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About this book

The book provides easy interpretable explanations for the key technologies involved in Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. The authors discuss the various electrical machines, drives, and controls used in EV and HEV. The book provides a detailed coverage of Regenerative Braking Systems used in EV and HEV.
The book also illustrates the battery technology and battery management systems in EV and HEV. This book is intended for academicians, researchers and industrialists.

In addition, this book has the following features

Discusses the various Economic and Environmental Impact of Electric and Hybrid Electric VehiclesDiscusses the role of Artificial Intelligence in Electric / Hybrid Electric VehiclesIllustrates the concept of Vehicle to Grid Technology and the smart charging station infrastructure and issues involved in the sameElucidates the concept of Internet of VehiclesPresents the latest research and applications in alternate energy vehicles

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Abstract
Passenger vehicles are an essential part of everyone’s life, yet their exhaust fumes are a major source of urban pollution that contributes to the greenhouse effect, which leads to climate change. The world’s dependency on oil as the primary source of energy for passenger vehicles has economic and political ramifications, and the situation will undoubtedly worsen as the world’s oil stocks deplete. The development of clean, efficient, and sustainable vehicles for urban transportation is being pushed by both environmental and economic concerns. Electric vehicles (EVs) driven by alternative energy sources and enabled by high-efficiency electric motors and controllers provide a clean, efficient, and environmentally friendly urban transportation system. Furthermore, renewable energy sources such as water, wind, and solar energy may be used to generate electricity for EV. EV and HEV provide lots of new increasingly complex design issues never seen in traditional automotive technologies and transportation systems. The automobile industry is devoting significant resources to the development of electric vehicles to fulfill increasingly stringent standards for fuel efficiency, economy, vehicle safety, performance, and environmental protection. This chapter helps to gain knowledge of electric and hybrid vehicles, including the advantages and design problems that come with them.
K. Latha Maheswari, S. Kavitha, M. Kathiresh

Chapter 2. Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles

Abstract
Pollution due to vehicles is one of the main concerns of this world. One of the solutions to reduce carbon emission and economic issues is electric cars, which is more attractive in this world. Studies have shown that electric vehicles are better for the environment and have lower emissions of gases and pollutants than gasoline or diesel vehicles, even if they make cars and generate the electricity needed to drive them. This chapter deals with the realities of electric cars and their impact on the environment. Inventors started their research about electric vehicles in the 1830s. The first electric car “Roadster” was introduced by Tesla motors in 2008. One of the main reasons for the development of alternative fuels and renewable fuel technologies is the energy crisis. In 1950s, the change was made because of environmental issues. As our nation is becoming industry oriented, the amount of gas emission is increasing tremendously every year and the environment suffers a lot. Although many detoxification and filtration methods are employed, the reduction in emission gas production plays a vital role in climate difference.
P. Sweety Jose, P. Subha Hency Jose, G. Jims John Wessley, P. Rajalakshmy

Chapter 3. Analysis of the Different Types of Electric Motors Used in Electric Vehicles

Abstract
Electric vehicles are vehicles that operate on an electric motor and utilize batteries to store the power to run the motor. Electric vehicles have been fabricated ever since the introduction of DC power motors decades ago and have a long history in making. In accordance with the growing innovations and inventions in Electric vehicle systems, it is crucial to study and choose the apt electric motor that will fit the needs and necessities of the electric vehicle. Different manufacturers choose different electric motors according to the design, build, and requirement of their electric vehicle. Moreover, the lack of nonrenewable energy sources and the expanding biological mindfulness have laid a concrete platform for the progress of electric vehicles, along with the consideration of fuel use, without deteriorating the performance and driving solace of the motors in use. Hence based on the power requirement (in the place of fuel), many electric motors are being used in electric vehicles. As the demand for cost-efficient EVs coupled with high-efficiency performance increases, there is an extensive need for advanced generators and motors. The type of generator or motor that is utilized in an EV will depend on the usage such as “on” or “off” highway locomotives and vehicles, heavy or medium, or light-duty vehicles, etc. The overall performance of the motors in the vehicle will depend on the cooling mechanism utilized, thermal characteristics, and vehicle duty cycle. In this paper, we have explored and studied the various types of motors that are used in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. A comparison is drawn based on the motors’ size, reliability, power, and efficiency as part of the EVs and HEVs when used over a period of time. The experimental analysis carried out on various criteria is also recorded and observed to determine their efficiency.
K. C. Ramya, J. Geetha Ramani, A. Sridevi, Rajakumar S. Rai, D. Ruth Anita Shirley

Chapter 4. A Comprehensive Study on DC–DC and DC–AC Converters in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Abstract
A detailed review on various DC–DC and DC–AC converters used in electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is discussed in this chapter. Motor, inverter, DCDC converter, and battery pack constitute an integral part of modern EV/HEV. In this chapter, an insight on various DC–DC (Chopper) and DC–AC (Inverter) converters used in EV and HEV are also presented. In order to appreciate the role of DCDC converters in drives, a closed-loop speed control of a separately excited DC motor using PWM control was modeled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The mathematical model for the motor was simulated and analyzed using MATLAB/Simulink using “Commonly Used Blocks” with appropriate step size. Various types of multilevel inverters used for drive applications were discussed.
Sumukh Surya, Supriya P., Sheldon S. Williamson

Chapter 5. Control Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Abstract
With an increase in car production every year, the fuel consumption increases, and hence the pollution increases due to emissions from the internal combustion engines. The car needs a source of propulsion, which develops maximum torque at zero with minimum pollution. The classic ICE cannot achieve this. Instead, electric vehicles are used which reduces pollution to a greater extent. The vehicle which uses two power sources is called hybrid electric vehicle.
To increase the fuel efficiency, the internal combustion engine extracts more energy. But it reduces the exhaust temperature. At lower temperatures, the chemical reactions associated with the combustion of unburned hydrocarbons may not occur. The increase in compression ratio enhances fuel economy which in turn increases the temperature of ICE. This increase in temperature increases both CO and other nitrogen oxides which causes pollution. The important functions of the control systems in hybrid electric vehicles are to maximize fuel efficiency and minimize exhaust emissions in spite of their conflicting nature as mentioned before.
This chapter starts with a brief introduction to hybrid electric vehicles and control systems. Then, the need for control of hybrid electric vehicle is elucidated along with the classic and current techniques to control HEV.
B. Sathya, R. Neelaveni, M. Kathiresh

Chapter 6. Power Flow in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles

Abstract
Pure electric vehicles and vehicles driven with the combination of both internal combustion engines and electric motors and called hybrid electric vehicles were developed in the past with varying structural design and mechanical aspects. Also, there have been huge varieties of electrical side components of such vehicles like electric motors, power electronic converters, batteries, control systems, etc. Hybrid electric vehicles have gained a lot of attention due to their efficiency and flexibility in various modes of operation. To understand the strength of both the hybrid electric vehicle and the battery electric vehicles, it is important to understand the structural configurations of its variations and also the power flow in different modes of operation. In this chapter, a brief overview of different types of hybrid–electric and battery electric vehicles is discussed. The power flow in different modes of operations of all these vehicle types is discussed in detail with the power flow indicated in the schematic diagrams for various modes of power flow operations. The power flow control in all the modes is important to be understood to effectively design the EV system by suitably selecting all the sub-components required.
Madhu S., Ashwini A., Karanam Vasudha

Chapter 7. Energy Storage Devices and Front-End Converter Topologies for Electric Vehicle Applications

Abstract
With the technology advancement in energy storage devices, electric transportation is gaining importance. Power electronics play a vital role in decreasing the losses and enabling safety. A comprehensive review on battery modeling, ultracapacitors, and the fuel cell is provided. A 5-RC battery model was the best battery model for pulse charging applications. In addition, a detailed review of the frontend converters (rectifiers) for electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and plug-in HEV (PHEV) is presented. Rectifiers are integrated with DC–DC converters to achieve unity power factor correction (UPFC) incorporating average current control. Amongst the various rectifiers reviewed, the bridgeless interleaved boost converter showed the highest efficiency. Charging techniques like constant current (CC)–constant voltage (CV) and constant temperature (CT)–CV were reviewed. CT–CV showed 20% faster charging and 20% lesser temperature rise than CC–CV for a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) 18650 cell.
Sumukh Surya, Sheldon S. Williamson

Chapter 8. Overview of Battery Management Systems in Electric Vehicles

Abstract
To operate the utilities in an efficient, reliable manner and manage their operation, recent developments have been in the field of energy management and measurement. During this energy crisis era, there is an increased power demand that has paved a path for the installation of new energy meters and new methodologies to monitor and measure the meter readings regarding the economic usage constraints. This chapter deliberates the limitations and drawbacks in conventional metering topology and expresses the necessity for a sophisticated metering scheme to meet Industry 4.0 in power sector requirements. The advanced intelligent meter components and their roles are discussed in detail. The design and implementation of a smart meter in the existing system are explained in this chapter.
K. Vishnu Murthy, K. Sabareeshwaran, S. Abirami, T. Bharani Prakash

Chapter 9. Review on Regenerative Braking System

Abstract
Today, smart electric and hybrid vehicles are being presented as one of the potential solutions towards the rapidly increasing energy demand from on-road transportation. Due to the rapid increase in the cost of fuel, electric/hybrid vehicles are becoming widely attractive and prevalent nowadays. Electric vehicles are renowned to be incredibly efficient, consuming less energy and thus being environmentally friendly vehicles. The present chapter focuses on regenerative braking for smart electric/hybrid vehicles. The development of regenerative braking in electric vehicles has overcome the drawbacks of energy wastage; moreover, it helps to convert the heat generated during braking and affords greater efficiency of braking for a smart electric/hybrid vehicle. Moreover, the brake controller monitors the wheel speed and estimates the requisite torque as well as the extra energy from rotary motion that may be converted into electricity and transmitted back into the batteries during the regenerative mode. Nowadays, the automotive technology towards regenerative braking is improving rapidly. The study developed in this chapter provides clear guidelines and presents technological development in the electric/hybrid vehicle manufacturers to improve the performance, quality and competitiveness of the smart electric/hybrid vehicles such that they will be able to prevail in the automobile industries in the near future.
A. Sathishkumar, R. Soundararajan, T. J. Muthu Vel, M. B. S. Arjith, G. Sakthivel

Chapter 10. Vehicle to Grid Technology

Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles are a result of recent innovative ideas and technological developments in the world of electric vehicles which are promising and are an environmentally friendly vehicle. The plug-in electric vehicles receive energy from the power grid through the stations known as charging stations which suitably connect between the grid and the electric vehicles. The charging stations act as an alternate energy source to reduce the demand for grid. There is a need for standard communication protocols for managing EV charging (V1G) and V2G (vehicle-to-grid) applications. This facilitates in understanding and choosing the right standards for EV programs. This comprehensive chapter provides V2G (vehicle-to-grid) technology along with structures, components, communication standards and protocols. This chapter provides background information on how standard communication protocols and standards are used in today’s EV charging management and distributed energy resources applications. Here, an overview of general guidelines for selecting and operating these protocols is presented. This chapter is designed as a suitable supporting guide for future investigations that can analyse and understand the standards and protocols to select appropriate techniques for V2G communication effective implementation. At the end, it also highlighted the future challenges and further scope for the V2G technology.
R. N. Ravikumar, S. Madhu

Chapter 11. Smart Charging in Electric Vehicles and Its Impact on the Evolution of Travelling

Abstract
Electric passenger car or electric vehicle (EV) is the new technological advancement in the automobile industry and is evolving at a rapid pace. The introduction of electric vehicle has opened the path to a whole new concept of e-mobility and has changed the way electrical system functions. Elective vehicles promise decarbonization of the power sector, ensuring environmental and health benefits by improving the quality of the air we breathe. However, this rollout of electric vehicles proves to be a fatal challenge to the power systems, imposing a greater demand for renewable energy sources for volatile supply of energy. An apt solution to this challenge is the use of smart electric vehicle charging services. Hence, the evolution of e-mobility is not just about increasing the usage of electric vehicles but a subsequent increase in the demand for smart charging infrastructure, globally. Smart charging will optimize power dispersion and will further result in saving considerable EV drivers, charge point owners, charge point operators, and grid operators. A single grid can be used to drive more than 10 times the normal charging stations using smart charging. A balance between supply and demand is struck with the utilization of local renewable energy. Under normal circumstances, of natural division over time, very few moments will result in the “charge rate” being influenced by the “demand management.” During the other time interval, charging to full capacity is possible by the EV drivers. Taking charge point and electricity demand into consideration, charge speed as well as charge moment are adjusted by smart charging. This work gives an overview of how smart charging takes place using “Smart Grid” as the key. It is observed that control and visibility required to mitigate the load impact as well as to protect the components from overloading in a distribution network are provided using smart grid. It ensures that electricity is used effectively while adhering to customer preferences.
D. Ruth Anita Shirley, B. Siva Sankari, Rajakumar S. Rai, D. A. Janeera, P. Anantha Christu Raj

Chapter 12. Artificial Intelligence-Based Energy Management and Real-Time Optimization in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Abstract
The depletion of fossil fuel and growing environmental pollution has led to the transformation of the transportation industry with the development of electric vehicles that run on clean and green energy. The rapid development in this field is driven towards replacing traditional power structures with smart power management models. This directs towards improving the efficiency of fuel cells and the system output performance in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel cell life is affected by the drive system and its control characteristics in a hybrid power system. The system operation is ensured by optimization of performance and strategical energy management in the hybrid system using power train model, dynamic programming (DP), and deep learning schemes. Tuning the equivalent factor (EF) dynamically can be done by equivalent consumption minimum strategy (ECMS) in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for achieving near-optimal fuel efficiency. Artificial intelligence is used for determining the EF in ECMS by analysis of available data. The State of Charge (SoC) values are varied to perform simulation under diverse conditions. When compared to the existing optimization techniques, the proposed model offers improved fuel economy. The energy management scheme is also time-conscious as the computational time for the entire trip duration is optimized. The training sample size and its impact on the performance of the AI module are also discussed.
D. Pritima, S. Sheeba Rani, P. Rajalakshmy, K. Vinoth Kumar, Sujatha Krishnamoorthy

Chapter 13. A Novel Sensing Technique for Continuous Monitoring of Volume in an Automobile Fuel Tank

Abstract
A proper technology for measuring the volume of fuel is of utmost importance in the automotive sector. The fuel gauges are scandalously imprecise, showing empty when there are gallons left in the tank and showing full for the first 50 miles. In the current scenario, there is no direct volume measurement of the fuel present in the tank. If the tank is linear, the volume of the tank can be calculated in terms of level. But, the fuel tank present in automobiles is irregular in shape and highly nonlinear. Hence, there is a need to develop an indigenous technique to measure the volume of fuel in such irregular-shaped fuel tanks which actually rolls down to identifying an advanced machine learning technique to model the nonlinearity that exists in the measurement. This advanced technology employing the potentiometer can be used in any irregular-shaped tank in which the volume to voltage relationship is nonlinear in nature and also applied to any existing level sensors. The primary sensing technique, the calibration process, the training, validation, and testing of the nonlinear model for accurate measurement of volume in a fuel tank is discussed in this chapter.
P. Rajalakshmy, P. Subha Hency Jose, K. Rajasekaran, R. Varun, P. Sweety Jose

Chapter 14. Internet of Vehicles

Abstract
Safe driving is a vital component of automotive industry. According to WHO’s report, 1.2 million deaths occurred each year on account of road accidents indicating  an exponential increase in the number of fatalities year by year due to the increment of vehicles on the road. The avoidance of possible road accidents, minimization of carbon emission, efficient fuel consumption, enhanced driver safety and comfort, identification of faster routes, saving resources are the prospects of automobile manufacturers and research. The ability of vehicle communication with other vehicles and other elements could significantly upgrade the safety and driving systems. Thus, it is much needed to build an intelligent transport system (ITS) with aid of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the form of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) for the vehicular grid. The objective of IoV is to connect a global network and communicating with each other by enabling high mobility, safety-critical applications, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, security, and privacy.
IoV is also termed a vehicle ad-hoc network (VANET), which consists of a sensing platform, networking platform, and application platform. The sensing platform consists of internal sensors like brakes, accelerator, driver’s state of health (Ford heart monitor seat), and so on and external sensors like GPS, cameras, Lidar, and so on. The principle working of networking platform ensures connectivity of vehicular communication technologies such as WAVE, DSRC, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, 3G, LTE, 5G between V2I (Vehicle to Infrastructure), V2V, V2P (vehicle to pedestrian), V2S (vehicle to sensors). The application platform does the processing of inputs received via communication tools and takes decisions such as weather forecast, traffic management, electronic toll collection, parking assistance. All these functions from efficient communication to processing the correct decisions via these platforms specifically designed for vehicles are called Vehicle Cloud. A vehicle cloud can compute intelligent routing, deliver security and privacy of each data, and validate the crowdsourced information. This chapter covers the description regarding the above topics, future challenges in understanding the connectivity of vehicles, enhancing technologies, and network architecture of IoV. At the end of the chapter, the future of IoV is also presented and discussed.
G. Santhakumar, Ruban Whenish

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