million infections and has forced more than half the world’s population to live under stay-at-home orders. Today, the COVID-19 pandemic has completely disrupted the world economy (World Health Organization, World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Situation Report—208. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200815-covid-19-sitrep-208.pdf?sfvrsn=9dc4e959_2 ) (“The Global Economic Outlook During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Changed World”, 2020). This study has been conducted as secondary research using survey data analytics, descriptive statistics, and some forecasting techniques to make informed estimates of the present beauty industry situation in the COVID-19 pandemic and gain valuable insights into the future. This paper investigates the possibility of a paradigm shift in the Indian beauty industry because of COVID-19 pandemic and the grim chances of recovery at the granular level. The context of the paper will also circumnavigate the impact of the pandemic around the attributes of the market size and development, the competitive landscape, and future strategies for the Indian market. The research addressed the impact of COVID-19 on the industry. The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak fabricated a significant impact and outturn on the beauty industry globally. The article suggested strategies and the insights which can be adopted by the industry practitioners during the crisis as comprehensive trend analysis along with consumer attitude shift is analyzed as base for the study.

Ruby Chanda, Geetih Kaul
Key Factors of Adoption of Alternative Business Model: A Study on Handicraft Artisans During COVID-19 Pandemic

This chapter is an attempt to analyse the key factors of adoption of alternative business models by the handicraft artisans during COVID-19 pandemic. This paper is a part of doctoral study and is based on the part of primary research conducted by the scholar. The study primarily analyses the strength of the relationship of the factors. A structured questionnaire was employed to collect data for conducting the study. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regressions have been used as statistical tools for analysis. The findings of the study demonstrate the linkage and effect of critical aspects on the performance of alternative business models, resulting in conclusions that leave room for future research. The novelty of this study is that it has made an initial attempt to identify the key factors of adoption of the alternative business model for the artisans. The study is limited to a specific field of the craft sector. The policy-makers will have substantial theoretical consequences for the development of the artisans regarding their alternative business model. It is important to improve artisan’s entrepreneurial skills and capabilities to strengthen them in the global market today.

Sriparna Guha, Anirban Mandal, Fedric Kujur
A Bibliometric Analysis on eWOM and Consumer Behavior

This research studies the cited literature on electronic word of mouth (eWOM) in consumer behavior and assesses the gap for future research. The bibliometric review assesses 94 research papers of which 65 were relevant in order to understand the concept of online reviews, its antecedents, the industry and their influences on the buyers. The growth in the literature is analyzed by the search result extraction, using the software VOSviewer to ascertain the bibliometric mapping. The analysis revealed that there has been a significant rise in the documents written on this topic from the past few years. The USA has 24 documents out of 65 of Scopus database consisting of 207 citations; China being one of the highest online buyers has 23 publications to its credit, with India having 7 papers. The connection between online reviews and websites, purchase intention, information source is missing which can be ascertained as the gap in the keywords. This paper is an attempt to consolidate the researches which will contribute in the academic literature and provide an insight to the researchers and marketers who are interested in the industry-wise purchase intention of the consumers getting influenced by eWOM to devise their marketing strategy with respect to eWOM. The study reveals the suggestive plan for research and highlights the gap and the possibility of expanding the eWOM literature.

Kavleen Bharej
8. Software Testing

This chapter is concerned with software testing and discusses the various types of testing that may be carried out during the project. We discuss test planning, test case definition, test environment set-up, test execution, test tracking, test metrics, test reporting, and testing in an e-commerce environment.

Gerard O’Regan
23. Legal Aspects of Software Engineering

This chapter is concerned with the application of the legal system to the computing field. This includes the protection of intellectual property such as patents, copyright, trademarks and trade secrets, and the resolution of disputes between parties.

Gerard O’Regan
24. Cybersecurity and Cybercrime

This chapter discusses cybersecurity and cybercrime. Computer crime (or cybercrime) is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may be the vehicle by which the crime was conducted, or it may be the target of the crime. Cybersecurity is the protection of information through good security practices, including the protection of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data. It is achieved through policies that ensure consistency in employee behaviour in the use of computer resources, as well as training and awareness of security in the workplace.

Gerard O’Regan
25. Epilogue

This chapter is the concluding chapter in which we summarize the journey that we have travelled in this book.

Gerard O’Regan
Chapter 20. Resilience in Warehousing

Due to the fact that warehousing is one of the most critical functions in supply chains, resilience should be considered and planned in advance. This includes dimensioning of warehouses, required stock and buffer levels, all critical processes in warehouses, the geographical structure and the structure of different warehouse levels, collaboration between different partners vertically or along horizontal lines.Outsourcing should also be considered from the perspective of resilience and should not only be evaluated based on economic figures. Also technology, automatization and warehouse equipment, IT-infrastructure and digitalization play major roles in this context. This contribution tries to give an overview of these topics and aims at discussing what has to be done to make warehousing more resilient.

Clemens Schuhmayer
Chapter 22. Resilience Strategies for Freight Transportation: An Overview of the Different Transport Modes Responses

For the transport and logistics industry, the COVID-19 pandemic can be regarded as one of the most difficult challenges since the beginning of the globalization. Studies showed that transport and logistics sector suffered more than the average economy and had to deal with both high supply and demand fluctuations, leading to major personnel, operational, and strategic changes. In this chapter, we present the (re)actions of the different transport modes, namely maritime shipping, airfreight, rail, road, and infrastructure. In particular, this chapter will not only provide an overview about the resilience strategies of transport and logistics companies as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic but will also present the impacts on the different transport modes and discuss specific initiatives and actions taken by transport and logistics companies. These discussions and the actions presented will provide academics as well as managers with a crucial understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the different transport modes and thus provide a theoretical and practical foundation to further spark discussions about the role of resilience in the transport and logistics sector.

Eveline Beer, Jasmin Mikl, Hans-Joachim Schramm, David M. Herold
Chapter 24. Resilient Supply Chains in the Parcel Shipping Sector

The Austrian Post is Austria’s leading player in the parcel shipping sector, an industry that has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike other parts of the economy, CEP was confronted with sudden growth rates—especially during times of lockdown where classic retail was forced to stay closed.The key factors to master this challenging time were high investments into the logistics infrastructure and ongoing efforts into innovations and digitalization. This chapter provides a deeper look into the measures that have been taken before and during the pandemic and gives insights into emerging technologies that will enable parcel shipping companies to handle not only the fast growing, e-commerce driven parcel volume but also future, unforeseeable disruptions.

Peter Umundum, Constantin Wittek-Saltzberg
1. Logistics, Operations, and Supply Chain Management

Logistics, operations, and supply chain management deal with the management of systems that determine the performance of an enterprise or among companies as well as with the corresponding planning & control of daily business operations. These tasks are still managed by human beings who, through intuition and based on experience, find creative solutions. People have unique strategic and operational management abilities, in that they can fill in the blanks accurately and react flexibly to specific situations. However, if processes become more complex, frequent, and rapid, intuition alone does not suffice. Prior experience can also be misleading. In large companies and in transcorporate supply chains, moreover, there are many people involved in the processes, both simultaneously and in sequence. They differ in their experience, knowledge, and intuition. Therefore, logistics, operations, and supply chain management stand in the field of tension of the various stakeholders and contradictory objectives of the company or supply chain.

Prof. Dr. Paul Schönsleben
Chapter 1. Introduction

Look at the stars and you can perceive that the world is changing. Star-like lights streak through the night sky in a straight line, part of SpaceEx’s Starlink, a network of 653 satellites orbiting the earth [1]. SpaceEx has received approval to launch about 11,900 more satellites by November 2027 [2], the company has requests pending for another 30,000 satellites [3]. The fast-moving lights are the result of current technological developments contributing to a high level of interconnectivity in the economy, industry and society. This interconnectivity, in turn, is dependent upon highly functionalized products, such as satellites.

Friedrich Wilhelm Proes
13. Social Media Monetization and Demonetization: Risks, Challenges, and Potential Solutions

When a user swipes left, swipes right, browses, likes, and shares a piece of a post or video on a social media platform, the monetization system of the platform notes these actions and processes the user’s social media usage behavior. Noncommercial content, which seems to have no relation to social media monetization, could be preferred by the user. However, the user’s preference has been collected and utilized by the system to depict the user persona and detect user preferences. This information can be “monetized” at an appropriate moment by pushing a social media advertisement or a social media post containing a shopping link. This describes the basic workings of social media monetization which is quite different from our view of conventional business. Social media monetization is a novel economic schema that hybridizes commercial elements (e.g., advertisements, shopping information) and social elements (e.g., friends, community) in the service of optimal economic benefits. In the era of big data, artificial intelligence, headless e-commerce, and other frontier computing and commerce technologies, the monetization process is becoming more algorithmic, automatic, and cost-effective. The advertisement auction process in a social media platform can be automatically conducted in a way advertisers’ desire. The product(s) contained in a social media post can be precisely recommended to target users with a specific persona. It is expected that, in the future, the automation and precision of social media monetization will be further elevated and elaborated. Given this, we cannot help asking where we should locate humans in the algorithm-based economic system and what we should do when the system goes wrong?

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
14. Cases and Analyses of Social Media Companies

In this chapter, we will present cases of two reputable social media giants, Facebook and WeChat, in order to discern how social media companies monetize their social business. We will explain how monetization strategy and monetization actions are used and geared toward generating revenue and conclude with what we can learn from the two cases.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
12. Information System and Structure Design for Social Media Monetization

Information system (IS) and structure design establish the foundation for successful social media monetization. Previously, we have focused on discussing the conceptual and theoretical aspects of social media monetization. In this chapter, we will focus our attention on more practical knowledge about how to design an IS and structure design for social media monetization. The design research produces new insights for social media monetization because it applies existing theory and knowledge in a field of practice, and, most importantly, updates, refines, and advances our perceptions and knowledge about social media monetization in the iterative and interactive process between designers and artifacts. IS design research has been relevant to theory and knowledge for action, i.e., a form of how-to-do knowledge (Gregor, MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 30(3), 611–642, 2006).

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
11. Business Model Design for Social Media Companies

The external environment of a social media company encompasses social, legal, and economic aspects that can significantly influence a firm’s strategy for monetization. For example, if a social media company breaches a user data protection law, it could incur a large fine or even be banned from offering social media service by user data protection organizations or legal institutions. A legitimate business model is of paramount importance for a social media company to achieve sustainable monetization. Business model design describes the pattern by which a company makes money. A business model includes three elements: content, structure, and governance.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
4. How Social Media Profits from Advertising and Social Commerce

Social media advertising comprises a major revenue source for many large social media platforms. The Interactive Advertising Bureau defines social media advertising as “an online ad that incorporates user interactions that the consumer has agreed to display and be shared. The resulting ad displays these interactions along with the user’s persona (picture and/or name) within the ad content (see Chu, Journal of Interactive Advertising, 12(1), 32, 2011).” Social media advertising is quite different from traditional mass media advertising. Social media advertising incorporates more social elements in the advertising process. Social media ads can be interactive, immersive, and influential when social media users are browsing social media content. Social media users can comment, distribute, and like social ads. Social media ads can also be presented in an organic form which looks similar to regular social content displayed in users’ online social circles.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
3. How Companies Can Use Social Media for Social Selling

A staggering number of stores, around 9000, failed from Jan 2019 to Oct 2019, significantly higher than the 5844 stores that failed in the entire 2018 (Coresight Research, Weekly US and UK store openings and closures tracker 2019, week 43: Destination maternity files for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Retrieved from https://coresight.com/research/weekly-us-and-uk-store-openings-andclosures-tracker-2019-week-43/ , 2019). Businesses know that sales are crucial for a firm’s survival in the current volatile, competitive business environment. With steady sales of products or services, a firm can monetize its resources, maintain its business operation, and be able to conduct risky, high-return activities such as market expansions, new product development, and digital innovations.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
8. Optimizing the Use of Four Major Social Media Platforms

Facebook is an ideal social media platform for achieving significant sales and maximizing business value. First, Facebook can enable a firm to reach one-fifth of the world’s population (Vrountas, 4 reasons why you can’t ignore Facebook advertising. Retrieved from https://instapage.com/blog/4-reasons-facebook-advertising-cant-be-ignored , 2019). Instagram Shopping is Instagram’s most crucial function for enabling firms and brands to achieve monetization through e-commerce. Instagram has reported that 70% of shopping enthusiasts use Instagram to discover products. WeChat is a social media and messaging app mainly targeting at consumers in China. WeChat was released as a messaging app around a decade ago by its parent company Tencent (Sehl, How to use Pinterest for business: 8 strategies you need to know. Retrieved from https://blog.hootsuite.com/how-to-use-pinterest-for-business/ , 2019a; How to use WeChat for business: A guide for marketers. Retrieved from https://blog.hootsuite.com/wechat-marketing/ , 2019b). It quickly became “an app for everything,” offering users gaming, ridesharing, e-shopping, and e-government services. Pinterest is an American image sharing and social media platform designed for the discovery of inspiration and ideas (Gershgorn, Pinterest is distancing itself from social networks as it goes public. Retrieved from https://qz.com/1579086/pinterest-is-distancing-itself-from-social-networks-as-it-goespublic/ , 2019). Pinterest is one of the most popular social apps in the USA.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
7. Social Media Strategy Design

A social media strategy is comprised of six elements: why, who, where, what, when, and how (5Ws 1H). Before a social media strategy is decided upon, a firm needs to resolve these six issues.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
6. Monetization Process for Companies

A monetization process encompasses six activities: market research, social media strategy formulation, social media listening and social media intelligence, influencer marketing, performance assessment and reporting, and community management and customer care. All activities serve the ultimate goal of increasing corporate profit via social media. The six activities are not arranged in a causal sequence. For example, social media listening could be performed earlier than market research. These activities can constitute the entire monetization process, but not all activities are necessary in different forms of social media monetization. This chapter offers an overview of the monetization process. The key activities will be discussed in further detail in later chapters.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
1. Introduction

Social media is gaining momentum in generating commercial value. This book examines how economic agents (brands, firms, and social media platforms) make money using social media platforms. Though a handful of researchers and practitioners have studied several aspects related to social media monetization, their contributions are largely limited by their strategic focus on a particular economic agent or a certain research context.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
Chapter 1. Application of Machine Learning (ML) to Address Cybersecurity Threats

As cybersecurity threats keep growing exponentially in scale, frequency, and impact, legacy-based threat detection systems have proven inadequate. This has prompted the use of machine learning (hereafter, ML) to help address the problem. But as organizations increasingly use intelligent cybersecurity techniques, the overall efficacy and benefit analysis of these ML-based digital security systems remain a subject of increasing scholarly inquiry. The present study seeks to expand and add to this growing body of literature by demonstrating the applications of ML-based data analysis techniques to various problem domains in cybersecurity. To achieve this objective, a rapid evidence assessment (REA) of existing scholarly literature on the subject matter is adopted. The aim is to present a snapshot of the various ways ML is being applied to help address cybersecurity threat challenges.

Marwan Omar
10. Monetization Strategy Implementation for Social Media Companies

This chapter introduces key aspects of social media monetization. From a network perspective, the value of social media relies on the number of social media users. The more users a social media platform has, the more attractive it is for advertisers, brands, and other business users. This explains why daily active users (DAUs) are so important for defining the popularity of social media. A significant number of users offer a solid base for a social media platform to profit and optimize monetization.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
9. Cases and Analyses of Companies Leveraging Social Media

This chapter aims to present the newest practices in social media marketing. We provide details of these practices and explain why the analyzed companies are considered winners in the era of social media. Nine cases of companies leveraging social media are introduced. This chapter focuses on how these companies use social media; therefore, their corporate strategy and business policy (matters of secondary interest for our purposes) are only concisely mentioned. We have included traditional retail brands such as Nike and Estée Lauder as well as online retailers such as Amazon and Pinduoduo. These companies have been chosen due to the success of their social media strategies.

Francisco J. Martínez-López, Yangchun Li, Susan M. Young
Rethinking the Value of Gazetteer in Chinese Named Entity Recognition

Gazetteer is widely used in Chinese named entity recognition (NER) to enhance span boundary detection and type classification. However, to further understand the generalizability and effectiveness of gazetteers, the NLP community still lacks a systematic analysis of the gazetteer-enhanced NER model. In this paper, we first re-examine the effectiveness of several common practices of the gazetteer-enhanced NER models and carry out a series of detailed analyses to evaluate the relationship between the model performance and the gazetteer characteristics, which can guide us to build a more suitable gazetteer. The findings of this paper are as follows: (1) the gazetteer has a positive impact on the NER model in most situations. (2) the performance of the NER model greatly benefits from the high-quality pre-trained lexeme embeddings. (3) a good gazetteer should cover more entities that can be matched in both the training set and testing set.

Qianglong Chen, Xiangji Zeng, Jiangang Zhu, Yin Zhang, Bojia Lin, Yang Yang, Daxin Jiang
MGCN: A Novel Multi-Graph Collaborative Network for Chinese NER

Named Entity Recognition (NER), one of the most important directions in Natural Language Processing (NLP), is an essential pre-processing step in many downstream NLP tasks. In recent years, most of the existing methods solve Chinese NER tasks by leveraging word lexicons, which has been empirically proven to be useful. Unfortunately, not all word lexicons can improve the performance of the NER. Some self-matched lexical words will either disturb the prediction of character tag, or bring the problem of entity boundaries confusion. Thus, the performance of the NER model will be lowered by such irrelevant lexical words. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of the existing methods can solve these challenges. To address these issues, we present a novel Multi-Graph Collaborative Network (MGCN) for Chinese NER. More specifically, we propose two innovative modules for our methods. Firstly, we build connections among characters to eliminate interferential influences of the noisiness in lexical knowledge. Secondly, by constructing relationship between contextual lexical words, we solve the problem of boundaries confusion. Finally, experimental results on the benchmark Chinese NER datasets show that our methods are not only effective, but also outperform the state-of-the-art (SOTA) results.

Yingqi Zhang, Wenjun Ma, Yuncheng Jiang
Distill-AER: Fine-Grained Address Entity Recognition from Spoken Dialogue via Knowledge Distillation

Fine-grained address entity recognition from spoken dialogue is an important but challenging task because there are multiple types of address entities distributed across the multi-round dialogue context. Existing work typically formulates this problem as a fine-grained named entity recognition task, which in our scenario suffers from a high cost of training data annotation. On the other hand, large-scale full standard addresses could be easily crawled from the web pages like Google Maps and annotated with fine-grained address tags with limited human effort. Leveraging this, we propose a distillation approach (Distill-AER) for transferring knowledge from the large-scale labeled full standard address dataset to the fine-grained address entity recognition task in a spoken dialogue context scenario. We further construct a labeled spoken dialogue dataset with address entities using the data augmentation paradigm we proposed, which could benefit future research. Experimental results show that Distill-AER significantly outperforms other competitive baselines.

Yitong Wang, Xue Han, Feng Zhou, Yiting Wang, Chao Deng, Junlan Feng
MCIC: Multimodal Conversational Intent Classification for E-commerce Customer Service

Conversational intent classification (CIC) plays a significant role in dialogue understanding, and most previous works only focus on the text modality. Nevertheless, in real conversations of E-commerce customer service, users often send images (screenshots and photos) among the text, which makes multimodal CIC a challenging task for customer service systems. To understand the intent of a multimodal conversation, it is essential to understand the content of both text and images. In this paper, we construct a large-scale dataset for multimodal CIC in the Chinese E-commerce scenario, named MCIC, which contains more than 30,000 multimodal dialogues with image categories, OCR text (the text contained in images), and intent labels. To fuse visual and textual information effectively, we design two vision-language baselines to integrate either images or OCR text with the dialogue utterances. Experimental results verify that both the text and images are important for CIC in E-commerce customer service.

Shaozu Yuan, Xin Shen, Yuming Zhao, Hang Liu, Zhiling Yan, Ruixue Liu, Meng Chen
Stepwise Masking: A Masking Strategy Based on Stepwise Regression for Pre-training

Recently, capturing task-specific and domain-specific patterns during pre-training has been shown to help models better adapt to downstream tasks. Existing methods usually use large-scale domain corpus and downstream supervised data to further pre-train pre-trained language models, which often brings a large computational burden and these data are difficult to obtain in most cases. To address these issues, we propose a pre-training method with a novel masking strategy called stepwise masking. The method employs stepwise masking to mine tokens related to the downstream task in mid-scale in-domain data and masks them. Then, the model is trained on these annotated data. In this stage, task-guided pre-training enables the model to learn task-specific and domain-specific patterns simultaneously and efficiently. Experimental results on sentiment analysis tasks show that our method can effectively improve the performance of the model.

Jie Pan, Shuxia Ren, Dongzhang Rao, Zongxian Zhao, Wenshi Xue
Knowledge Enhanced Pre-trained Language Model for Product Summarization

Automatic summarization has been successfully applied to many scenarios such as news and information services, assisted recommendations, etc. E-commerce product summarization is also a scenario with great economic value and attention, as they can help generate text that matches the product information and inspires users to buy. However, existing algorithms still have some challenges: the generated summarization produces incorrect attributes that are inconsistent with original products and mislead users, thus reducing the credibility of e-commerce platforms. The goal of this paper is to enhance product data with attributes based on pre-trained models that are trained to understand the domain knowledge of products and generate smooth, relevant and faithful text that attracts users to buy.

Wenbo Yin, Junxiang Ren, Yuejiao Wu, Ruilin Song, Lang Liu, Zhen Cheng, Sibo Wang
Overview of the NLPCC 2022 Shared Task on Multimodal Product Summarization

We introduce the NLPCC 2022 shared task on multimodal product summarization. This task aims at generating a condensed textual summary for a given product. The input contains a detailed product description, a product knowledge base, and a product image. 29 teams register the task, among which 5 teams submit the results. In this paper, we present the task definition, the dataset, and the evaluation results for this shared task.

Haoran Li, Peng Yuan, Haoning Zhang, Weikang Li, Song Xu, Youzheng Wu, Xiaodong He
Integration of TRIZ Methodologies into the Digital Product Development Process

Iterative and waterfall software development processes such as V-model or UP (unified process) are widely used in project development. Nevertheless, modern Agile methodologies are aimed to reduce risks and achieve more predictable results in the digital world. Despite the difference between them, the software development life cycle splits into specific deliverables by breaking a project into smaller segments where the TRIZ toolkit can be effectively applied. Application of the TRIZ theory and core techniques can be valuable for new ideas generation and decision-making process at any point of product development from business model development and product vision definition to user experience design, implementation, and go-to-market strategy. As a result, the product quality grows, continuous delivery is accelerated, and new features are introduced to the final user in a more operative manner. The goal of this article is to demonstrate how TRIZ methodologies integration empowers software development for new products release and continuous improvement.

Vasilii Kaliteevskii, Matvey Bryksin, Leonid Chechurin
WTSP Report (5) Catalogs of TRIZ and Around-TRIZ Sites in the World: We Can Learn Full Scope of TRIZ-Related Works in the World

World TRIZ-related Site Project (WTSP) is a volunteer-based international project working to build Catalogs of TRIZ and Around-TRIZ Websites in the World. It aims at creating a reliable information resource in the field of Creative Problem Solving Methodologies in general. We collect good websites widely and list the selected ones with brief or close annotations in categories. Starting in Dec. 2017, we built the Beta Edition of World WTSP Catalogs in 2020, which have good maintainable and extendible structure. We select websites using multi-aspect criteria, and grade them in 5 levels as: ◎ top about 30 sites, ○ next about 100, □ worthy in World Catalogs, △ worthy in Country Catalogs, and - not listed. We have recently re-visited the Around-TRIZ websites obtained by Internet surveys in 2019, and revised the Basic Catalog (with 30 ◎ sites and 143 ○ sites) and newly built the Extended Catalog (with 244 □ sites). On the other hand, WTSP World Catalogs of TRIZ Sites have been updated very little from the Beta Edition (with 23 ◎ sites and 39 ○ sites), while waiting for contributions of manuscripts from individual countries. We carried out Internet surveys of TRIZ sites in 52 individual countries, and detected 1200 + sites. For 40 (less active) countries of them, we selected 103 □ sites and 43 △ sites. For 12 other countries (including 6 TRIZ-active major countries) we detected 480 sites but not investigated them yet while knowing there must be many good TRIZ websites. Anyway, WTSP World Catalogs already have abundant reliable information of selected websites, and are certainly helpful for many professionals and users to study and apply TRIZ and Creative Problem Solving Methodologies in general.

Toru Nakagawa, Darrell Mann, Michael Orloff, Simon Dewulf, Simon Litvin, Valeri Souchkov
Chapter 11. Diversity, Fake News and Hate Speech: The German Response to Algorithmic Regulation

Germany is taking a pioneering role both in Europe and across the world when it comes to digital platform regulation. This chapter examines two new German laws, the Interstate Media Treaty and the Network Enforcement Act. I explore the development of the laws and analyse their different regulatory objectives. While the former aims to safeguard diversity of opinion, the latter tries to protect individuals from hate crime, including certain forms of hate speech, criminally punishable fake news and other unlawful content. The article follows an interdisciplinary approach, combining communication studies research with legal analysis.

Kerstin Liesem
Chapter 2. Governing the Algorithmic Distribution of News in China: The Case of Jinri Toutiao

The chapter examines the governance of the algorithmic distribution of news in China through a case study of Jinri Toutiao, the most popular news aggregation application in China. We argue that the rationales, strategies and politics of the Chinese Communist Party’s governance of algorithmic news are not historically novel, and are greatly influenced by the legacies and experiences of the Party’s governance of news and new media technologies in the past. There has been a tendency in the Western literature to see the turn to platform governance as marking a weakening of the power and capabilities of the regulatory state. In China, the opposite is true: the political priorities have remained at the forefront of both governance of algorithms and governance through algorithms.

Jian Xu, Terry Flew
The Impact of Digitalization on Unemployment During Covid-19 Pandemic

The Covid19 pandemic that hit the world turned to be far more than a health crisis; the lock downs and the untraditional measures that were taken by most of the countries of the world to decrease the spread of the virus changed the form of our daily activities, and resulted in major socio-economic challenges. Although many businesses and institutions shifted to online mode in several sectors and industries, the lack of solid digital technologies and communications infrastructure made it hard for other countries to cope with the new global reality [1]. This paper claims that digitalized countries; countries with higher Digital Quality of Life (DQL) Index that is developed by the cyber security Company Surfshark in 2019, reported lower increase in their unemployment rate. The paper also claims that higher Covid19 annual cases lead to higher increase in unemployment rates. A Generalized Linear Model, for a sample of 59 countries including 118 panel data observations, was adopted to test the paper’s claims. The regression results revealed that there is a significant inverse relationship between DQL index and the percentage change in the unemployment rate, yet the positive coefficient between the percentage change in Covid19 cases and the percentage change in the unemployment rate is insignificant.

Sarah Hariri Haykal, Mohammad Makki
Chapter 14. Cloud and Fog Computing

Cloud computing has evolved from commercializing excess capacity in data centers in the early 2000s. Operators of large data centers then realized that their resource utilization was, on average, so low that it became profitable to rent out resources like computation time and storage to paying customers. As a result, the cloud computing paradigm has been quickly adopted worldwide with soaring success. By the end of 2020, about six hundred hyper-scale data centers offering cloud computing have been in operation. Cloud computing is frequently used to realize soft real-time systems, like video-streaming, E-commerce, or office and collaboration applications. However, this chapter is rather interested in exploring how cloud computing fits in as a design principle for distributed embedded applications that form hard real-time systems.

Hermann Kopetz, Wilfried Steiner
Chapter 8. Technological Leader, Regulatory Laggard? Washington and the Shifting Governance of Digital Trade

The Covid-19COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the universal belief that the future of globalization will be digital. Yet, the governanceDigital governance of the digital economy has become more contested than ever, splitting the world between different data realms (Leblond and Aaronson in Journal of International Economic Law 21 (2): 245–272, 2018), and dividing societies over the costs and benefits of an ever-expanding metaverse. This chapter seeks to analyze how America has sought to reconcile its ambitions to preserve its economic leadership and the new moral and societal imperatives brought by digital tradeDigital trade.

Jean-Baptiste Velut
Pest Analysis of the E-commerce Industry: The Case of Greece

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) has shown to be a critical driver of economic development and has the ability to boost efficiency and productivity in many countries. In the last years, e-commerce has seen rapid growth, especially during the pandemic of COVID-19. Specifically, Greece saw an increase in the number of Internet users who made online purchases and the total revenues of e-commerce transactions. Despite this growth, Greece still has a slow pace of digital transformation compared to other countries of the European Union. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the future of e-commerce in Greece and investigate the factors of the external macro-environment that can be an opportunity or a threat to Greek e-tailing. PEST analysis was used to examine the political, economic, sociocultural and technological factors that are related to the digital transformation of Greek retail stores. The analysis showed that the e-tailing industry is facing significant threats, but at the same time, it can take advantage of the opportunities created by the external environment. Although there is a trend towards the digital transition of retailing, the state should support both entrepreneurs and consumers.

Georgios A. Deirmentzoglou, Evangelos A. Deirmentzoglou
Service-Dominant Logic: The Road Map to Value Co-Creation in Place Marketing

This paper presents a conceptualization of the utility of Service-Dominant Logic (SDL) in theoretically underpinning the value co-creation process that emerges from the interactions and relationships of place visitors with local resource integrators of destinations. Under the SDL of marketing, service becomes the ontological content of the place brand and a fundamental mechanism of the exchange of place-branded products. The work is based on the Vargo and Lusch (J Acad Mark Sci 36(1):1–10, 2008) premise, that service is the fundamental basis of exchange, and builds an argument about how operant resources can be deployed by place marketers, as a source of competitive advantage to sustain loyalty to place visitors. It proceeds to explain how to place marketers (i.e., hospitality services, tourist attractions, etc.) co-create value with place visitors (customers) to generate effects that stimulate visitor loyalty and build the place brand. The relationships that develop between the customers and place marketers are embedded in a service ecosystem, which appreciates the phenomenologically determined perceptions of value of the parties and stimulates place visitors to repeat customs. The paper argues in favor of the integration of the roles of the customers and service suppliers in the formation of a value output, which becomes input in the identity of a place.

Sofia Daskou, Andreas Masouras, Anastasia Athanasoula Reppa
Virtual Reality in E-commerce: A Study

Online shopping has made the hassles of stepping out of homes to purchase items a thing of the past. With various organizations running their businesses online and with the onset of the pandemic, relying on e-commerce sites has simplified our lives. Although these applications provide details of products through the use of images and text, consumers are still wary and skeptical about the quality or fit of a product before making the purchase. In this work, we have discussed the use of virtual reality (VR) in these applications, to create a shopping environment for the consumers from the comfort of their homes. We have also proposed an architecture framework to implement VR on e-commerce. We provide a use case of online shopping which involves a product such as apparels along with certain future research directions.

Aishwarya Nair, Ivy Chakraborty, Rajesh Kumar Verma, Chhabi Rani Panigrahi, Bibudhendu Pati
A Hybrid Product Recommendation System Based on Weather Analysis

Product recommendation becomes to be one most revenue-generating technologies that every e-commerce website is using. For enhancing the purchase rate and user engagement, various product recommendations are available in the e-commerce website. Most of the external contexts are also taken into consideration for the product recommendation. This type of external context analysis sometimes will provide better recommendations when compared to the user-generated data. This paper proposes an idea of product recommendation using the weather. Here we predict the weather for the coming days using logistic regression and analyze the weather using big data analytics. Based on the analysis, we will sort the products and recommend a product in the same weather.

Sangeeth Sajan Baby, S. Siji Rani
Moving on with Digital Innovation: The Always-Connected Customer

With the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), marketing has moved from a product-centric marketing approach (Marketing 1.0) to a customer-centric era (Marketing 2.0) further to a period where value-driven approaches were prioritized (Marketing 3.0) to ultimately focus on Marketing 4.0. This new era of marketing has seen customers to be more participative, more curious of something that is new and different, and businesses are focusing on machine learning (ML) to understand customer’s psychology. Traditionally, marketing was considered to be the synthesis of the four main elements of the marketing mix to satisfy customer needs, and there was a one-way communication: business to consumers (B2C). However, two decades after the twenty-first century, consumer experiences, information management, and predictive analytics are main factors to determine future trends. Practitioners argue that Marketing 3.0 is similar to Marketing 2.0 where customers’ involvement and participation contribute to the overall business marketing process, but what is new is emotional marketing where individuals’ needs and aspirations are also considered. With the advancement in information communications technology (ICT) and Web 3.0, the emergence of social media platforms has transformed the communication channels in marketing. Social media is an important marketing communication tool where customers share their experiences among themselves and businesses as well. Consumers’ shared experiences, information, and knowledge management together with predictive analytics are the main factors that are used in Marketing 4.0 to predict future consumer buying behavior. The aim of this paper is to go beyond the acceptance of ICT and understand its contribution in the future of marketing.

Normada Bheekharry
Generation X’s Shopping Behavior in the Electronic Marketplace Through Mobile Applications During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Thanks to the prevalence of mobile applications (mobile apps), consumer behavior is shifting from conventional to online. Globally, mobile commerce has taken precedence over other forms of transaction due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic except for Generation X (Gen X) customers. They have restricted access to modern technologies and are critically impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, this chapter applied the Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT), and Task-technology fit models (TTF) to determine how the pandemic and Gen X characteristics affect buying behaviors in the electronic marketplace. The primary research method was the quantitative approach, in which data was collected from 467 respondents through a structured questionnaire. The findings indicate that Gen X consumers’ mobile commerce buying intentions are influenced favorably by mobile shopping (m-shopping) efficiency, effort expectancy, and the perceived severity of COVID-19. Generation X’s shopping behavior in the e-marketplace through mobile apps was also affected by the usability of mobile applications and their desire to purchase online. Additionally, the Gen X consumers’ expectation of effort was negatively impacted by the usability of mobile apps.

Bui Thanh Khoa
Introduction to Information Systems Research in Vietnam: A Shared Vision

Information Systems (IS) have been widely applied in Vietnam, and the IS advent has received much attention from Vietnamese practitioners and researchers. However, a shared account of IS knowledge in Vietnam is still lacking. Addressing this gap, we need a shared understanding of what we know and what we are doing, which can help coordinate our future actions. This introductory chapter sets a background for this shared understanding by reviewing the main themes of IS research in Vietnam. The chapter then updates the progress of the field by introducing nine current IS studies that are based in Vietnam. As a result, it contributes a contemporary reference and outlines future research directions for IS research in Vietnam.

Nguyen Hoang Thuan, Duy Dang-Pham, Hoanh-Su Le, Prasanta Bhattacharya, Tuan Q. Phan
Optimising Business Process by Multi-method Modelling: A Case Study of Customer Support Centre for Fashion Omnichannel e-Retailing

Optimising business processes (BP) is the essential task of any business organisation. However, it is not easy for managers to adjust limited organisational resources to achieve a specific business goal with the desired level of efficiency and effectiveness. Multi-method modelling, combined between discrete event and agent-based modelling, is used to illustrate how it helps simulate real situations emphasising limitations in resources to optimise business processes for the fashion e-retailing to satisfy their customers through omnichannel. Customer support centre (CSC) plays a crucial role in serving e-consumers by high volumes of service and support requests, common questions related to products, fulfilment, and returns with fast response to different communication channels (e.g., phone, email, live-chat, social media) (Ilk et al in Decis Support Syst 105:13–23, 2018, [1]). Allocating and assigning service workforces across channels with different skill requirements (e.g., talking over the phone, text-based messaging, social media monitoring) is a complex task to optimise human resources. In this study, multi-method modelling is applied to design and optimise a customer support centre for a fashion omnichannel e-retailing to deal with customer requests. Several scenarios are established to adjust the number of workers as organisational resources and analyse the efficiency and effectiveness based on lost calls and utilisation in fulfilling customers’ requests. Multiple scenarios are analysed for normal conditions and promotional events using the software AnyLogic. The results of these scenarios are discussed, compared, and contrasted to identify the model’s outcomes in each scenario and to suggest many practical recommendations for managers in designing and optimising business processes. BP can contribute to overall business performance by satisfying and attracting customers while maintaining efficient and effective organisational resources. Also, the role of CSC in fashion omnichannel e-retailing is highlighted in fulfilling customer requests. Finally, through the study, multi-method modelling shows its strengths and limitations in facilitating managers in designing business processes and optimising the company resources to maximise efficiency and effectiveness in the dynamic fashion business environment.

Tram T. B. Nguyen, Huy Quang Truong
Blockchain-Enabled Traceability in Sustainable Food Supply Chains: A Case Study of the Pork Industry in Vietnam

Blockchain-enabled traceability has been widely touted as having a great potential for improving food supply chains. Proposed benefits include: outbreak tracing, verifying ingredient origins, monitoring environmental compliance and automating payments. Blockchain-enabled food supply chains have not been widely studied in developing countries. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of blockchain-enabled traceability in food supply chains was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the potential impacts on food supply chain sustainability. A case study of a pork supply chain in Vietnam was analysed to understand the context in a developing country. The analysis was conducted through the lens of a triple-bottom-line blockchain framework for supply chains.

Chi Pham, Thanh-Thuy Nguyen, Arthur Adamopoulos, Elizabeth Tait
How to Evaluate Public Spaces as High-Value Impact Opportunities for the Last Generation Adaptive Cities

The utterly unpredicted advent of Covid-19 pandemic has profoundly changed human lives, not only in people habits but in their perception of related-density urban spaces and their use. Smart Cities based on technocentric efficiency are gradually replaced by a new city paradigm: the adaptive cities. The term “adaptive” inspires a new model of interaction between citizens, technology and spaces starting from urban characteristics and users’ needs towards a better accomplishment of the UN seventeen-SDG idea of inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable cities, thus stressing the social dimension. This scenario represents a new challenge in reshaping cities for policy makers, investors, planners and all actors involved in this innovative regeneration process that would comply with ESG criteria. A starting point of Adaptive cities is certainly represented by public spaces that have been rediscovered by people experiencing pandemic. The present paper explores under an evaluative lens the potential social impact of public spaces. Through literature and empirical evidence, it is then introduced the issue of measuring those values that pertain social and collective dimension (extra-market values). Finally, it is discussed how intangible values can be integrated with the economic and financial framework through which policy makers and investors attempt to catch the social impact values.

Federica Cadamuro Morgante, Alessandra Oppio
Role of Digital Financial Inclusion in Promoting Economic Growth and Freedom

Digitalization is considered a pivotal step toward attaining financial freedom, financial inclusion, financial development, and economic growth of a country as a whole. The impact of digital finance on financial inclusion and freedom is significant when it comes to the allocation of financial services to society, including the poor via transformational technologies. This chapter delves into the basic understanding of various aspects of digitalization and its impact on economic and financial freedom. Specifically, we first discuss the connection between financial inclusion and financial freedom and then explore how digitalization in the modern industrial era improves the financial freedom of people by making borrowing easier with alternative financing. Further, we show how digital financial services via Information and Communication Technology (ICT) dissemination and penetration lead to financial freedom and financial development. Finally, we explore the idea of financial freedom in the context of banking performance and its efficiency.

Malvika Saraf, Parthajit Kayal
The Impact of Digitalization on the Introduction of Innovations into BFSI Activities

This chapter examines the manifestations of digitalization and technological solutions in the financial sector. Here is an overview of the use of special terms denoting groups of applied technological innovations in the financial sector. There is a lot of evidence that digital transformation is a strategic priority for BSFI. The paper shows the impact of the requirements of consumers of financial services, which form the demand for innovation. The features of the following business models are considered here: Open Banking, Bank-as-a-Service, and Marketplace Banking. A separate section of the analysis of the regulatory practice of the use of digital technologies in BSFI is given. Emphasis is placed on the fusion of RegTech, SupTech, as the most effective form of interaction to ensure financial stability in BSFI.

Elena M. Grigorieva
AI, Blockchain, and IOT

Artificial intelligence and blockchain technologies are widely used in the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT to collect and present data, blockchain to provide the infrastructure to define operational rules, and AI optimization processes and rules are all possible connections between these technologies. These technologies converge, enabling new autonomous business models and the innovative impacts of this triad on increasing the competitiveness of companies. This chapter delves into the basic understanding of each of the triads and how they complement each other’s drawbacks in possibly revolutionizing the entire financial domain.

Ankit Som, Parthajit Kayal
Author Gender Identification for Urdu Articles

In recent years, author gender identification has gained considerable attention in the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. This task has been extensively investigated for resource-rich languages such as English and Spanish. However, researchers have not paid enough attention to perform this task for Urdu articles. Firstly, I created a new Urdu corpus to perform the author gender identification task. I then extracted two types of features from each article including the most frequent 600 multi-word expressions and the most frequent 300 words. After I completed the corpus creation and features extraction processes, I performed the features concatenation process. As a result each article was represented in a 900D feature space. Finally, I applied 10 different well-known classifiers to these features to perform the author gender identification task and compared their performances against state-of-the-art pre-trained multilingual language models, such as mBERT, DistilBERT, XLM-RoBERTa and multilingual DeBERTa, as well as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). I conducted extensive experimental studies which show that (i) using the most frequent 600 multi-word expressions as features and concatenating them with the most frequent 300 words as features improves the accuracy of the author gender identification task, and (ii) support vector machine outperforms other classifiers, as well as fine-tuned pre-trained language models and CNN. The code base and the corpus can be found at: https://github.com/raheem23/Gender_Identification_Urdu .

Raheem Sarwar
An Opinion Analysis Method Based on Disambiguation to Improve a Recommendation System

Recommendation systems are widely used in almost all websites to help the customer to make a decision in the face of information overload problems. These systems provide users with personalized recommendations and help them to make the right decisions. Customer opinion analysis it is a vast area of research, especially in recommendation systems. This justifies the growing importance of opinion analysis. Among the great classifiers to perform this task the Wide Margin Separators classifier which gives encouraging results in the literature. Despite the results found in the classification, there is a problem of ambiguity in the meaning of words, which poses a problem in recommendation systems based on opinion analysis; an Arabic word has several meanings, so there is a probability of misclassification of comments that contain these ambiguous words and therefore a false recommendation. We present after a comparative study between the methods proposed in the literature a method to do the disambiguation before going through the classification phase which we have done using the SVM algorithm. Our proposed system gives its best result in terms of accuracy 97.1%.

Oussama Laroussi, Souheyl Mallat, Henri Nicolas, Mounir Zrigui
Multi-module Natural Language Search Engine for Travel Offers

In this work, we present an advanced semantic search engine dedicated to travel offers, allowing the user to create queries in the Natural Language. We started with the Polish language in focus. Search for e-commerce requires a different set of methods and algorithms than search for travel, search for corporate documents, for law documents, for medicine, etc. In travel, the complexity of data is bigger than in other domains, and the search process requires more parameters. In e-commerce, one product has 1 price, while in travel, one product (holiday package) has got tens of thousands of prices depending on time, board type, room type, number of people, children’s age, etc. Providing a search for one middle-size tour operator, we need to search within hundreds of millions documents.We present a set of methods based on natural language processing to improve the search for travel. We also present our new application for annotating travel offers, prepared in a human-in-the-loop paradigm that enables iterative system improvement. We also show a large dataset containing more than 3,000 manually constructed queries and more than 23,000 manually annotated answers, a large fraction by at least two independent experts, and a semi-automatically constructed ontology of tourism terms in OWL format containing nearly 2,000 concept classes.

Karol Gawron, Konrad Wojtasik, Bartłomiej Bojanowski, Arkadiusz Janz, Jan Kocoń, Tomasz Krupa, Agnieszka Kukałowicz, Piotr Miłkowski, Maciej Piasecki, Michał Pogoda, Norbert Ropiak, Michał Swędrowski, Wiktor Walentynowicz
Conceptual Model Utilizing Blockchain to Automate Project Bank Account (PBA) Payments in the Construction Industry

The UK (United Kingdom) government published a guidance document in 2012 stipulating the use of project bank accounts (PBA) to promote fair and prompt payment practices in the construction industry. This article provides a high-level conceptual model utilising blockchain to automate project bank account payments. In PBA, project funds are partitioned in a separate bank account, like an escrow. Traditionally, before PBA, the main contractor would use the client’s project payments to reinvest in new work, or strategically withhold supply chain payments to sustain positive cash flow. PBA revokes the main contractor as the sole recipient of the project budget and provides the client with transparency over project expenditures. The proposed conceptual model allows project participants to approve and execute automated payments through user dashboards. Part of the security of smart contracts is their unchangeable properties once deployed; however, this is problematic, as construction projects regularly undergo change orders and programme alterations. Furthermore, Ethereum-based smart contracts in the current environment are limited due to the costs associated with auditing and on-chain hosting fees. To mitigate this, transactions in the PBA blockchain model are instantiated through an off-chain application, which stores pre-executed transactions in the form of signed messages. These messages are pushed to the blockchain and converted to transactions once they are approved by validating authorities. The result is a strategy to achieve payment automation at a more economical cost. The proposed model illustrates a high-level amalgamation of PBA, blockchain, off-chain, and asset tokenization. A limitation of this article is that it does not include any programming and the ideas are presented in the form of a flowchart. Future work includes programming the solution. Blockchain Project bank accounts Payments Construction industry Off-chain Smart contracts

Denis J. Scott, Tim Broyd, Ling Ma
Model of Catlai Logistic Center—Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City aims to become the regional logistic center with the advantages of natural and social resources. According to the feasible study of logistic development, there are 07 logistic centers, distributed in the East–West-South-North of this city. In order to reach the goal that by 2025, it will trade 200 million tons of goods per year, Ho Chi Minh City needs to determine the appropriate paradigm for these logistic center and be ready to organize traffic corresponding to above mentioned volumes as well as consequent impacts to the spatial structure of the city.

Le Thi Bao Thu
Kapitel 7. Der WTO-Eintritt Chinas

Ein oft untersuchtes Ereignis in der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Historie ist der WTO-Eintritt Chinas. In diesem Rahmen wird zunächst kurz erklärt, welche wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen der Beitritt hat, z. B. auf den Arbeitsmarkt der USA und Deutschlands oder auf die Löhne in China. Der Handelskonflikt der USA mit China unter der Trump-Regierung wird andiskutiert. Einführend wird erläutert, welche Entwicklungen der Beitritt Chinas für den Markup ausgelöst hat. Regionale Unterschiede und staatliche Unternehmen spielen hierbei für China eine Rolle.

Jürgen Paetz
A Research Framework for Studying Key Issues in the Industrial Internet

In recent years, academics in related domains have been focusing on the industrial internet as a new kind of industrial network organization. This paper proposes key technologies and research topics that need to be studied to solve the problems based on value co-creation and service ecosystem theory, data space technology, and three typical industrial internet modes, in light of the formation, evolution, and control problems faced by the development of the industrial internet, the problems of industrial resource sharing and service collaboration, and the problem of ecological construction of industry platforms. It is expected to provide a reference for the relevant research in the field of industrial internet.

Siwei Yang, Shuangxi Huang
Thaiwelltopia: A High-Quality Wellness Tourism Platform

This paper is about the design and development of a platform for wellness tourism that links data relating to high-quality wellness tourism providers to the online market. The platform is called Thaiwelltopia. Well-traveled tourists typically require a compelling story as an inspiration to visit a certain location. Such details are not delivered by traditional Websites focusing on travelers. Moreover, these Websites also do not provide such valuable information as noteworthy forthcoming and historical events that may attract visitors. In order to promote high-quality destinations in the wellness sector, this collaborative initiative provided background information on each location’s history, non-mainstream services, wellness architecture, biophilic design, together with providers’ backgrounds and details of their path of success. The results presented in this paper are based on pre-design surveys involving stakeholders and tourists, as well as on data relating to the various user interfaces of the Thaiwelltopia platform.

Kanokkarn Snae Namahoot, Chakkrit Snae Namahoot, Ketwadee Buddhabhumbhitak, Michael Brückner
Software Engineering for Edge Computing

Edge computing has been recently introduced by both industry and academia to quench the need for a computing paradigm close to mobile devices. Edge computing bridges the gap between the cloud and mobile devices by enabling computing, storage, networking, and data management in edge nodes within the close vicinity of end users’ devices. While there are various surveys about Edge computing in the literature, what is currently missing is the description of the software-engineering aspects of the applications that are built/deployed via the edge. The contribution of the current chapter is twofold. We first highlight the software-engineering aspects of the current edge-computing approaches. In particular, we specify the core concepts of the general-purpose software-engineering process, the multi-tier architecture of edge infrastructure, and how software applications are deployed to such an infrastructure. Secondly, we abstract a software-engineering process suitable for edge computing and we outline the research challenges in this process.

Dionysis Athanasopoulos
Chapter 4. Architecting Resilient Solutions in Azure

While Chapter 3 reviews the main five pillars of Azure Well-Architected Framework, with a focus on the reliability pillar, on a conceptual way, this chapter focuses on the resiliency topic in a more practical way. It shows the main features Azure offers to make your solutions more resilient.

Unai Huete Beloki
Chapter 3. Azure Well-Architected Framework (WAF)

The two previous chapters primarily introduced you to the concepts of Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) and service-level definitions. Although this book is targeting how to apply and achieve SRE in an Azure environment, most of the information shared in the previous chapters is applicable to any data center scenario, whether running on Azure, Amazon AWS, Google GCP, on-premises, or hybrid. The following chapters will remind those concepts whenever needed.

Unai Huete Beloki
Chapter 2. Service-Level Management Definitions and Acronyms

In the first chapter, you were introduced to the foundations of Site Reliability Engineering, with several pointers to acronyms and definitions, which would be clarified in this chapter.

Unai Huete Beloki
Chapter 1. The Foundation of Site Reliability Engineering

In this first chapter, I introduce you to the foundation of Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) as a practice, as well as what it means to be or become a Site Reliability Engineer (SRE). Starting from the baselines set out by Google years ago already, it touches on the core characteristics of IT operations and software development. Next, it highlights the importance of collaboration, helping organizations in running business-critical workloads without major downtime.

Unai Huete Beloki
Chapter 6. Monitoring As the Key to Knowledge

This chapter will cover the basics of a monitoring strategy, focusing on the concepts related to the topic and giving an explanation of the broad amount of Azure services that should be used for your observability goals.

Unai Huete Beloki
Chapter 5. Automation to Enable SRE with GitHub Actions/Azure DevOps/Azure Automation

In this chapter, I will focus on the fourth pillar of Dickerson’s hierarchy of reliability: automation (releases/testing). It will be a topic where SREs will need to work hand in hand with DevOps engineers in the organization. DevOps engineers will focus on continuous experimentation, whereas SREs will focus on the reliability of the solution, both by using shared tools and practices.

Unai Huete Beloki
Chapter 7. Efficiently Handle Incident Response and Blameless Postmortems

In this chapter, you will be introduced to incident response and blameless postmortems practices, two of the pillars mentioned in Dickerson’s hierarchy of reliability.

Unai Huete Beloki

Open Access

Consumer Perceptions and Acceptance of Insects As Feed and Food: Current Findings and Future Outlook

In recent years, the use of insects as food and feed has gained widespread attention from industry, policy makers, the scientific community, and the general public globally. This chapter is devoted to providing insights on the current state-of-the-art around edible insects and the interlinkages among market, legislation and consumer acceptance. Future research developments are also explored.

Giovanni Sogari, Hans Dagevos, Mario Amato, Danny Taufik
Chapter 8. An Assessment of Application of Artificial Intelligence in Retail

Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and other digital strategies have been in the market for over three decades. Many technologies empower humans to rely on daily responsibilities. Like, Siri helping in driving directions, reading emails, recommending movies or books. AI helps in successful robotic surgeries, robotic nurses, and health and medicines. Also, robotics in customer service in the hospitality industry is already popular everywhere. The study proposed identifying the literature on artificial intelligence and information technology adoption in the retail segment and a future research framework to discover this topic further. The present work is unique as the paper aims to explore the published literature in the Web of Science database and propose future research areas. The review was done using Vos-viewer software and bibliometric package in R software. Further studies can be done as to how the penetration of various technologies to the lower strata and the informal sector of the economy. Also, specific industry challenges are also a prospective area for future studies when adopting newer technologies.

P. Dhanya Mohan, M. Rakesh Krishnan
NN-LP-CF: Neural Network Based Link Prediction on Social Networks Using Centrality-Based Features

Link prediction has drawn significant attention from researchers in recent years due to the rapid growth of social networks. The link prediction problem identifies the missing and future links in online social networks. Most traditional methods focus on the node and edge centrality measures to predict missing links using local and global features. These methods do not consider the advantage of both local and global features. However, some quasi-local metrics have been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of local and global centrality measures. This paper uses local and global topological features to generate likelihood feature scores for the proposed neural network model NN-LP-CF. The proposed model generates a likelihood score to predict missing links. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of NN-LP-CF over traditional centrality measures over different performance metrics.

Shashank Sheshar Singh, Divya Srivastva, Ajay Kumar, Vishal Srivastava
Modified-PIP with Deep Neural Network (DNN) Architecture: A Coherent Recommendation Framework for Capturing User Behaviour

The use of online services such as e-commerce is rapidly growing, resulting in an exponential rise in the amount of information that is available. Recommender systems assist consumers in selecting relevant information from a vast pool of alternatives. Furthermore, varied recommendation contexts have their own challenges, necessitating the use of diverse recommendation approaches. Collaborative filtering techniques have been predominantly used owing to their high accuracy, simplistic approach, and low computational needs, whereas content-based filtering faces the problem of high computational needs. This chapter aims to capture the behaviour of users using a modified Proximity Impact Popularity (Modified-PIP) technique augmented with Deep Neural Network (DNN) to make efficient movie recommendations. The dominance of Modified-PIP over other similarity measures such as PIP similarity, Cosine similarity, and PCC (Pearson Correlation Coefficient) is tested on the MovieLens-100K, MovieLens-1M, and Jester datasets. A matching imputation technique is applied to reduce the sparsity of the dataset. The performance of the proposed Deep Neural Network (DNN) architecture in conjunction with the Modified-PIP similarity measure is evaluated using RMSE (root mean squared error), MAE (mean absolute error), R (recall), and P (precision). Low error scores obtained by the proposed model give justification for the high efficacy of the proposed model.

Bam Bahadur Sinha, Gurvinder Singh Yadav, Sagar Badrish Kudkelwar
Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Networks for Opinion Mining on Drug Reviews

Online health forums are places where patients share their experiences about their disease(s), treatment(s), etc. Under the cover of anonymity, they express their personal experiences very freely. These forums are therefore a very useful source of information for healthcare professionals to better identify and understand the problems, behaviors, and sentiments of their patients. In this study, our goal is to unveil the secrets of sentiment analysis on drug reviews using deep learning-based approaches. More specifically, we focus our research on genericity, to reduce human intervention in the excavation process. We, therefore, explore the problem of opinion mining using methods based on deep convolutional and recurrent neuronal networks like CNN, LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory), GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit), and hybrid models to reach complementarity, instead of standard methods which require a priori resources such as vocabulary, and sentence structure. In this work, we attempt to extend the genericity of our process by reducing this need for resources a priori.

Nesma Settouti, Fatiha Youbi
Design and Development of an Online Sales Platform for the Brand: Engenharia Do Brigadeiro

The research here presented consisted in the Design and development of an online store proposal for Engenharia do Brigadeiro (EB). This company only had a Facebook and Instagram page and, with the Covid-19 pandemic, it felt the need to reinforce its online presence, in order to reach more customers. Thus, we developed a Design prototype for the mentioned online store that should answer to both the company’s needs and to its customer’s needs. Methodology wise this research was divided into three stages: in the first stage we undergone a literature review about the currently undergoing consumers’ buying habits migration into the digital context, and about User Experience Design. In the second stage we proceeded into understanding and modelling our user and its main needs and goals. And in a third stage, from all the data we collected from the previous research stages, we designed an online store prototype, which we further submitted to Usability tests. The conclusions drawn from these tests are presented at the end of this chapter.

Viviana Maia, Leonardo Pereira, Daniel Brandão
Evaluation of Trust Establishment Mechanisms in Wireless Networks: A Statistical Perspective

Establishing trust in wireless networks requires the network designer to incorporate different levels of security protocols in the network. These security protocols enable certain checks in the network which if found to be followed properly increase the trust level of nodes. A very simplistic trust establishment example is a network where in all nodes have IP (internet protocol) addresses starting with prime numbers. In such a network, if a node with a non-prime IP join in, then the other network nodes can identify this new (or discovered) node as an attacker and block communications with it. But for large-scale networks, complex trust establishment algorithms are needed, which can provide multi-level checks and thereby enhance the overall security of the network. In order to design a trust-based network, it is necessary for the network designers to evaluate and select the best protocol(s) suited for their network. To perform this task, a large amount of design time is dedicated to protocol evaluation, which delays network deployments. Thus, this text provides a statistical comparison of different trust establishment protocols applied to wireless networks and assists network designers to select the best suited protocol for their application. Moreover, this text also recommends certain upgradations to the existing protocols in order to further improve their security levels.

Ashutosh Kumar Choudhary, Surendra Rahamatkar
A Novel Secure Vector Product for Protecting the Privacy of Data in Vertically Partitioned Dataset

The contemporary advancements in the field of data collecting, storage and networking have resulted in data being saved and kept at many locations. Data mining methods allow hidden knowledge to be extracted from massive data sources. Data on the centralized server are not always present. Data might be obtained at individual or several places. Data are divided vertically, horizontally or at both sites and disseminated between places. The sharing of data repositories existing at many stages in the mining process leads to discomfort in data privacy. Data mining protection is a technology that prevents sensitive information from being disclosed to others during a mining operation. Simple multiparty calculations and anonymization are the most common privacy protecting technology for data mining. Secure multiparty (SMC) computing allows parties to do distributed data mining activities in separate places without disclosing more personal data. The SMC protocol employs mostly encryptions that offer high security and enhance the complexity of protocols. Before it is utilized for mining, perturbation alters the original sensitive data. Distortion of the data may diminish the mining performance accuracy to decrease the usefulness. A novel vector scalar product is suggested to save execution time and to protect privacy data privacy in the vertically partitioned dataset, retaining the induction of decision tree. A downward approach to the safe scalar product is taken. Each node is a radix or fewer party groups. The binary vector is divided as well. Each group discovers a safe sum of binary vectors with the secret sharing of Shamir. The running time of the CPU was established between sequences and when running downstream. The execution time was determined. The proposed bottom-up approach results in comparison with following sequential approach.

Vibhor Sharma, Shashi Bhushan, Anuj Kumar Singh, Pramod Kumar
Editorial: Machine Learning, Advances in Computing, Renewable Energy and Communication (MARC)

Machine learning (ML) is the subcategory of artificial intelligence (AI), which has the capability to imitate human behavior intelligently as per the task performed by the human. In the modern time, any organization implements AI by using ML so that system’s behavior of interchangeably and ambiguously is updated automatically through the experience without any delay. So, current advances in AI have involved ML. The ML starts with data (i.e., any kind of data starting from primary to secondary data). These data are collected and preprocessed to be used as training and testing the ML models being utilized for different applications such as regression, prediction, forecasting, classification, clustering, management, design, optimization, security, IoTs, health care, digitization, automation, control, privacy protection and e-commerce. In this book, the applications AI, ML and its advancement for different applications have been presented into different chapters, including the state-of-the-art and implementation in the various research domains of engineering and science.

A. Tomar, H. Malik, P. Kumr, A. Iqbal
Industrial Upgrading from Below: Can Chinese Local Manufacturing Firms Reconfigure Global Value Chains?

Chinese local manufacturing firms are mostly suppliers positioned in the midstream of global value chains (GVC). Although their dominant mode of industrial upgrading is path-dependent sustaining the existing governance structure of GVC, some leading firms with accumulated experience and technological know-how adopt more radical strategy which can configure or reconfigure the whole chain structure, by diversifying to related sectors, developing upstream technologies, and even creating new industries. Based on analysis of three sectors—LED lights, mobile terminals, and new energy vehicle batteries—in Huizhou City, a region of manufacturing clusters in South China, we identify the upgrading pathways of local firms via technological and non-technological efforts over time and highlight the value-chain-reconfiguring tendency of upgrading when local firms explore emerging sectors from below. This kind of sector-shaping upgrading practice by firms gets support from national and local development policies and can profoundly change the structure of China’s production networks and GVCs.

Wei Zhao
Alibaba’s Distribution-Centered Approach Towards the Industrial Internet: A Chinese Version of Industry 4.0?

In this chapter, we discuss the emergence of new business models based on the industrial internet as a potential game changer in manufacturing sectors and their effects on production processes and work. We observe an increased relevance of data for manufacturing and identify industrial internet platforms as an important infrastructure to analyze and make use of such data. We differentiate industrial internet platforms according to the question of whether their main function concerns the optimization of production processes (production-centered platforms) or a more effective distribution of products (distribution-centered platforms). The empirical analysis focuses on the often-overlooked distribution-centered platform type and Alibaba’s industrial internet platform Tao-factory, in particular. We find that Alibaba is restructuring the subcontracting arrangements in China’s domestic light industries, which has some positive effects on work in terms of defragmentation of the work process and higher wages for skilled garment workers. However, informal work arrangements continue to undermine decent work and the observed positive tendencies could be undercut by a race to the bottom in the long run.

Lea Schneidemesser, Florian Butollo
Active Local Governments and New Chinese Firms in Emerging Industries in Kunshan and Dongguan

Local governments have played an increasingly important role in China’s economic development since the 1990s. Comparing the industrial development processes of Kunshan and Dongguan, two export-oriented cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD), respectively, we analyze China’s involvement in global value chains (GVCs) from the bottom up and explore the evolution of active local governments in China since the 1980s. We argue that local governments have been learning and adapting to both national directives and GVCs with evolving governing styles, assuming an increasingly active role in local economic development. We highlight the different upgrading trajectories of Dongguan and Kunshan in the information and communication technology (ICT) GVC in response to industrial policies from local governments, China’s national development programs, and shifting strategies of foreign and domestic Chinese firms in the ICT industry.

Xun Zhang, Gary Gereffi, Cassandra C. Wang
Whither Global Value Chains: The Shifting Role of Taiwanese FDI in Mainland China

China’s entry into and industrial upgrading within global value chains (GVC) was facilitated by foreign direct investment (FDI) in subsidiaries of foreign, especially Taiwanese, enterprises. These investments brought specific capabilities, as well as development challenges, which have continued to shape the performance of domestic Chinese enterprises. In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2008, China’s role in GVCs has evolved with an increasingly important role for domestic firms and declining competitiveness in labor-intensive buyer-driven value chains. Most importantly, a new generation of China-oriented FDI in digital and value-added services is adding new life to the manufacturing economy and concentrating investment again in China’s coastal urban areas. While the rise of domestic firms has shifted the ownership of production assets across existing electronics GVCs, rather than whithering, Taiwanese investment has moved to new industrial niches in Mainland China. This sets the stage for several potential avenues for development in an era of trade protectionism and technology nationalism.

Michael Murphree
China’s Evolving Role in Global Value Chains: Upgrading Strategies in an Era of Disruptions and Resilience

China’s role in global value chains (GVCs) has changed fundamentally in recent decades. The country has moved from being the world factory for a diverse range of low-tech, mid-tech, and high-tech consumer goods to the goal of becoming a technological leader in sectors linked to advanced manufacturing, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, and new e-commerce and internet-related production networks while lessening its dependence on the United States and other traditional export markets by focusing on its domestic market and emerging regional markets. China has achieved this transformation in its development trajectory by combining two drivers of change: upgrading from above and upgrading from below. While upgrading from above refers to the relatively familiar set of programs introduced by China’s central government that chart strategic shifts and new goals for the economy as a whole, upgrading from below is equally important but less well understood. It refers to the diverse set of local policies and firm-level activities at the provincial, regional, and city government levels that are required to implement and institutionalize China’s national programs and policy directives. The chapters of this book illustrate how upgrading from below works in practice in China and they suggest new research insights on how to analyze GVCs in China and other developing economies.

Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
The Reconfiguration of Global Value Chains in the Digital Economy: Recent Trends and China's New Agenda

In the era of the digital economy, three reconfiguration trends in global value chains (GVC) are emerging. (1) GVCs are becoming more regionalized; (2) complex value chains are shrinking; and (3) the driving forces of GVCs are changing with on-demand supply chains and digital platforms. The main findings of this chapter are: (1) Digital technology reduces the difference of global labor costs contributing to the division of several regional value chains from GVCs, with national institutions and regional FTAs accelerating this tendency; (2) “platform companies” became a new driving force of GVC governance; and (3) digital technologies such as intelligent logistics, telecommuting, and machine translation raise the possibility of reshoring through the reduction of trade costs. These changes present both challenges and opportunities for China’s future roles in GVCs. The chapter argues China should analyze the theoretical mechanism of the digital economy's impact on the reconstruction of GVCs from four dimensions: factor endowment, market size, geographical distance, and institutional quality. To leverage the competitive advantages of China as the center of regional value chains, the efficient countermeasures of China are to accelerate the combination of the digital technology and traditional industries, namely, accumulation of new comparative advantages of data as production factor, cultivation of general digital skills, provide comprehensive top-level design of digital platforms, construction of digital market supervision system, development of new business forms of digital economy, and building up of digital governance.

Ying Qiu
China’s Industrial Internet: Platform-Based Manufacturing and Restructuring of Value Chains

This contribution proposes a conceptual framework to understand the rapid development of China’s Industrial Internet of things (IIoT). The focus is on new platform-based concepts of production, for which China emerges as the world’s largest and most diversified testing ground. The guiding question is whether and how platform-based manufacturing (PBM) can become a model of social and economic organization in key sectors of industry and whether and how this changes value chains and their existing hierarchies in China and globally? Referring to current debates on the platform economy and relevant literature on global production networks and value chains, platform-based manufacturing will be introduced as a sectoral and industry-specific configuration of production networks with divergent trajectories of development, depending on their economic, political, and social context.

Boy Lüthje
Chapter 5. FinTech and the Future of Banks and Financial Services in Africa

This chapter examines the role of financial technology (FinTech) in transforming the delivery of banking and financial services and its potential in promoting financial inclusion in Africa. The chapter discusses the main types of FinTech which include mobile money, mobile banking, crowdfunding, and blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies and their market developments in Africa. FinTech has introduced the use of new technologies that minimise the costs of providing banking and financial services, creating market access opportunities for new entrants, broadening access to new segments of the market and customers, and impacting on the competition structure of the existing financial service providers. The chapter then looks at the challenges facing FinTech in Africa as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Africa’s FinTech space. The chapter also highlights the importance of optimum regulation, which should be beneficial to innovations as well as participants—providers and users.

Joshua Yindenaba Abor, Peter Quartey, Ahmad Hassan Ahmad, Maxwell Opoku-Afari
Chapter 22. Playing-Catch Up: SupTech and RegTech Developments in Africa

Regulatory evolution and technological developments following the 2008 Global Financial Crisis are changing the scope of financial markets, services and institutions. At the core of these adjustments are regulatory technology (RegTech) and supervisory technology (SupTech), which use information technology for regulatory monitoring, reporting, compliance, enforcement and supervision. This chapter assesses the effectiveness of SupTech and RegTech adopted by regulatory authorities including Central banks for supervisory administration and regulatory guidance to FinTech innovations in Africa. The chapter examines the use of SupTech and RegTech, elaborating in detail the importance of adopting these technologies in regulating FinTech in general and how the financial system stands to gain from their use. Regulatory mechanisms of FinTech and the adoption and implementation of RegTech and SupTech are discussed extensively. The challenges confronting their adoption in Africa, which relate to infrastructure, internet access, literacy, cybersecurity threats and capacity of users and regulators are also highlighted in the chapter. Ways of making SupTech and RegTech effective in Africa are analyzed in detail and policy recommendations are made. This is all part of the ways to make these technologies effective in Africa.

Maxwell Opoku-Afari, James Atambilla Abugre, Kwame A. Oppong
Optimalization of Business Logistics Processes Through Implementation of Business Information Systems

The basic goal of logistics activities is the complete satisfaction of specific customer wishes at the optimal time. The customer is the central link in the whole chain because the initial impulse comes from him, and at the same time, the whole chain ensures the movement of means of tangible and intangible nature. On the other hand, the internal goals of logistics are focused on the gradual reduction of costs while meeting the external goals. These are mainly the costs of stocks, production, transport, handling, management, etc. This paper aims to analyze and design the operation of the partial logistics process and monitor the wheelsets’ entire life cycle in the conditions of a particular company. The proposal also includes a request from the director of the production department to eliminate the shortcomings of the current process of monitoring the registration of wheelsets, restocking, production and consumption in the assembly of chassis. This design ensures traceability of the components used, streamlining the technical documentation, simplifying the handling of the wheelsets, and removing paper labels.

Lucia Zemanová, Marcel Behún, Annamária Behúnová
Chapter 2. New Pragmatism for New Times

EconomicsEinstein, Albert is a beautiful science because it serves human well-beingWell-being. It is a body of knowledge about economic activity in all its aspects, and when we are able to add new segments to the knowledgeKnowledge society accumulated over generations—new observations of phenomena and processes and their innovative theoretical explanations—it is no longer just knowledge, but a science.

Grzegorz W. Kolodko
Chapter 9. Human Capital, Labor Market Outcomes, and Skills Gap in the ICT Sector

This chapter assesses the human capital and skills gap in the ICT sector in Bangladesh. Currently, the estimated number of IT professionals is about 0.30 million, which is expected to reach 0.44 million in 2025. The current rate of supply of IT graduates, which is over ten thousand, may not be enough to meet the demand of the IT industry in the next five years or so. Moreover, a substantial proportion of IT graduates lack the required skills. The skills gap in the sector impedes the industry’s expected growth and foreign investments in the sector. Establishing some centers of excellence in IT education, strong industry-academia linkages, and public–private partnership in IT human capital development programs may unlock the growth prospect of the IT sector and digitalized economy.

Monzur Hossain
Chapter 8. Cluster-Based ICT Industry Development in Bangladesh: National and International Perspectives

This chapter reviews the Bangladesh government’s policy of establishing IT park in each district as part of the strategy of developing the IT industry. Though many countries attempted to develop IT sectors through the development of IT parks, they have not been successful equally. Silicon Valley of U.S.A and Bangalore IT Park are exceptions. Considering the benefits and limitations of agglomeration economies, this chapter offers a note of caution that the wholesale policy of IT park establishment across the districts in Bangladesh might be counterproductive. Instead, some selected IT parks with complementary human capital development initiatives could make the policy a success. Furthermore, without attracting FDIs in the IT parks, it would be difficult to attract local entrepreneurs in the IT parks, given the spatial dimension of the parks.

Monzur Hossain
Chapter 6. Access, Awareness, and Perceived Demand for ICT Services in Rural Areas: Household Level Analysis

This chapter assesses the status of access, awareness and perceived demand for digital technologies in rural households. Though access to the internet and digital services is poor in rural areas compared to urban areas, demand for online information is high. Some barriers that may hinder the prospects of broader access to digital services in rural areas include distance to Union Digital Center (UDC), lack of digital literacy and awareness, and higher costs of procuring digital services. Addressing these issues properly could improve access to digital services, and for that matter, it is essential to provide incentives and develop ICT infrastructures in rural areas, and turn the Union Digital Center into a social network for rural development. Building awareness, the cost-effectiveness of services, and proper training facilities are the pertinent issues that need to be addressed to improve the quality of digitalization in rural areas.

Monzur Hossain
Chapter 5. IT and IT Enabled Service (ITeS) Sector in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Potentials

The development of the Information Technology (IT) and ITeS (Information Technology enabled services) sector is crucial for achieving the digital transformation of the economy consistent with high-growth trajectories. Developing countries like Bangladesh have a comparative advantage in developing the ICT sector. This sector requires trained human capital and less sophisticated technologies that these countries have in abundance. Two factors, such as the phenomenal growth of the mobile phone service and the “Digital Bangladesh” initiative of the government, have been instrumental to the current development of the IT and ITeS industry. The IT industry has been growing steadily in terms of both numbers of firms and sales revenue with the government’s sizeable investments in ICT infrastructure. However, the development of the IT industry, which is important for the overall digital transformation of the economy, is still at its nascent stage. The sector needs proper support and guidance to undertake productivity-enhancing innovations to capture a segment of global IT outsourcing/offshore industry services.

Monzur Hossain
Chapter 3. Digital Bangladesh Vision and the Current State of Digitalization

This chapter provides a brief account of the current state of digitalization in Bangladesh. In the context of the Digital Bangladesh Vision, the government policies and achievements are critically reviewed in this chapter. Furthermore, Bangladesh’s position in global ranking in different ICT indicators is highlighted and compared to South Asian neighboring countries. This chapter concludes that though Bangladesh made substantial progress toward digitalization, it still lags behind many developing countries’ digitalization level. The analysis suggests that Bangladesh’s position to achieve its Digital Bangladesh Vision depends on the effective utilization of the facilities already created and strong policies to reduce the digital divide. In general, poverty, inequality and low-level digital literacy are some of the factors impeding a widespread digital transformation in Bangladesh.

Monzur Hossain
Chapter 14. Concluding Remarks: Rethinking Digitalization Strategies for Leapfrogging

This chapter concludes the book by highlighting bottlenecks of current digitalization efforts and stresses rethinking digitalization efforts to make them consistent with development objectives. It identifies seven areas in which more focus needs to be given: automation and innovation in the manufacturing sector; e-commerce and digital finance; households and firms greater access to the internet; effective IT park policies; awareness and dissemination of digital contents; growth and development of IT and ITeS industry; and, IT human capital development. The analysis suggests that digital transformation is at the nascent stage due to the firms’ low level of investment in automation and access to the internet by households. The slow progress in digital transformation and missing links between digitalization and economic development deter the expected output of digitalization. Therefore, the policymakers need to rethink the current digitalization strategies and take proper steps to capitalize on the digitalization policies.

Monzur Hossain
Chapter 10. Transformative Impact of Digitalization on Selected Sectors

This chapter assesses the transformative impact of digitalization on some selected sectors. While the service sector has largely gone through a digital transformation over the years, it is taking place slowly for the manufacturing sector. The adaptation of digital technologies by the financial sector has allowed them to increase productivity while serving the retail and business segments efficiently and, therefore, saving transaction costs and reducing asymmetric information. However, digital footprints are largely absent in small and medium-sized enterprises, primarily due to a lack of incentives. Additionally, the placement of digital transformation in agriculture, fisheries, and livestock is also inadequate. Despite a significant improvement in ICT infrastructure in Bangladesh, the use of the internet and digital tools remains limited among individuals and businesses.

Monzur Hossain
5. Grundlagen der betrieblichen Informationsverarbeitung

Kap. 5 ist das erste Kapitel des Teils B. Es befasst sich mit grundlegenden und systemübergreifenden Aspekten der innerorganisatorischen Anwendungssysteme, hier bezeichnet als Grundlagen der betrieblichen Informationsverarbeitung. In Abb. 5.1 ist die Einordnung des Kap. 5 in den Teil B dargestellt.

Hermann Gehring, Roland Gabriel
18. Ausblick – Weiterentwicklungen und Herausforderungen der Wirtschaftsinformatik

Das abschließende Kap. 18 gibt einen Ausblick auf die Weiterentwicklungen und Herausforderungen der Wirtschaftsinformatik. Zunächst werden in Abschn. 18.1 bedeutende Weiterentwicklungen und Tendenzen aufgezeigt, die sich vor allem auf die zunehmende Digitalisierung in der Gesellschaft und den vielfältigen Einsatz der Künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) in unterschiedlichen Anwendungsbereichen erstrecken. Es folgt in Abschn. 18.2 eine Charakterisierung der großen Herausforderungen, die sich der Informatik und der Wirtschaftsinformatik in den kommenden Jahren stellen.

Hermann Gehring, Roland Gabriel
5. Markteingriffe und Verhaltensökonomik – Zur Psychologie der Rechtfertigung und Gestaltung staatlicher Interventionstätigkeit

In Kap. 5 des Buches werden die in der Finanzwissenschaft gängigen Begründungen der Staatstätigkeit einer verhaltensökonomischen Betrachtung unterzogen. Dabei kann unter Bezug auf das Effizienzziel nicht nur gezeigt werden, wie psychologische Erkenntnisse zu ergänzenden Einsichten mit Blick auf die Bereitstellung öffentlicher Güter, die staatliche Internalisierung externer Effekte oder auch die Korrektur informationsbedingter Marktunvollkommenheiten durch den Staat führen. Zudem wird dargelegt, wie das verhaltensökonomische Konzept des asymmetrischen (libertären) Paternalismus zu einem grundlegenden Perspektivenwechsel in der finanzwissenschaftlichen Diskussion um die Bereitstellung meritorischer Güter beiträgt. Unter dem Verteilungsziel liefern darüber hinaus die Berücksichtigung sozialer Präferenzen – erklärt mit Hilfe von Verhaltensmotiven wie Altruismus oder einer Ungleichheitsaversion – ebenso wie Ergebnisse der ökonomischen Lebenszufriedenheitsforschung sowie psychologischer Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Knappheit und Armut zusätzliche Argumente für eine Umverteilungspolitik des Staates. Unter dem Stabilisierungsziel sind es schließlich zum einen die Psychologie von Geld, Inflation und Finanzmärkten und zum anderen verhaltensökonomische Ursachen und Effekte von Arbeitslosigkeit, die zu einer Erweiterung der finanzwissenschaftlichen Perspektive in der Bewertung des staatlichen Handlungsbedarfs beitragen.

Thomas Döring
10. Electronic Business

Kap. 10 ist das zweite Kapitel des Teils C. In Abb. 10.1 ist die Einordnung des Kap. 10 in den Teil C dargestellt.

Hermann Gehring, Roland Gabriel
4. Phase 2: ADP (Analyze/Design/Plan)

Die ADP-Phase (ADP = Analyze Design Plan) ermöglichst es Projekt- und Produkt-Teams, binnen kurzer Zeit konkrete und verbindliche Aussagen zur Umsetzung ihres Projekts oder Produkts treffen zu können und diese vorzubereiten. Bei der ADP-Phase handelt es sich um die wichtigste Phase in HYPERID, die unter anderem auch den größten Beitrag dazu leistet, dass HYPERID die Planung und Umsetzung jeden Projekt-Typs sicherstellen kann. Dies wird hauptsächlich mit Hilfe des Core Designs und der drei ADP-Approximationen erreicht, die in dieser Phase nach der Analyse des Scopes erfolgen und in Unterschiedliche Annäherungen der Dauer, Kosten und Umsetzungsverlauf münden, welche die erfolgreiche Umsetzung des dazugehörigen Projekttyps sicherstellen.

Arash Parsania
3. Phase 1: Define Scope

In der Phase „Define Scope“ wird in HYPERID der Inhalt und Umfang des Projekts oder eines (Teil-)Produkts zusammengestellt. Hierfür sind der Zweck und die Ziele des Vorhabens, die Stakeholder, die Anforderungen, Annahmen, Dienstleistungen und Projektergebnisse sowie Nebenbedingungen von zentraler Bedeutung.

Arash Parsania
An Approach to Strengthen Pandemic Resilience of the IT Industry Considering Employees Perception—A Systematic Survey

The whole world is presently battling against the Coronavirus pandemic, which has tested every aspect of life. The virus spread has severe implications on the global economy. In the face of a deteriorating economic environment brought on by globalisation, Indian industries must bear the significant economic brunt and suffer severe consequences. One among the seriously affected industry is the well-reputed Indian IT industry. During COVID 19 era, employees from the IT sector have faced various troublesome situations. In the present study, a web-based survey consisting of questions concerning WFH during pandemic has been conducted to visualise the repercussions caused due to COVID 19 pandemic. This paper studies the benefits, challenges, and implications for IT firms moving forward while also analysing employees’ perceptions of the current work situation to improve the current systems.

Renuka Ravinder, Tabassum Abbasi, Akshi Kunwar Singh, Madhuben Sharma, Surendar Varadharajan
Design and Engineer Data-Driven Product Service System: A Methodology Update

Digitalization, sustainability, and servitization are transforming economy and society globally. Companies are increasingly changing their business model toward providing a data-driven Product Service System (PSS), namely bundles of products and services integrated with some digital technology. Different methods and tools have been proposed to design PSS and, more recently, smart PSS, but they still mainly focus on value propositions and do not address which kind of data can be collected from the operational stage. To overcome this gap, this paper proposes the Data-driven Service Engineering Methodology (D-SEEM) for the design and engineering of data-driven PSS, considering the tradeoff between customer satisfaction and internal efficiency and focusing on data and information. A case study in the professional appliances industry is then proposed to show the application of a part of the methodology in a real context.

Fabiana Pirola, Giuditta Pezzotta, Veronica Arioli, Roberto Sala
Mid-Air Haptics: Future Challenges and Opportunities

Ultrasound mid-air haptic technology has advanced in many ways over the past decade and has found meaningful application in a plethora of use cases. As the technology matures further and progresses from lab to market, in this chapter, we take a step back and discuss three specific directions that we think could result in the greatest impact. Namely, we highlight challenges and opportunities in improving (1) the hardware platforms used, (2) the rendering algorithms employed to create rich haptic sensations, and (3) the resulting user experience and added value the technology can instill to different end-user applications. We hope that this “wish-list” inspires the mid-air haptics and human computer interaction (HCI) community and others to join our efforts toward a deeper technology understanding, integration, and readiness.

Orestis Georgiou, William Frier, Euan Freeman, Claudio Pacchierotti, Takayuki Hoshi
Challenges of Low-Code/No-Code Software Development: A Literature Review

Low-code/no-code software development is an emerging approach delivering the opportunity to build software with a minimal need for manual coding and enhancing the involvement of non-programmers in software development. Low-code principles allow enterprises to save time and costs through a more rapid development pace and to improve software products quality by bringing closer together business and information technologies as well as promoting automation. Nevertheless, the low-code/no-code approach is a relatively new and continuously progressing domain that requires understanding of existing challenges and identification of improvement directions. In this paper, challenges in the low-code software development process and suggestions for their mitigation are identified and amalgamated with the purpose to deliver insights into the current state of the low-code/no-code development process and identify areas for further research and development.

Karlis Rokis, Marite Kirikova
Are We Speaking the Same Language? An Analysis of German and Chinese Local Shopping Platforms

Local owner-operated retail outlets (LOOROs) are struggling worldwide due to increasing online competition with e-marketplaces and changing customer behavior. In this competitive environment, Local Shopping Platforms (LSPs) seem to be a promising vehicle to help LOOROs overcome their manifold digitalization difficulties. The development of LSPs in China shows that they convince LOOROs to join them and attract customers through their location-dependent service offers. In contrast, German LSPs struggle to utilize locational advantages, and LOOROs are discouraged from joining them. Hence, this paper examines existing Chinese LSP and compares them with German LSPs. Moreover, this study uses Hofstede’s cultural dimension as a theoretical lens to investigate if the offered location-dependent services among German and Chinese are culturally driven. The results revealed that Chinese LSPs better understand how to provide services that integrate the store as a customer touchpoint and strengthen the locational advantage of LOOROs. Regarding Hofstede’s cultural dimension, uncertainty avoidance is a cultural barrier for German LSPs and LOORO to try new digital services compared to their more adaptable Chinese counterparts.

Sören Aguirre Reid, Richard Lackes, Markus Siepermann, Valerie Wulfhorst
Endurant Ecosystems: Model-Based Assessment of Resilience of Digital Business Ecosystems

Information Systems (IS) of modern organizations and enterprises often rely on a network of partners’ IS to deliver the services. The resilience of this network is the necessary condition for the operation of such ISs. The Digital Business Ecosystem (DBE) theory has emerged as an approach to ensure functioning and resilience in dynamic and open networks. This paper presents three cases of analysis of resilience of DBEs. The objective of the analysis is to assess the resilience of DBEs during its design phase. During this phase, often, only structural information presented in ISs models is available. In order to assess the resilience, the DBE models are analyzed for the potential for fulfilment of typical ecosystem goals and roles. The three DBE cases analyzed are winter road maintenance, digital vaccine, and Covid-19 testing. The paper evaluates the resilience of the DBEs and formulates the practices for uncovering and strengthening it.

Jānis Grabis, Chen Hsi Tsai, Jelena Zdravkovic, Janis Stirna
Drawing Attention on (Visually) Competitive Online Shopping Platforms – An Eye-Tracking Study Analysing the Effects of Visual Cues on the Amazon Marketplace

Amazon has become the market leader among online shopping platforms. Potential customers can search for products on Amazon and compare different offers. However, the highly (visually) competitive marketplace can make it difficult for sellers to stand out from the crowd. In an eye-tracking experiment, we investigate how visual cues (e.g. “Bestseller” badge) influence customers’ behaviour by attracting attention, and how they affect their product choice. The experiment with a sample size of N = 60 participants was conducted on a German university campus. With the obtained eye-tracking data, we use a lognormal mixed-effects model and perform a logistic regression for estimating the effects of visual cues on Amazon search pages. The results indicate that visual cues marginally influence the viewing duration and decision time of customers but can have a considerable impact on the product choice.

Alper Beşer, Julian Sengewald, Richard Lackes
User Journey Map as a Method to Extrapolate User Experience Knowledge from User Generated Reviews

User-generated product reviews are valuable information resources about what users like about the product, their pain points, and overall product use cases. This information is valuable for product developers and designers for future product improvements. This research paper discusses the user journey mapping approach for analyzing product reviews. It proposes a method for structuring large amounts of user reviews and putting them on the journey map, classifying touchpoints, pain points, and product advantages. Machine learning algorithms on Apple Earpods Max noise-canceling headphone reviews are used to classify user-generated product reviews and validate the journey map. Created journey map showed a positive potential for the given approach to make sense of large amounts of user-generated content and give quantifiable proof of a user journey map.

Alberts Pumpurs
Contemporary Digital Consumers: “Real” Versus Virtual Value Co-creation

Digital technologies are used extensively by both producers and consumers. While this makes it easier for both types of actors to interact and co-create value, increasing the prevalence of this process, the very fact of mediating an interaction through a particular type of technology (digital media in this instance) influences its character as well. Therefore, the purpose of the chapter is to conceptualise the characteristics of digital co-creation within the theoretical framework of Service-Dominant Logic (SDL). We do this by contrasting digital co-creation with co-creation occurring in the context of the “real”, unmediated world.We contribute to SDL literature by suggesting five characteristics of digital value co-creation, distinguishing it from co-creation occurring in the unmediated context: co-presence, automatization, simulation, antagonism and playfulness. We illustrate these traits with real-life examples. Additionally, we conceptualise how these characteristics are linked with the most important traits of modern digital consumers.

Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek, Marcin Wieczerzycki
Role of Data Science in Programmatic Advertising

The ability to capture the attention of consumers in the online ecosystem has become ever more daunting. Millions of websites, digital properties, and web applications are being viewed daily and this is where the need to select the best platform to show the right advertisement and content to the correct cohort of users becomes challenging, with the diversity. This is where programmatic advertising comes into play, to be able to solve these problems. Programmatic advertising is the buying and selling of online advertising and this piece of technology makes the automation seamless for transactions. Numerous programmatic platforms have made it convenient to access any format and channel programmatically, which includes mobile, desktop, laptop, audio, and connected TV. Moreover, segmentation and targeting techniques are implemented which makes sending the correct ad to the right cohort of users more efficient making the ad buying and selling experience more economical than ever. Algorithms and programs make the process of buying and placing ads very optimal, thereby removing the manual processes within these steps. With Data Science coming into the ad-space domain, how companies can control their advertising costs has become unparalleled with the traditional methods. Real-time bidding, dynamic budget allocation, and contextual targeting are to name a few when it comes to the applications of data science in the programmatic advertising domain. This chapter would primarily focus on the digital advertising domain and the role of data science in solving some of the complex problems in the same. Through this chapter, we would try to understand the basics of Digital Advertising along with the data science’s association with the same, and then deep dive into some of the popular terminologies and techniques in the advertising world. Data science has a lot to offer in the programmatic advertising world and we want to showcase some of those examples here, which helps our readers understand the applications perspective of Data Science in the modern world. Certain factors and advantages come into play when data science comes into the advertising area along with its applications. We will also discuss some of these advantages in depth as to how advertisers and brands benefit from these out-of-the-box solutions available to them. The availability of Petabytes of advertising data made accessible to programmatic media partners has allowed them to leverage data for these advertising decisions through supervised learning techniques, allowing them even more optimized advertising strategies for their clients. The modern era is a transition toward programmatic and data science for the advertising world. It has become imperative to understand these nuances and applications to help netizens and other researchers stay updated with these technological progressions.

Aditya Jain, Kashyap Barua, Monali Barbate
Chapter 1. Introduction to SAP HANA Cloud

Before we start our journey, we should take a step back and look at what motivated the development of the SAP HANA Cloud service.

Miguel Figueiredo
The Future of Cyber-Enabled Influence Operations: Emergent Technologies, Disinformation, and the Destruction of Democracy

Nation-states have been embracing online influence campaigns through disinformation at breakneck speeds. Countries such as China and Russia have completely revamped their military doctrine to information-first platforms [1, 2] (Mattis, Peter. (2018). China’s Three Warfares in Perspective. War on the Rocks. Special Series: Ministry of Truth. https://warontherocks.com/2018/01/chinas-three-warfares-perspective/ , Cunningham, C. (2020). A Russian Federation Information Warfare Primer. Then Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies. Washington University. https://jsis.washington.edu/news/a-russian-federation-information-warfare-primer/ .) to compete with the United States and the West. The Chinese principle of “Three Warfares” and Russian Hybrid Warfare have been used and tested across the spectrum of operations ranging from competition to active conflict. With the COVID19 pandemic limiting most means of face-to-face interpersonal communication, many other nations have transitioned to online tools to influence audiences both domestically and abroad [3] (Strick, B. (2020). COVID-19 Disinformation: Attempted Influence in Disguise. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. International Cyber Policy Center. https://www.aspi.org.au/report/covid-19-disinformation .) to create favorable environments for their geopolitical goals and national objectives. This chapter focuses on the landscape that allows nations like China and Russia to attack democratic institutions and discourse within the United States, the strategies and tactics employed in these campaigns, and the emergent technologies that will enable these nations to gain an advantage with key populations within their spheres of influence or to create a disadvantage to their competitors within their spheres of influence. Advancements in machine learning through generative adversarial networks [4] (Creswell, A; White, T; Dumoulin, V; Arulkumaran, K; Sengupta, B; Bharath, A. (2017) Generative Adversarial Networks: An Overview. IEE-SPM. April 2017. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.07035.pdf .) that create deepfakes [5] (Whittaker, L; Letheren, K; Mulcahy, R. (2021). The Rise of Deepfakes: A Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda for Marketing. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1839334921999479 .) and attention-based transformers [6] ( https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.04805 .) (Devlin et al., 2018) that create realistic speech patterns and interaction will continue to plague online discussion and information spread, attempting to cause further partisan divisions and decline of U.S. stature on the world stage and democracy as a whole.

Joe Littell
Cyber and Great Power Competition in the Western Hemisphere

Great Power Competition is happening in every geographic region and across most domains. The People’s Republic of China, Russian Federation, the United States, and other actors are engaged globally, regionally, and even locally. Not everyone competes everywhere, but there is no country in the world today that is not on a field of competition. The United States own neighborhood, the western hemisphere, has seen competition increase as the People’s Republic of China, Iran, North Korea, and Russian Federation have all sought to engage to contest historical US hegemony over the region. Competition in the western hemisphere and in other regions is happening across all three major domains- land, sea, and air. It is also happening in the cyber domain. This chapter discusses great power competition in the cyber domain in the western hemisphere. It summarizes the interests and activities of US near-peers in the western hemisphere and presents an overview of their operations in cyberspace. The chapter argues that each of the US near-peers is pursuing different tools for different aims within the western hemisphere. However, in all cases advances from US near-competitors in the cyber domain are facilitated by weak governance of the defense sector, and weak capabilities in the cyber domain in the target countries.

Alexander Crowther, Fabiana Perera, Brian Fonseca
To Pack Sustainably or Not to Pack Sustainably? A Review of the Relationship between Consumer Behaviour and Sustainable Packaging

In the past few decades, the massive amount of packaging waste produced every year has unquestionably become one of the most significant sources of pollution. Consequently, several nations worldwide are now openly addressing packaging-related environmental issues in their political agendas. Moreover, because consumers are becoming increasingly ecologically aware and informed, companies and retailers are being induced to rethink their supply chains at all levels. Adhering to the principles of eco-friendly packaging may be considered a first strategic step towards developing a sustainable image which may yield a broader competitive advantage. Academic research has therefore attempted to investigate consumers’ responses to environmentally friendly packaging. In this chapter, we review the extant literature so as to give valuable guidance to all firms and retailers striving to fulfil more eco-friendly packaging standards. Besides offering practical and helpful suggestions, our review presents an agenda for future research.

Gabriele Murtas, Giuseppe Pedeliento, Daniela Andreini
Online Shopping and Sustainability. Willingness to Pay a Contribution to Offset Environmental Pollution

The growing development of e-commerce and the greater interest in environmental pollution issues have attracted more and more attention from researchers to study the environmental impact generated by online purchases. The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model to investigate consumers’ propensity to pay a small voluntary monetary contribution to offset the pollution generated by e-shopping. An online survey with a sample of 391 consumers was conducted. The model was tested through structural equation modelling. Results showed a positive and direct effect of personal norms, sustainable behaviour, and attitude on intention to pay a contribution. In turn, personal norms were influenced only by awareness of consequences and not by the ascription of responsibility; sustainable behaviour was determined by consumers’ attitude towards the environment and knowledge of environmental problems; attitude towards the contribution was positively or negatively affected by, respectively, positive or negative emotions.The chapter provides valuable insights to online retailers to encourage the sustainable behaviour of their customers.

Cristina Zerbini, Donata Tania Vergura
Small Retailers in Small Towns: An Explorative Study on Shopping Behaviour for Improving Social Sustainability in an Urban Centre

Nomadism and social sustainability are becoming central phenomena in understanding the new shopping models. Small local shops are a key space in the life of neighbourhoods, both in terms of what happens in them and their relationship with other spaces in which daily life takes place. They are, therefore, fundamental spaces for socialising and supporting the community, with a view to social sustainability. Urban areas and physical shops have changed radically in recent years. We aim to contribute to the knowledge of the urban retailing context from the perspective of social sustainability, especially as regards the quality of life. The lack of research on the issues of social sustainability of retailing and, more generally, of urban community social sustainability is widely highlighted. This is a gap that this study aims to fill, introducing through field research on a historic town centre the consideration that every visit to an urban centre—for shopping or other purposes—can be read in terms of a social sustainability experience. The knowledge of various shopping profiles could help to develop platforms of opportunities based on communities of place in a socially sustainable perspective.

Gabriele Qualizza, Patrizia de Luca
The World of Changes: COVID-19’s Impact on the Retail Path Towards Sustainability

Management literature states that a type of external shock, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerates innovation processes at organisational and societal levels. Furthermore, recent studies stress that this exogenous shock spurred new policies and forced heterogeneous actors of diverse business sectors to reflect on sustainability practices. In this study, the authors concentrate on a specific business industry, such as retail, and overview the main changes during the mentioned pandemic. An appropriate starting point to understand these changes has been to conduct an analysis of the literature, searching for links between the concepts of retail, COVID-19 and sustainability. This research thus provides a snapshot of the latest academic advancements that address issues like the policy framework to recover from COVID-19, retailers’ approach to overcoming this crisis and their approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Finally, this chapter lists potential research directions that scholars may consider for a deeper analysis of COVID-19’s impact on retail sustainability practices.

Jelena Mazaj, Monica Grosso, Sandro Castaldo
Corporate Social Responsibility: A Longitudinal Analysis in the Retail Sector

Today, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a central topic in corporate management, such that it has favored the transition from the idea of organizational culture to that of a responsible corporate culture. The aim of this study is to analyze the social responsibility practices of several major retailers to verify similarities and differences in their approaches to defining socially responsible strategies and examine how this strategy has changed over time. The analysis is based on a longitudinal study that compares the CSR-related practices of 12 large retailers from five countries. Combining multiple case studies with a longitudinal analysis offers the opportunity to identify patterns indicative of dynamic processes, providing a close-up view of those patterns as they evolve over time. The companies analyzed are assumed to represent the most advanced CSR experiences in the retail industry and in their country of origin. The results show that these organizations go far beyond the limits imposed by law based on their CSR strategies. They evolved towards committing to social and environmental issues, thereby overcoming formal and showcase interventions, which were more frequent in the past.

Laura Bravi, Riccardo Gori, Fabio Musso
The Evolution of the Sustainability Mindset in Retailing and Service Management

The topic of sustainability is getting increasing importance around the globe since the 1987 Brundtland Report, by the World Commission on Environment and Development, introduced the concept of sustainable development. The need for organizations to answer the call to sustainability has prompted academics to take up the topic to support them, providing interpretations and management models. However, many relevant questions about sustainability remain unanswered, especially with reference to the retail and services companies. Producing a service offer and being the interface between production and consumption, they can influence pro-sustainability behaviors both upstream and downstream, making a major contribution to sustainability dissemination and achievement.This chapter deals with the evolution of the sustainability mindset in retailing and service management through a literature review using SCIMAT. The bibliographic research process led to the identification of 363 papers in the period 2006–2022. While there were few scientific contributions until 2015, it is from that date—the year in which the 2030 Agenda was launched—that the interest of researchers has grown exponentially. The analysis revealed four clusters of themes on sustainability topic: the themes of utmost importance which are well-developed by scholars, the niche or marginal themes, the emerging or declining themes, and, finally, the relevant but still underdeveloped themes. The authors of this book have focused their attention on the latter to provide a structural guide to sustainability in the service industry, with an eye to specific emerging service sectors.

Beatrice Luceri, Elisa Martinelli
Chapter 3. Tesco Plc
Jean Jinghan Chen
Chapter 11. Alibaba

The Alibaba GroupAlibaba Group was established in Hangzhou, ChinaChina, in 1999 by Ma Yun (internationally known as Jack MaJack, Ma) and several partnerspartners from various backgrounds. These entrepreneursentrepreneurs gained experience working in China Yellow Pages and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, which they used to set up Alibaba.

Jean Jinghan Chen
Chapter 1. Introduction
Jean Jinghan Chen
Understanding Irresponsibility in Digital Advertising

This research systemically reviews the directions in existing research in the digital marketing domain and unveils the irresponsibility in the digital advertising domain. The inefficiencies inherited from traditional advertising are enhanced or magnified by digital channels. This research reviews previous studies on advertising efficiency and states the enhanced challenges in the digital era: agency problem, advertising effect measurement, and the black box by programmatic advertising. Further, this research proposes the data as one potential direction for future study in the digital advertising domain.

Boyi Jin, Martin J. Liu, Jun Luo, Russa Yuan
Responsive Innovation of Blockchain Technology in Traditional Supply Chains

As a form of distributed ledger technology, blockchain is being increasingly studied for renovating traditional supply chains both theoretically and practically with a few real-world applications. However, the adoption of this technology may also lead to socioeconomic and environmental side-effects that could deviate it from the goal of being a responsive innovation. The recognition and understanding of the potential negative impact and risks of blockchain technology is a relatively recent development, especially for applications to operations and supply chain domain. In this chapter, we will scan a few recent studies by focusing on several potential challenges and disruptions for responsive integration of the technology into supply chain systems. Though few new suggestions are given, we highlight a need for careful considerations of these challenges and disruptions as well as creative and proactive system and policy design. Instead of giving a comprehensive literature review or discussion of this broad research topic, the main purpose of this chapter is to extract a few good examples and points from representative recent literature, so as to trigger timely investigations and explorations into the subject.

Jiayu Hu, Zhen Tan
Unpacking the Driving Forces Behind Sustainable Supply Chain Finance Adoption

This chapter emphasizes the importance of managing capital flows through different Sustainable Supply Chain Finance (SSCF) models with the aim of improving the development of Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM). We start by examining the driving force behind practical SSCF cases with three different SSCF models, which include leading enterprise-initiated SSCF, e-commerce platform-enabled SSCF and government-supported SSCF. Next, the main practical implications for future implementation of SSCF for policymakers, focal firms, and suppliers along with SCF service providers are summarised. Finally, we present theoretical implications to compare different SSCF models.

Sicong Zhang, Tiantian Zhang, Hing Kai Chan
Analysis of Market Behaviour on the Organic Food Market in Terms of Environmental Protection and Consumer Environmentalism

The growing awareness of the population in various areas and aspects of life means that we pay more and more attention to what we put on our plates. Therefore, food without preservatives is gaining popularity, because products that contain harmful substances adversely affect our health. Products with labels confirming that they are ecological are appearing more and more often in stationary and online stores. There are also special zones with such products. It should be added that the access to ecological products is increasing every year, which consequently increases the possibility of choosing the best products.The aim of the research was to analyze consumer practices and behaviors in the field of buying food in relation to the issue of sustainable development, especially preferences regarding organic products, as well as to analyze changes in consumer behavior over the last 5 years. The main reason for taking up this topic was the observed increase in interest among modern buyers in buying organic products, as well as checking whether an upward trend can also be observed when it comes to consumer awareness in this topic.This work is theoretical and empirical in nature. For the purposes of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The respondents answered questions about changes in the food market in terms of environmental protection.

Monika Stoma, Agnieszka Dudziak
The Use of Farm Digital Tools in Crop Production in Wallonia: Situation, Key Points and Actors

This paper shows that the use of farm digital tools in crop production is already well spread in Wallonia. This evolution is supported by the public authorities, as well as by many private and public actors involved in this field, leading to a large supply of tools available to the farmers. However, 80% of available tools are not used, while farmers’ needs are far to be met. This is due to several constraints: the profitability of specific digital tools, the legal protection of personal data, the time consumption to learn how to use the new tools efficiently, the complexity of some tools, and the lack of interconnection among the new tools and also with the already existing ones. It finally appears that there is a need for a better adequation between supply and demand of farm digital tools, and also for better training facilities, though several structures are already active in this field.

Thi Minh Hop Ho, Philippe Burny
Chapter 2. How AI Models Are Built

This chapter describes the various kinds of data that are mostly in use today in AI models, differentiating between “structured”, “semi-structured” and “unstructured” data. Text analysis and Natural Language Processing are illustrated as the main structuring techniques for unstructured data. Some examples of alternative credit data are described, including among others transactional data, data extracted from telephones and other utilities, data extracted from social profiles, data extracted from the world wide web and data gathered through surveys/questionnaires. Also, the chapter describes the opportunity of estimating a model only by means of machine learning techniques, detailing the characteristics of the most used ML algorithms: decision trees, random forests, gradient boosting and neural networks. The application of a special type of neural network is detailed: the autoencoder.

Rossella Locatelli, Giovanni Pepe, Fabio Salis
Auswirkungen der Pandemie auf die Digitalisierung der KMU in Russland, betrachtet durch das Prisma der digitalen Indizes

Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die empirische Forschung im Bereich der Bereitschaft der KMU zur Digitalisierung, betrachtet Teilindizes und deren Bewertung in Bezug auf die Auswirkungen der Pandemie. Die Begriffe der Digitalisierung und der digitalen Transformation werden geklärt. Die Verfeinerung der Bewertung durch den Digital Readiness Index wird angeregt. Der Zusammenhang zwischen dem Index der digitalen Kompetenz der Bevölkerung und dem Subindex der digitalen Weiterbildung wird definiert. Die Ergebnisse der Bewertung des Digital Maturity Index für KMU werden berücksichtigt. Es werden Empfehlungen zur digitalen Entwicklung für KMU im Zeitalter der Pandemie formuliert.

Dr. Vladlena Zarembo
11. Positionierung in gesättigten Märkten: Marketing für den einen Apfel unter vielen

In der Marketing-Welt kursieren viele Buzzwords wie Branding, Sampling oder Customer-Experience. Das mag zu Beginn hoch komplex und abschreckend wirken, doch das folgende Beispiel zeigt, dass du dein Marketing durchaus selbst in die Hand nehmen kannst.#personalisierungEine Mutter mit Kind geht zur Metzgerei ihres Vertrauens. Die Mutter wird persönlich begrüßt, da sie dort regelmäßig einkauft: „Guten Morgen Frau Müller“#PerformanceMarketing #re-targetingDer Verkäufer fragt: „Frau Müller, wie hat Ihnen letzte Woche die neue Rosmarin-Bratwurst geschmeckt?“. Übrigens haben wir die Wurst diese Woche sogar im Angebot.#cross-sellingDazu empfehle ich die hausgemachte BBQ-Grillsauce.#Sampling #reziprozitätDanach bietet der Verkäufer dem Kind ein Stück Fleischwurst an.#BrandingNachdem an der Kasse noch die Treuekarte gestempelt wurde, geht Frau Müller mit der gebrandeten Metzgerei-Tasche nach Hause.So kompliziert ist Marketing also gar nicht. Dennoch ist eine gute Strategie zielführend und hilfreich. Deshalb liegt das Augenmerk dieses Kapitels auf diesem Thema.

Tobias Gross
14. Vertrieb – Wohin mit den ganzen Äpfeln?

Eine der wichtigsten Kernkompetenzen für deinen Erfolg ist der Vertrieb. Ohne kaufende Kunden hast du keinen Umsatz und bist somit nicht existenzfähig. Im deutschen Lebensmittelsektor gibt es wenige große Player, die den Lebensmittelhandel bestimmen. Die wenigsten Food-Start-ups können am Anfang die Mengen liefern, die bei erfolgreicher Platzierung im Handel notwendig sind. Jedoch gibt es abseits dieser auch Alternativen, die besonders am Anfang deiner Reise spannend sind. Welche Vertriebswege es gibt, zu welchem Zeitpunkt sie sinnvoll sind und wie du es schaffst die verschiedenen Absatzwege zu erschließen, kannst du dir in diesem Kapitel anlesen.

Tobias Gross
15. Anlaufstellen und Infrastruktur

In diesem Kapitel möchte ich dir Anlaufstellen vorstellen, sowohl im deutschsprachigen Raum wie international. Mit Anlaufstellen meine ich Orte und Investoren, die in der Food-Branche zuhause sind und Netzwerke, Produktionsstandorte und vieles mehr bieten. Außerdem geht es in diesem Kapitel um die Unterscheidung von Acceleratoren, Inkubatoren und Venture Capitalists. Diese Unterscheidung ist wichtig, um zu verstehen, welche Programme und Ansprechpartner dich in welchem Stadium weiterbringen können.

Tobias Gross
Promote the Belt and Road Initiative Through Enhancing Service Capability of Logistics System

The Belt and Road Initiative has made a series of important progress since 2013, when President Xi Jinping proposed the initiative of the “Silk Road Economic Belt” and “the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road”, and has been upgraded to one of the important national strategies. As logistics infrastructure and services are both important contents and strategic support of the Belt and Road Initiative, with the practical promotion of the Initiative, the backwardness and insufficiency of logistics service capability have become increasingly prominent. It is urgent to form a convenient and smooth cross-border logistics channel network as well as high-quality and efficient logistics service capacity through strengthening consultation among countries along the Belt and Road to formulate stepwise logistics facilities planning, open up key channel nodes, and establish a market-oriented community of shared interests.

Junjie Hong
Development of Transportation Logistics Under the Belt and Road Initiative with Northeast China as an Example
Yang Zhang, Jianguo Qin
Analysis Report on the Economic Corridors Under the Belt and Road Initiative
—The China-Indochina Peninsula and Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Special
Jicheng Zheng, Gang Duan, Chuankun Xu, Meiyu Dong
The Road Map of the Rise of National Central Cities under the Belt and Road Initiative
Hui Xu
Beijing’s Integration into the Belt and Road Initiative

The Belt and Road, the collective name of the “Silk Road Economic Belt” and the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road Economic Belt”, is the development concept and initiative proposed by President Xi Jinping when he visited Central Asian and Southeast Asian countries.

Jing Han
Movie Recommendation Based on Fully Connected Neural Network with Matrix Factorization

Recommendation System (RS) is a subclass of information filtering system which tracks “rating” given by users to in-use items. Movie RS act as a tool to provide services to users. With the massive increase of data on internet, users face challenge in searching information and sometimes it is time-consuming process. Hence there is a need to enhance RS in a way to resolve basic problems faced by the users during the search. In this research a hybrid technique is proposed to build a movie recommendation system. In this system, matrix factorization is used to know, low dimensional embeddings of movies and users. Thus, movie and user embeddings are combined to examine ratings on unseen movies. Experiments are done on the MovieLens dataset to examine the performance of the proposed movie RS. The hybrid technique in the paper achieves a better performance than other non-hybrid recommendation methods.

Vineet Shrivastava, Suresh Kumar
Determining the Most Effective Machine Learning Techniques for Detecting Phishing Websites

Consumer tastes have moved away from conventional shopping and toward electronic commerce due to the Internet’s fast growth. Rather than conducting bank or shop robberies, today’s criminals use a range of sophisticated cyber methods to track down their victims. Attackers have developed new ways of deceiving customers, such as phishing, using fake websites to gather sensitive information such as account IDs, usernames, and passwords. The semantic-based nature of the assaults, which mainly leverage the vulnerabilities of computer users, makes establishing the authenticity of a web page more difficult. Machine learning (ML) is a typical data analysis technique that has shown promising results in the battle against phishing. The article examines the applicability of machine learning methods for identifying phishing attempts and their advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, a variety of machine learning methods have been explored to find appropriate anti-Phishing technology solutions. More significantly, we used a wide range of machine learning methods to test real-world phishing datasets and against several criteria. To detect phishing websites, six different machine learning classification methods are employed. The Random Forest classifier had the most outstanding possible accuracy of 97.17% in this research, while the Gradient Boost Classifier had the highest achievable accuracy of 94.75%. The Decision Tree classifier has a provisioning accuracy of 94.69%. In contrast, Logistic Regression has a provisioning accuracy of 92.76%, KNN has a provisioning accuracy of 60.45%, and SVM has 56.04%. We showed that KNN has trouble detecting phishing sites since it hasn’t been updated in terms of accuracy. Decision trees are almost similar to Gradient Boosting in terms of performance.

S. M. Mahamudul Hasan, Nirjas Mohammad Jakilim, Md. Forhad Rabbi, Rumel M. S. Rahman Pir
The Internal Organisational Environment in Amazon
Mateya Nikolova, Naznin Tabassum, Bhabani Shankar Nayak
The AIDA Model and the Impact of TikTok Video Streaming on Online Shopping: A Case Study of TikTok

Online shopping has grown exponentially in terms of the number of consumers and degree of enthusiasm from major Internet companies for this market. In practice, retailers are adopting new digital marketing strategies to provide customers with a new and faster shopping experience.

Xin Luo, Naznin Tabassum, Bhabani Shankar Nayak
Prognostication in Retail World: Analysing Using Opinion Mining

At the present time, Retailers have trouble free accessibility on the raw data which is big data. The clients usually want everything according to their needs. If the client is not satisfied or for some reason couldn’t buy comfortably, they might opt for another retailer and they might also have poor reviews on a particular retailer. So, to boost the sales and client’s contentment we performed sentimental analysis. A sentimental analysis is a subfield of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can also be called as opinion mining or emotion AI. It helps us to understand the client's review on a deeper level as it can detect the emotion of the text, whether it is a positive, negative or neutral and that too on what level. In the present paper the sentiment analysis performed on one of the big retail companies that is Amazon. The dataset of amazon's client reviews is available in Kaggle. And here two classification model has been used i.e., Naïve Bayes, XGBoost. In comparison to Naïve bayes technique, XGBoost technique could pull out the accuracy of 93%. We could understand that XGBoost can analyse the client’s review very well.

Neelam Thapa, Anil Kumar Sagar
Chapter 5. Developing Business Architecture Using SAP Enterprise Architecture Designer

In the opening chapter of this book, we highlighted that one of the aspects that makes Enterprise Architecture unique is that it is both the process and the output, the journey and the destination. Business Architecture includes both the description of the structure of an organization and the design process undertaken to describe the organization. It forms the foundation of every other domain architecture, namely, the data, application, and technology architecture. Similar to all other forms of architecture, the foundation is the most critical area to get right.

Sheunopa Chalmers Musukutwa
Chapter 6. Digitalization in the EU Agricultural Sector: Seeking a European Policy Response

The agricultural sector plays a unique and strategic role in a country’s economic development, and thus in policymaking, not only because of its vitality as a food supply sector but also because of its interconnection and linkages with various activities in the food industries’ supply chain. As digitalization makes its way into the agri-food sector, new technologies provide the conditions for increasing agricultural output and efficiently dealing with some of the world’s most serious issues, such as population increase, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we will investigate the extent to which digitalization issues are integrated into related European Union (EU) policies, such as the Green Deal and the Farm to Fork Strategy under the new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which will enter into force in 2023, using the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) approach, given the agricultural sector’s unique characteristics. In other words, the paper intends to highlight specific parameters of the AIS, focusing on relevant initiatives undertaken by an involved actor of major special weight, namely the EU, for the purposes of digitalization of the agricultural sector.

Yannis E. L. Doukas, Napoleon Maravegias, Charalampos Chrysomallidis
Chapter 2. Enterprise Resource Planning: An Innovative Technology

This chapter introduces the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) application, from an overview to its development, and discusses the common and advanced features it offers to customers together with the key benefits organisations enjoy with successful implementation of the system. The chapter also discusses the success and failure factors that generally shaped the application’s thirty-year contributions in the industry and outlines a few key considerations to determine suitable functionalities that will ultimately simplify and aid employees’ adoption of the ERP application. The end of the chapter carefully reviews the individual and organisational adoption of the ERP application to achieve strategically planned organisational objectives and goals.

Hamidur Rahaman Shibly, ABM Abdullah, Md Wahid Murad
Designing a Tool for Economics Students Digital Competence Measurement

The article is devoted to the essence, approaches, and tools for the development and measurement of economics students’ digital competence. Apps of general and professional purpose according to their functionality and relevance for Ukrainian enterprises are generalized. The importance of the ability to select apps for a rational solution of professional tasks and the development of the digital competence of specialists are emphasized.The results of the survey of students of the Poltava State Agrarian University (Ukraine) are presented, to determine the main problems, advantages, and needs in the development of their digital competence. Analysis of foreign approaches (DigComp, DigCompEdu, DigCompOrg, OpenEdu, DigCompConsumers, EntreComp, etc.) contributed to the creation of a framework for economics students’ digital competence measurement. The framework covers the abilities (working with data, communication, content development, safety, problem-solving), indicators, and levels of digital competence development. The expert evaluation revealed that most experts (93,4%) evaluate the proposed project positively, and it can serve as a basis for developing narrower frameworks for specific economic or related specialties.

Liudmyla Dorohan-Pisarenko, Oleksandr Bezkrovnyi, Tetiana Pryidak, Olha Leha, Liudmyla Yaloveha, Olena Krasota
Foodstuffs and Geographical Indications in India: An Analysis

The Indian sui—generis system of GI protection recognizes food stuffs as a good for protection. GI protection to foodstuffs integrally protects the cultural and traditional value attached to the products which have essential attributes to the place of origin. In a country like India, the cultural diversity also gives rise to diverse food culture. Food diversity in India is representative of region-specific practices and traditional knowledge. As a primary practice of many communities in India, food GI has a great socio-economic value and is relevant for sustenance of livelihoods. This chapter deals with the aspects of how intellectual property protection in the form of GI has been accorded to foodstuffs in India, their potential in the domestic as well as international markets. Another aspect that will be covered is the policy and institutional support for GI sustenance and the insights from the GI studies undertaken by the authors. Based on the international perspective an appropriate framework is suggested to promote Indian food product under the fore of GI. The conclusions will indicate the way forward from the policy as well law to foster food GI in India.

Padmavati Manchikanti, Sayantani Datta, Tapas Kumar Bandopadhyay
Coopetition Against an Amazon

This paper studies cooperative data-sharing between competitors vying to predict a consumer’s tastes. We design optimal data-sharing schemes both for when they compete only with each other, and for when they additionally compete with an Amazon—a company with more, better data. We show that simple schemes—threshold rules that probabilistically induce either full data-sharing between competitors, or the full transfer of data from one competitor to another—are either optimal or approximately optimal, depending on properties of the information structure. We also provide conditions under which firms share more data when they face stronger outside competition, and describe situations in which this conclusion is reversed.

Ronen Gradwohl, Moshe Tennenholtz
Unraveling the Algorithms for Humanized Digital Work Oriented Artificial Intelligence

The present study analyzes the role of algorithms as an integral part of artificial intelligence (AI) and checks whether it is possible to interfere in the construction of the algorithmic system to generate benefits for platforms and gig workers or if the so-called complexity of the algorithms is an absolute impediment factor. to fulfill that ideal. The research methodology will be based on a qualitative approach, through bibliographic research in law, sociology, and programming. The research delves into the field of research on the relationship between algorithms and work aimed at creating algorithms oriented to providing decent worker-centered digital work and, for that reason, contributes to the emerging literature on algorithmic work.

Monique de Souza Arruda
The European Draft Regulation on Artificial Intelligence: Houston, We Have a Problem

The European Draft Regulation on Artificial Intelligence was presented in April 2021 with ambitious aims: to be a far-reaching regulation aimed to guarantee the highest level of protection for ‘Union values, fundamental rights and principles’, and at the same time promote innovation. However, several possible drawbacks are likely to jeopardize these ambitious purposes: the risk-based approach, grounded on different levels of risks, is imprecise; the conformity assessment has loopholes and might not be as protective as originally envisaged; some requirements are difficult to meet; the contextualization of this regulation within the European legal framework gives raise to overlaps and potential conflicts; the rights of the ones affected by this technology are not properly safeguarded; the European innovation boost might suffer a major setback. Instead of a solution for artificial intelligence, the European Union might have created a new problem.

Vera Lúcia Raposo
Chapter 2. Quality of Service Requirements

Modern telecommunications networks are based on packet-switching traffic processing and the methodology by which packets can be delivered using an arbitrary route. However, for some applications, merely finding the route to destination is insufficient. Applications can place multiple parameters in their requests, starting from the time it takes the network to deliver the packet and provide the response.

Miralem Mehic, Stefan Rass, Peppino Fazio, Miroslav Voznak
Chapter 4. Mass Mobilisation Tactics for Countering Terrorism

The Mass LineMass Line ethos is sometimes dismissed as mere propagandapropaganda given the gap between the rhetorical commitment to people’s-centricity and the reality. This chapter explores various dimensions of the Mass Line ethos as applied in the context of counter-terrorism.

Chi Zhang
Chapter 2. Model of Credit Empowerment

Through the introduction in Chap. 1 , we have learned that great enterprises are able to create value on a sustainable basis, and that competition among enterprises will escalate to competition in the supply chain. Great enterprises must have excellent supply chains, but the challenge of difficult and expensive financing for the SMEs on the chain can make it difficult for the core enterprises to be impervious, and supply chain finance is an effective solution. What does the supply chain finance ecosystem look like? Who are the key players? How do credit intermediaries empower SMEs with credit? What are the models of credit empowerment? Which models are most worthy of our attention? This chapter will discuss those questions.

Xuefeng Sun
Chapter 7. Risk Management in Supply Chain Finance

In the previous chapter, we constructed a supply chain innovation model based on the diffusion of innovation theory and briefly introduced the cases of five central enterprises developing supply chain finance business. What kind of risks does the supply chain finance business face? How should they be managed? This chapter will elaborate on those questions.

Xuefeng Sun
Chapter 6. Introduction of Supply Chain Finance Solutions

In the previous chapter, we described how different enterprises have used the supply chain finance solution of multi-level splittable and transferable digital evidence of indebtedness instruments to empower SMEs in the supply chain.

Xuefeng Sun
Chapter 5. Credit Empowerment Practice Based on Digital Debt Instruments

Founded in 2013, Zhongjin Cloud is a leading provider of information technology solutions for the financial industry in China, with a core team from well-known financial companies and software enterprises both at home and abroad. They provide integrated applications and services from consulting and planning to implementation for hundreds of customers in the fields of finance lease, commercial factoring and supply chain finance, promote fine management, efficiency improvement and product innovation, and have been committed to the Chinese dream of “helping industry take off with Technology Empowered Finance”.

Xuefeng Sun
Options for Energy Transition of the Transport Sector

The transport sector contributes significantly to global CO2 emissions. In fact, road freight accounts for 9% of those emissions and is expected to further grow in the coming decades.For heavy duty vehicles battery electric propulsion is seen as feasible for certain use cases, but it is considered as challenging i.e., due to size & weight of batteries as well as a lacking charging infrastructure. Other options like liquid and gaseous hydrogen as well as green methanol were recently investigated in a study done by Shell and TU Hamburg.The paper gives a holistic overview of the production and distribution pathways, also considering constraints from the energy system perspective, requiring seasonal energy storage and molecular energy imports into Europe.The following energy-carrier-powertrain options were investigated: battery electric, gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and green methanol. Efficiency losses along the supply chain were investigated. For all pathways also cost from the solar/wind farm to the wheel of the truck were calculated.

Karsten Wilbrand, Andreas Kolbeck
Web Vulnerability Detection: The Case of Cross-Site Request Forgery Using Classification and Regression Trees

In the world of hacking, one of the simple and human-understandable web attacks is Cross-Site request forgery, but this is the most top priority attack that needed to handle with keen observation because of the very small difference in their appearance. A hacker develops a cross-site application that looks similar to the original site and embeds this URL in either back transactions or E-commerce applications, it misleads the user to deviate from the original website without his notice by disabling all the authentication mechanisms. The hackers develop this type of cross website by embedding the SQL injection queries either in HTML navigation pages or while executing the external Java Scripts. To develop a solution for this type of attack, the system needs a tool that balances both scalability and usability because of millions of users working with the internet to performs various tasks on social media platforms. This tool can also isolate web attacks by designing robust web applications which include advanced encryption algorithms, which require a lot of effort to decrypt the source code. The developers of the website have to work a lot to take care of the security functionalities, negligence of which may cost the website source code to be hacked. Accidentally, Cross-Site request forgery (CSRF) attacks can be left behind, which motivated recent research on asynchronous Cross-Site request forgery detection. The proposed paper uses the Classification and Regression Trees (CART) Algorithm to detect phishing websites based on the URL posted.

Rajendra Gurram, P. Dhanunjaya Babu, Adusumalli Sai Tejaswi, Chattu Sai Ganesh, Karlaputi Narendra
Kapitel 3. Schritt 2: Ein IT-Unternehmen für den Verkauf optimieren

Damit der Nachfolgeprozess und der Verkauf Ihres IT-Unternehmens sowohl für Sie als Verkäufer als auch für den Käufer erfolgreich wird, müssen vorher einige Hausaufgaben erledigt werden. Im umgangssprachlichen wird oft davon gesprochen, „die Braut hübsch zu machen!“. Dabei geht es nicht nur um die Optimierung des Verkaufspreises, sondern auch um einen perfekten Übergang nach der Transaktion im Rahmen der Post-Merger-Integration (PMI) zu ermöglichen.

Volker Johanning

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