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The new era of information technologies is referring to the globalization of communication. The quick decrease of the communication costs enhanced the dealings among countries and is a vital foundation for the structure of a stronger universal civil society. In today’s technology-driven world, industry standardization, device interoperability, and product compatibility have turned out to be vital to advancing innovation and competition. The technologies and virtual places that represent cyberspace have been assimilated into the lives of people who accept the Internet as a tool for pursuing their common, real-world needs. E-government brings the government closer to citizens, defeating the barriers of bureaucracy, reducing corruption, and making decision-makers more reactive to people’s needs, which means that e-services of e-government are characterized by greater efficiency and transparency.
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Damian Tambini, Danilo Leonardi, and Chris Marsden, Codifying Cyberspace: Communications Self-Regulation in the Age of Internet Convergence, Routledge, 2008.
G Zekos, Internet or Electronic Technology: A Threat to State Sovereignty, JILT 1999 (3) https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/1999_3/zekos/ “The Internet cannot have a main control center nor can any single entity monopolize the abundant variety of information freely accessible on the Internet which does not mean a thread to sovereignty. Besides, in general, advanced electronic technology can be used in order to paralyze an inferior technology of a state and therefore threatening practically its sovereignty. In other words, the Internet does not simply erode sovereignty, but its effect will depend on the nature of the actions involved and thus the Internet may strengthen democratic practice. A democratic and open character of the Internet limits the possibilities of authoritarian and monopoly control. Besides, the global market has the power to discipline national governments. The commercialization of the Internet might end up as concentrated power. At present, there is no purely digital economy. The Globalization together with the digitalization of financial markets has made these markets a powerful presence. Private digital networks rather than the Internet have the power to neutralize sovereignty. Hence, a shift of some components of the state's sovereignty over to other entities carries the potential to limit sovereignty but may not be the elimination rather than a partial relocation to supra national institutions. In the end, it could be argued that the inapplicability of the theory of absolute territorial sovereignty could be supported rather than the death of the state.”
Voyeur Dorm v. City of Tampa, 265 F.3d 1232.
CR Sunstein, “Incompletely Theorized Agreements in Constitutional Law” (2007) 74 Social Research 1 (noting consensus on valuing religious liberty without agreement on why it deserves value: “Some people may stress what they see as the need for social peace; others may think that religious liberty reflects a principle of equality and a recognition of human dignity; others may invoke utilitarian considerations; still others may think that religious liberty is itself a theological command”).
M Schmitt, “Military Necessity and Humanity in International Humanitarian Law: Preserving the Delicate Balance” (2010) 50 Va J Intl L 795.
James Crawford, The creation of states in international law 26-27 (1979).
Louis Henkin, The Mythology of Sovereignty, AM. SOC’Y INT’L L. NEWSL., Mar. 1993, at 1.
Stephen D. Krasner, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (1999).
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Masilamani, N., & Anup Kurvilla John, “The Future of State Sovereignty: Emerging Concerns in the Internet Era” (The student Advocate, Volume 13, 2001).
Ralf Michaels, “Territorial jurisdiction after territoriality” in: Piet Jan Slot and Mielle Bulterman (eds.), Globalisation and Jurisdiction (2004 Kluwer Law International) 105, 106.
Eric Cafritz and Omer Tene, “Article 113-7 of the French Penal Code: The Passive Personality Principle” (2002–2003) 41 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 585, 588.
Thomas Schultz, “Carving Up the Internet: Jurisdiction, Legal Orders, and the Private/Public International Law Interface’ (2008) 19 European Journal of International Law 799, 815.
Mika Hayashi, “The Information Revolution and the Rules of Jurisdiction in Public International Law” in Myriam Dunn, Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel, and Victor Mauer (eds), The Resurgence of the State 59, 74–75 (Ashgate 2007).
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Belanger F., Carter L. (2006). The impact of the digital divide on e-government use. In: Proceeding HICSS ‘06 Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2006, No. 04.
Joe Waz and Phil Weiser, Internet Governance: The Role of Multistakeholder Organizations, 2012 J. ON Telecomm. & High Tech. L. Vol. 10 331 p 348.
International Standards Organization (ISO), Corporate governance of information technology, ISO/IEC 38500:2008, 2008.
GAO, Cyberspace: United States Faces Challenges in Addressing Global Cybersecurity and Governance, GAO-10-606, July 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10606.pdf.
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OECD (2014), “The digital economy, new business models and key features,” in Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digital Economy, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264218789-7-en.
Dirk A. Zetzsche, Douglas Arner, Ross Buckley, Brian W. Tang Artificial Intelligence in Finance: Putting the Human in the Loop, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3531711 P3.
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Global purchasing synergies can be divided into three categories • Economies of information and learning: sharing all available purchasing knowledge on suppliers, new technologies, markets, internal users, applications, the prevention of mutually incompatible negotiating strategies, the prevention of affiliates from depriving one another of the limited available resources in times of scarcity, etc. • Economies of process: establishing a common way of working thereby showing worldwide one line of con-duct to suppliers, benchmarking procedures and results, and joint training and development • Economies of scale: pooling volumes to enforce purchasing power, reducing the number of global suppliers, standardization, and synchronizing requirements.
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Marvellous Ngundu, Nicholas Ngepah, Growth Effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from China and Other Sources in Africa: The Role of Institutional Quality. The Asian Institute of Research Journal of Economics and Business Vol.2, No.3, 2019: 1026–1038 p1037.
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Arav Ouandlous, Anthony Narsing, Multinational Corporations and Economic/Digital Technological Divide: An Analytical Approach to Global Economic Integration. Volume 2, Number 12, International Business & Economics Research Journal 27 p 36.
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Douglas W. Arner, Janos Nathan Barberis & Ross P. Buckley, “The Evolution of Fintech: A New Post-Crisis Paradigm?” (2015) University of Hong Kong Faculty Law Research Paper NO. 2015/047, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2676553. Chris Brummer, Fintech Law in a Nutshell (Minnesota, USA: West Academic Publishing, 2019).
Haitian LU Bingzhong, WANG Qing, WU Jing YE, Fintech and the Future of Financial Service: A Literature Review and Research Agenda, at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3600627.
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The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) charters, regulates, and supervises national banks and federal savings associations and licenses, regulates, and supervises the federal branches and agencies of foreign banking organizations. The OCC supervises these banks to ensure that they operate in a safe and sound manner, provide fair access to financial services, treat customers fairly, and comply with applicable laws and regulations. Roberto Mangabeira Unger, The Knowledge Economy 3 (2019). Press Release, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, OCC Begins Accepting National Bank Charter Applications from Financial Technology Companies (July 31, 2018), https://www.occ.gov/news-issuances/news-releases/2018/nr-occ-2018-74.html.
Chen, M., Q. Wu, and B. Yang. 2019. How valuable is Fintech innovation? The Review of Financial Studies, 32:2062–2106.
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, “Sound Practices. Implications of fintech developments for banks and bank supervisors” (2018) Bank for International Settlements Publication, available at https://www.bis.org/bcbs/publ/d431.pdf.
Val Srinivas & Angus Ross, “Accelerating digital transformation in banking. Findings from the global consumer survey on digital banking” (2018), https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/industry/financial-services/digital-transformation-in-bankingglobal-customer-survey.html.
Ross P. Buckley, Douglas W. Arner, Robin Veidt & Dirk A. Zetzsche, Building FinTech Ecosystems: Regulatory Sandboxes, Innovation Hubs and Beyond, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2019/100, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3455872.
Johannes Ehrentraud, Denise Garcia Ocampo, Lorena Garzoni & Mateo Piccolo, Policy responses to fintech: a cross-country, FSI Insights On Policy Implementation No 23 (2020), https://www.bis.org/fsi/publ/insights23.pdf.
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