main-content

# E-Payment

## weitere Buchkapitel

### 6. Stimmen aus der Praxis – die Interviews

Theoretische Überlegungen allein ergeben kein vollständiges Bild von der Digitalisierung in Verwaltungen. Deshalb ist es sinnvoll, zusätzlich Wahrnehmungen, Stimmungen und Ideen aus den unterschiedlichen Ecken der Verwaltungswelt einzufangen. Im Folgenden kommen Menschen zu Wort, die den digitalen Wandel im öffentlichen Dienst am eigenen Leib erfahren. Die Bandbreite der neun Interviewpartnerinnen und -partner reicht dabei von Führungskräften zu Mitarbeitenden, von Generation Z bis zu den Baby Boomern.

Christina Winners

### 1. Digitalisierung – und warum sie so wichtig ist

Digitalisierung lässt sich in zweierlei Hinsicht verstehen.

Christina Winners

### Chapter 2. Electronic Commerce Items and Related Technology

This chapter presents e-commerce items including m-commerce, and a framework for e-commerceE-commerce . The items include trust and privacy, payment system, management and security and so on. The position and the importance of each topic in e-commerce are discussed extensively. Finally, a new framework for e-commerce is proposed. The framework has three-dimensions which are software technology dimension, hardware dimension and e-commerce application dimension. The criteria of a good framework is also indicated. It has been demonstrated that the framework is a natural and efficient framework. Furthermore, all items in e-commerce can fit into the framework very well.

Hua Wang, Jinli Cao, Yanchun Zhang

### Digital Competences for Civil Servants and Digital Ecosystems for More Effective Working Processes in Public Organizations

Nunzio Casalino, Tommaso Saso, Barbara Borin, Enrica Massella, Flavia Lancioni

### Plenty of Phish in the Sea: Analyzing Potential Pre-attack Surfaces

Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are one of the main challenges in modern computer security. They are planned and performed by well-funded, highly-trained and often state-based actors. The first step of such an attack is the reconnaissance of the target. In this phase, the adversary tries to gather as much intelligence on the victim as possible to prepare further actions. An essential part of this initial data collection phase is the identification of possible gateways to intrude the target.In this paper, we aim to analyze the data that threat actors can use to plan their attacks. To do so, we analyze in a first step 93 APT reports and find that most (80%) of them begin by sending phishing emails to their victims. Based on this analysis, we measure the extent of data openly available of 30 entities to understand if and how much data they leak that can potentially be used by an adversary to craft sophisticated spear phishing emails. We then use this data to quantify how many employees are potential targets for such attacks. We show that 83% of the analyzed entities leak several attributes of uses, which can all be used to craft sophisticated phishing emails.

Tobias Urban, Matteo Große-Kampmann, Dennis Tatang, Thorsten Holz, Norbert Pohlmann

### Chapter 14. e-Service Innovation Through Malaysian Consumer Perspectives: Case Studies of e-Hailing and e-Hypermarket

In recent decades, Malaysian Internet usage has rose rapidly. Malaysia Internet penetration rate has achieved 80% or equivalent to 26 million Internet users. With the rapid growth of the internet usage in Malaysia, consumers are now starting to purchase product and services via online medium. This chapter focuses on how Malaysian consumer value online services as alternatives of getting service. The chapter begins with the current trends of e-service in Malaysia. Two online services, e-hailing and e-hypermarket will be discussed. The gathered consumer value will help industry in providing better e-service.

Nur Fazidah Elias, Ruzzakiah Jenal, Hazura Mohamed, Siti Aishah Hanawi, Hazilah Mohd Amin, Roham Yeganegi, Nur Athirah Nabila Binti Mohd Idros

### A Semi-quantum Group Signature Scheme Based on Bell States

In this paper, we propose a group signature scheme based on Bell states, which restricts the group member Alice to transmit the signature message to a fully quantum ability group manager TP through semi-quantum communication, then TP sends the signature message to an outsider verifier Bob to verify the signature. The signature message is sent by TP which can ensure Alice’s anonymous in group signature scheme. Besides, the limited Alice is a “classic” user in semi-quantum communication and can only measure, prepare, reorder and send quantum states only in the classical basis { $$\left| 0 \right\rangle$$ , $$\left| 1 \right\rangle$$ }, while the quantum TP can perform arbitrary quantum operations. Besides, the “classical” user Alice does not require quantum memory. Finally, the security analysis shows that the scheme can not only resist the repudiation of the signer and denial of the verifier, but also detect the forgery of the attacker, and the efficiency of the scheme is slightly higher than most of the previous signature schemes.

Jinqiao Dai, Shibin Zhang, Yan Chang, Xueyang Li, Tao Zheng

### Chapter 4. Blockchain and Regulation: The Legal World

As blockchain entered the world with new possibilities concerning data and financial instruments, it has taken decision makers a lot of time to consider the technology and introduce regulation that is both relevant and necessary to protect people from this technology. This chapter includes a short introduction to the major concepts that are currently being debated when it comes to the distributed ledger technology.

Stijn Van Hijfte

### Kapitel 3. Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien als Enabler

Die Disziplin der IT-gestützten Logistik umfasst inzwischen eine Vielfalt an Methoden und Tools, die je nach zugrunde liegender Logistikdefinition in ihrem Umfang deutlich schwanken können. Werden Beschaffung, Produktion, Distributionslogistik, die gesamte Lagerlogistik sowie Funktionsbereiche, wie sie beispielsweise die Instandhaltungslogistik darstellen unter das Grundverständnis einer mittels Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) unterstützten logistischen Prozesskette subsumiert (vgl. vorliegendes Lehrbuch), dann ist die Bandbreite an vorhandenen Lösungsansätzen sehr groß. Dennoch greifen die einzelnen Anwendungen auf eine zumeist standardisierte technologische Basis zurück, um z. B. Transporte zu lokalisieren, Waren zu identifizieren oder um auf elektronischem Wege Daten auszutauschen.

### Chapter 5. BRI and Southeast Asia

This chapter assesses how the BRI has been implemented in Southeast Asia and its implications. After highlighting the key BRI infrastructure projects in the region such as the China-Laos-Thailand high-speed railway (HSR) and the New Yangon City in Myanmar, it is argued that the BRI strengthens transport connectivity in Southeast Asia, reduces cross-country economic divide, boosts digitalisation in the region’s economy, and facilitates the region’s smart urbanisation process. The key risks posed by the BRI in the region relate to China’s growing hegemony and challenge to the centrality of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), exacerbation of South China Sea (SCS) disputes, and governance risk in the form of corruption and debt distress.

### Hong Kong’s Fintech Automation: Economic Benefits and Social Risks

This chapter examines the rise of fintech, its regulation, and the particular challenges these present for an international financial center (IFC)International Financial Center (IFC), specifically an IFCInternational Financial Center (IFC) with limited economic breadth. Fintech offers automation opportunities for financial institutions, and such automation will in most cases make banks more competitive and lower their labor needs. The Hong KongFintechHong Kong government has actively embraced fintech to ensure competitiveness, and its regulation tracks leading international positions on ICOsInitial Coin Offering (ICO), cryptocurrency and electronic payment. However, Hong Kong regulators have not facilitated fintech activities that would stimulate the local economy, such as equity crowdfunding. Automation will generally translate into a reduction of human labor, particularly in mid-level jobs. In a large and varied economy, persons laid off from jobs at banks can seek engagement elsewhere. This is not necessarily true in an IFCInternational Financial Center (IFC) with a less diversified economy. Hong Kong presents the highly unusual case of persons in a small IFC who have access to a large and diverse economy in mainland China yet may refuse to seek new positions in the larger workplace for cultural or political reasons. The Hong Kong government has blithely followed a ‘market leads, government facilitates’ philosophy of laissez-faire for decades and thus also has failed to prepare for the social costs of fintech. While such preparation would indeed constitute social planning, an activity generally discouraged in Hong KongFintechHong Kong, circumstances dictate that the HKSAR governmentHong KongHKSAR government begin to act socially, rather than merely facilitate the largest businesses.

David C. Donald

### Thai Regulatory Approaches to Technology-Driven Innovation in Financial Services

In recent years, Thai policymakers have adopted laws aimed at keeping pace with contemporary technological developments. This can be seen from the issuance of a number of legislative measures regulating innovative products and services that cannot be effectively dealt with under existing laws and regulations, including those related to financial services. More specifically, ThailandFintech Thailand 4.0 has been presented by the government as a policy to transform Thailand into a more innovation-driven or technology-driven economy. In accordance with the policy, there is an agenda to develop a technology cluster and future industries which are related to digital, Internet of Things (loT), Artificial Intelligence, and embedded technologies. The aim is that by using digital tools and IoT as platforms, it will be possible to enhance productivity, quality, and innovation in various economic activities. This can be considered as an important step for ThailandFintech Thailand in responding to the rapid development of innovation and technology in various sectors. This chapter reviews these efforts, with a particular emphasis on fintech, as well as considering supplemental initiatives that might be useful to develop further the fintech ecosystem in Thailand. Finally, the chapter considers recent government efforts to intervene and strengthen industry associations as an example of ‘soft law’ mechanisms in.

Pawee Jenweeranon

### Kapitel 18. Handelsmarketing

Der Leser kennt die besonderen Aspekte des Umfelds, in welchem Handelsunternehmen agieren. Der Leser kennt die Funktionen des Handels. Der Leser weiß, welche Betriebsformen des Handels es gibt. Der Leser kennt die produktpolitischen Besonderheiten des Handelsmarketing. Der Leser kennt die preispolitischen Besonderheiten des Handelsmarketing. Der Leser kennt die kommunikationspolitischen Besonderheiten des Handelsmarketing. Der Leser kennt die vertriebspolitischen Besonderheiten des Handelsmarketing. Der Leser kennt die Besonderheiten des Handelsmarketing im Hinblick auf die Verkaufsraumgestaltung sowie die Personalpolitik.

Christian Homburg

### 8. Creating and Capturing Value Through e-Business Strategies

In this chapter, we illustrated how value is created and captured via e-business strategies, which can be divided into two parts: theory and practice. First, we will discuss some basics on value creation and capture so that readers can generally grasp the gist of value creation and capture. Second, two distinct perspectives on value creation and capture are introduced. We highlighted the importance of the Service-Dominant logic because it is more fit with e-business. Third, based on the Service-Dominant logic, we revealed the different roles of a business and customers in value creation. Fourth, to bring together, we depicted the causal pathways of value creation and value capture so as to point out the key activities that a business should notice in the pathway. Last, we applied theoretical parts into a business case, WeChat.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 2. Overview of the e-Business Strategy Framework

In Part II of this book, we propose an overarching e-business strategy framework that can serve as a comprehensive basis for e-business strategy formulation. Besides, strategic thinking for e-business and critical success factors of e-business strategy are presented in this chapter.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 3. External Analysis: The Impact of the Internet on the Macro-environment and on the Industry Structure of e-Business Companies

This chapter firstly provides a framework for analyzing the macro-environment. Secondly, it discusses Porter’s five forces framework for analyzing the attractiveness of an industry. It also analyses the impact of the Internet on each force of Porter’s framework, i.e., industry rivalry, barriers to entry, threat of substitute products, and the bargaining power of buyers and suppliers. Thirdly, this chapter presents the co-opetition framework, which offers an alternative perspective for industry analysis. Finally, it addresses the question of how to define industries within which to compete and how to segment specific customer groups that a business should target through its e-business offering.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 17. Strategic Trends for e-Business

This chapter will provide a landscape of strategic trends for e-business and indicate what will fundamentally change and revolutionize e-business in the future. Businesses should consider how to manage these trends, seizing potential opportunities and devising strategies for next-generation e-business.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 4. Internal Analysis: e-Business Competencies as Sources of Strengths and Weaknesses

This chapter first defines the concept of core competence and discusses it in the context of e-business. It then presents the value chain concept as a way to analyze the individual steps in the value creation process. Thirdly, it introduces the virtual value chain concept and suggests ways for companies to leverage it for value creation. The chapter then describes the four virtual spaces of the ICDT (Information, Communication, Distribution, and Transaction) framework and indicates ways of using it when selecting activities suited for e-business. Finally, the move for businesses from managing an internal value chain to operating along a value network with external partners is highlighted.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 1. Key Terminology and Evolution of e-Business

The purpose of this chapter is to set the stage for the remainder of the book. To create a clear and shared view of what this domain entails, this chapter introduces definitions of e-business-related terms and concepts as well as some strategy-specific perspectives. The concept of strategy and recognizing the different levels of strategy development is defined. This chapter also develops a framework that describes the typical stages of technological revolutions and positions the evolution of electronic business within this framework.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 23. Digital Business Transformation in Silicon Savannah: How M-PESA Changed Safaricom (Kenya)

The view had changed since Bob Collymore, chief executive officer of Kenya’s leading telecom operator, made his first helicopter flight over Nairobi, when he moved there 6 years earlier. Soaring up into the sky, he still remembered the excitement he had felt when he got his first bird’s-eye view of the city that would soon become his home.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### 12. Moving from Wired e-Commerce to Mobile e-Commerce and U-Commerce

This chapter started out by giving a definition of mobile e-commerce and depicting the players of the mobile value network. These include mobile equipment vendors for wireless infrastructure and hand-held devices, mobile network operators, IT enablers, application and content providers, as well as portal providers. By segmenting mobile e-commerce consumer and business services, this chapter illustrated the many uses of wireless applications. A detailed classification of mobile commerce services and applications, both for corporate and individual consumers, was also presented. Next, this chapter explained the main advantages of mobile e-commerce over wired e-commerce. Finally, a brief presentation of the ubiquitous commerce framework, which is considered to be the next stage in e-commerce evolution, highlights the new strategies and applications in the field.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

### A P2P Optimistic Fair-Exchange (OFE) Scheme for Personal Health Records Using Blockchain Technology

In today’s digital world, it is common to exchange sensitive data between different parties. There are many examples of sensitive data or documents that require a digital exchange, such as banking information, insurance data, health records. In many cases, the exchange exists between unknown and untrusted parties. Therefore, it is essential to execute the data exchange over a fair non-repudiation protocol. In this paper, we propose a P2P fair non-repudiation data exchange scheme by leveraging Blockchain and distributed ledger technology. The proposed scheme combines on-chain and off-chain communication patterns to enable the exchange of personal health records between patients and health care providers. We provide an informal security analysis for the proposed scheme. Moreover, we propose a design and implementation agnostic to existing Blockchain platforms to enable unbiased evaluation of the proposed scheme.

Nasim Al Goni, Sherif Saad Ahmed, Ahmed Ibrahim

### 9. Ethnomarketing und neue Zielgruppen im Inlandsmarkt: Muslime und Chinesen

Die Erschließung neuer Zielgruppe durch Ethnomarketing ist eine Option, wenn ethnische Minderheiten oder Subkulturen im Inlandsmarkt als Konsumenten sichtbar werden, die sich in ihren Bedürfnissen und Konsumpräferenzen von der Mehrheit der Konsumenten unterscheiden. Ethnomarketing ist Zielgruppenmarketing. Die Bedürfnisse, Vorstellungen und Gewohnheiten der Zielgruppen müssen verstanden werden. Sie müssen in einem besonderen Angebot berücksichtigt und dieses in die Zielgruppen kommuniziert werden. Voraussetzung ist, dass die Zielgruppen über hinreichend Kaufkraft verfügen. Ethnomarketing ist ein Teilbereich interkulturellen Marketings, der sich nicht auf andere Länder, sondern auf den Inlandsmarkt richtet. In den meisten Ländern, so auch in Deutschland, sind die Gesellschaften inzwischen multikulturell.

Doris Gutting

### 7. Erkenntnisse und Ausblick

Die technologische Entwicklung schreitet unaufhaltsam voran, es entstehen neue Anforderungen, denen der Public Sector hinterherläuft. Autonome Systeme, Big Data und KI werden noch weit stärker auf der öffentlichen Agenda auftauchen und die Anspruchsniveaus der Stakeholder hinaufsetzen. Immer mehr Digital Natives erhöhen als Kunden oder Mitarbeiter der Verwaltung den Druck zu innovativen Lösungen noch zusätzlich. Der Public Sector wird sich bemühen müssen, die digitale Transformation intensiv voranzutreiben, um sich selbst zu erneuern und als moderne Organisation die Unternehmen und Bürger durch digitale Services zu unterstützen. Veränderungsbedarf gibt es aber nicht nur im Public Sector, denn zeitgleich sind die Back-Offices der Unternehmen umfassend betroffen. Es gibt vergleichbare Herausforderungen, denn auch dort existieren noch alte File-Systeme und Fachanwendungen, die erst abgelöst werden müssen, bevor eine innovative Prozessintegration umgesetzt werden kann. Die nächsten Abschnitte beinhalten Prinzipien und Vorschläge zur Bewältigung der Herausforderungen.

Hans Werner Streicher

### Chapter 7. Products and Performance

The chapter starts with the investment ACLEDA Bank made in the financial system to enhance transparency with an innovative pilot project, promoted by the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MoEF) to “digitize corruption out of the market”. Other lessons about financial product development—both successes and failures—are presented. The chapter concludes with ACLEDA Bank Plc. performance and contributions to Cambodia's banking sector over more than a decade of operations.

Heather A. Clark

Open Access

### Dual Sequential Variational Autoencoders for Fraud Detection

Fraud detection is an important research area where machine learning has a significant role to play. An important task in that context, on which the quality of the results obtained depends, is feature engineering. Unfortunately, this is very time and human consuming. Thus, in this article, we present the DuSVAE model that consists of a generative model that takes into account the sequential nature of the data. It combines two variational autoencoders that can generate a condensed representation of the input sequential data that can then be processed by a classifier to label each new sequence as fraudulent or genuine. The experiments we carried out on a large real-word dataset, from the Worldline company, demonstrate the ability of our system to better detect frauds in credit card transactions without any feature engineering effort.

Ayman Alazizi, Amaury Habrard, François Jacquenet, Liyun He-Guelton, Frédéric Oblé

### Chapter 12. New Behaviours and Digitalisation for Sustainable Mobility, Mobility as a Service (MaaS)

This chapter will deal with changes in the behaviour of city dwellers and digital technologies which can facilitate such behaviour. Mass transportation must certainly remain the backbone of local public transport, both in terms of travel within cities and for that towards cities. However, this chapter will focus on the transformations which are taking place and which will have to be favoured in order to reduce and optimise private transport, a real scourge in large towns and cities. The final part of the chapter covers the concept of mobility as a service, being the evolution of the concept of ownership towards that of service.

Renato Mazzoncini, Claudio Somaschini, Michela Longo

### A Pairing-Less Identity-Based Blind Signature with Message Recovery Scheme for Cloud-Assisted Services

The rapid growing big data enforces many organizations to shift their data and services like digital right management, e-payment, and e-voting systems to the cloud. In such cloud-assisted services, the blind signature scheme could be one of the cryptographic tools, which provides the integrity of data and user anonymity. It allows the user to ask the signer for signing on message without disclosing any information about the content to the signer. Since several blind signature schemes have been proposed, but due to the expensive computation and bandwidth cost, they are impractical for the cloud-assisted as well as Internet-based environment. In this paper, we propose a new provable secure identity-based blind signature scheme with message recovery (IDBS-MR) using the elliptic curve cryptography. The proposed IDBS-MR scheme does not transmit the message with the signature while the message is recovered during verification round; hence it has the least message-signature length. The security analysis shows that the proposed IDBS-MR scheme is secured against existential forgery attack under the adaptive chosen message and ID attacks (EF-ID-CMA) under the assumption of solving the ECDL problem, and random oracle model (ROM) and achieves blindness property. The performance analysis shows that our scheme is efficient as compared to related existing schemes.

Mahender Kumar, Satish Chand

### Identifying User’s Interest in Using E-Payment Systems

Web usage mining is used to analyse the user/customer behaviour which is required for business intelligence (BI). The usage of e-payment applications through electronic devices has become more important in organisations and is growing with unprecedented pace. Discovering web usage patterns can result in making strategic decisions for business growth. Especially organisations that need ground truth for exploiting/influencing the customer behaviour. Many researchers contributed towards web usage mining. However, working on real-world data sets provides more useful outcomes. Based on this, we proposed a framework with an EPUD algorithm to perform web usage mining. We have collected electronic payment indicators from RBI dataset and converted it into synthesised server logs suitable for web usage mining. Our algorithm mines the server logs discovers the electronic payment usage and our experimental results reveal the trends in identifying the behaviour of customers in using e-payment systems. The insights in this paper help in understanding the patterns of electronic payment usage for different payment indicators.

K. Srinivas, J. Rajeshwar

### Rise and Rise of Blockchain: A Patent Statistics Approach to Identify the Underlying Technologies

Researchers have always tried to identify the technological evolution of any particular technology with the help of patent statistics. Blockchain is one such technology which, although emerged more than a decade ago, but has been aggressively applied and studied within the past five years only. Therefore, this study is an attempt to identify the underlying technologies that eventually constitute the Blockchain technology. This paper identifies the literature related to the primary Blockchain technologies and then tries to perform basic patent statistics to identify the earliest innovation that conforms to the idea of blockchain that we know today. Critical Cooperative Patent Classification (CPCs) codes to analyze Blockchain patents in the future are identified. Specific and detailed analysis methods are suggested for the future Blockchain patent research.

Priyanka C. Bhatt, Vimal Kumar, Tzu-Chuen Lu, Rico Lee-Ting Cho, Kuei Kuei Lai

### 5. Liquidity: What Is It?

Liquidity is a much used word yet it has various meanings which are often not distinguished. The financial crisis which commenced in 2007 was, in considerable part, and by any definition of the term, a liquidity crisis, though it quickly became apparent that it was also a bank solvency crisis.

Brian Scott-Quinn

### Thailand’s Software Startup Ecosystem

Aziz Nanthaamornphong, Rattana Wetprasit

### Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Online-Handel ist zur wichtigsten Form des Distanzhandels geworden und hat im interaktiven Handel schon lange den Katalogversand abgelöst. Er stellt einen Teil des E-Commerce dar und profitiert von den Netzwerkeffekten der Plattformökonomie. Diese ergeben sich auch aus der Kundenzentriertheit, die deswegen Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein sollte. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Webexzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung ist jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Herausforderungen der europäischen Finanzindustrie

Europäische Banken befinden sich gegenwärtig in einem präzedenzlosen Struktur- und Kulturwandel mit vielfältigen Ursachen. Maßgeblich geprägt wird dieser Wandel durch den technologischen Fortschritt und die Digitalisierung sowie eine materielle Zwickmühle: In Folge der Finanzkrise haben die nationale und europäische Bankenaufsicht umfassende regulatorische Anforderungen an die Qualität und Substanz der Eigenkapitalbasis, die Liquidität und die Konzernstruktur und -kultur verabschiedet, die zu einer verbesserten Finanzstabilität beitragen sollen. Der aufsichtliche Fokus auf der Kapitalunterlegung und den SREP-Anforderungen ist für die Banken in einem für die Kapitalbeschaffung sehr komplizierten Umfeld, in dem die Ertragssituation vermehrt unter Druck steht und sich Kostenstrukturen – in höchstem Maße auch durch regulatorische Kosten geprägt – als relativ starr darstellen, eine große Herausforderung und stellt eine substanzielle Belastung für die Profitabilitätssituation dar.

Marcus Schenck

### Chapter 2. Preparing Nigeria for Digital Trade Within the WTO E-commerce Negotiations: Issues and Policy Directions

Nigeria believes that e-commerce is an economic reality that is unlocking the potentials of economies by triggering growth and creating wealth and jobs. However, Nigeria is mindful of the supply side constraint. If e-commerce is to deliver shared benefits to the WTO membership at large proper attention must be paid to the digital divide. The necessary infrastructure and accompanying access must be assured for communities in developing countries that will otherwise be even more marginalized as the rest of the world benefits from e-commerce. This paper attempt to situate Nigeria’s e-commerce ecosystem and her level of readiness to embraces the evolution of digital technology in international trade. In addition, how Nigeria devises an effective digital-led strategy towards the global growth and development of SMEs.

### MuFASA: A Tool for High-level Specification and Analysis of Multi-factor Authentication Protocols

In recent years, the usage of online services (e.g., banking) has considerably increased. To protect the sensitive resources managed by these services against attackers, Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) has been widely adopted. To date, a variety of MFA protocols have been implemented, leveraging different designs and features and providing a non-homogeneous level of security and user experience. Public and private authorities have defined laws and guidelines to guide the design of more secure and usable MFA protocols, but their influence on existing MFA implementations remains unclear.We present MuFASA, a tool for high-level specification and analysis of MFA protocols, which aims at supporting normal users and security experts (in the design phase of an MFA protocol), providing a high level report regarding possible risks associated to the specified MFA protocol, its resistance to a set of attacker models (defined by NIST), its ease-of-use and its compliance with a set of security requirements derived from European laws.

Federico Sinigaglia, Roberto Carbone, Gabriele Costa, Silvio Ranise

### Chapter 6. Intelligent Traffic Management Systems for Next Generation IoV in Smart City Scenario

With ever-growing number of vehicles on roads, trafficTraffic congestion is becoming a major problem in big cities around the world. Traffic congestion leads to pollution, time delays, excessive fuel consumption, financial losses and can severely disrupt normal human life. Conventional traffic management systems that rely on predecided traffic signal timings and pneumatic actuators are woefully inadequate in handling current traffic scenarios. Therefore, there is a pertinent need for a modern and intelligentIntelligent overhaul of conventional traffic management systems and the introduction of such systems in modern smart cities. Intelligent traffic management systems are an ensemble of networks and systems integrated with each other to ensure optimum user commuting experience. They use a variety of advanced techniques such as reinforcement learning, Q theory, RFIDRFID tagging, IoT, IoVIoV and local contextContext awareness. Intelligent traffic management systems also help with safety issues, route optimization, delay reduction, and pollution control. This chapter explores conventional traffic management systems and their drawbacks, intelligent traffic management systems and recent advancements in them such as the introduction of reinforcement learning and local context-aware systems. This chapter aims to provide a glimpse of how intelligent traffic management systems can help drive smart cities of the future.

V. Vijayaraghavan, J. Rian Leevinson

Open Access

### Chapter 4. Technological Transformation

Most research on the economic implications of automation has so far focused on advanced industrialized economies where the cost of labor is high and manufacturing shows a high degree of mechanization and productivity. Yet, the developing world is likely to be both affected by automation trends in high-income countries (HICs) and is itself catching up in terms of automation. “Late developers” are facing the digital revolution earlier and under different conditions than today’s advanced economies. There is an increasing worry that any low-cost labor advantage of developing countries in international trade is eroding. Beyond the alarmist threat of “technological unemployment,” there are broader questions to be asked about how automation and digitization influence global economic development, employment growth, and structural transformation.

Lukas Schlogl, Andy Sumner

### Kapitel 7. E-Government aus Sicht einer kreisfreien Stadt

Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit E-Government aus Sicht der kreisfreien bayerischen Stadt Kempten (Allgäu) mit 70.000 Einwohnern. Ausgehend von den wesentlichen Handlungsanreizen, warum E-Government überhaupt ein Thema ist, beschreibt der Beitrag die Ausgangsbedingungen und Herausforderungen, die mit dem Thema aus Sicht einer Kommunalverwaltung verknüpft sind. Darauf aufbauend werden die Digitalisierungsziele und die Strategie, wie diese erreicht werden sollen, erläutert. Beschrieben werden unter anderem die Bedeutung von Verwaltungsportalen, von Bürgerkonten sowie das Onlinezugangsgesetz (OZG). Neben dem Kernthema der digitalen Behördengänge umfasst der Artikel auch einen Ausblick auf die Rolle der Kommunalverwaltung in intelligenten und vernetzten Smart Cities beziehungsweise Smart Regions.

Markus Bereiter

### A Smart Grid Privacy Protection Scheme Based on Short Fail-Stop Signature

In promoting the development of intelligent and distributed power transmission systems, smart grid has attracted extensive attention. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. How to provide an efficient security protocol to enhance the privacy protection of smart grid network and prevent information leakage has become a hot research topic of smart grid privacy protection. In this paper, a short fail-stop signature scheme based on factorization and discrete logarithm assumption is designed to protect the information privacy of smart grid. The proposed scheme can not only protect the privacy of smart devices in the smart grid, but also prevent the forgery of payment credentials, and ensure the trusted center to effectively manage and maintain smart grid users and payment credentials.

Shumei Xu, Ningbin Yang, Quan Zhou

### Chapter 11. Forecasting the Prices of Cryptocurrencies Using GM(1,1) Rolling Model

Although cryptocurrencies initially emerged as a transnational payment instrument, it has become an investment tool by attracting the attention of investors within the functioning of the capitalist system. In this chapter, the use of cryptocurrencies as an investment tool rather than in commercial transactions is discussed. As is known, most investors remain in a dilemma between the risk of risk aversion and the maximization of returns. Investors in this dilemma try to predict the future price or returns of the financial instruments through various analyzes and thus make an effort to give direction to their investments. These analyses are generally carried out by analyzing the past values of prices or returns by adopting a technical analysis approach. However, since the cryptocurrencies are a relatively new investment tool, it is not possible to reach the previous period price and yield information for an extended period.For this reason, the scope of the chapter is to explain the functioning of the cryptocurrencies as an investment tool in the market and to share information about the types of investors who have transferred their funds to cryptocurrencies by providing statistical information. Then, it is aimed to share the theoretical knowledge about GM(1,1) Rolling Model which has been proved by the literature in which it produces successful results especially in forecasting problems in uncertainty environment. Finally, the price forecasting of popular cryptocurrencies which are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple was made using the GM(1,1) Rolling Model, and it was tested whether this model is advisable for price forecasting of cryptocurrencies. Results of the Model show that the forecasting errors ranged from 1.35% to 7.76% for 10-days period. Also, direction forecasting results are between 40% and 50% in the same period. Also, returns of the bitcoin investment which made by trusting the results are ranged from −0.60% to −8.18. The results may be considered that the model was successful in forecasting the prices but unsuccessful in the direction forecasting. Even though the estimates are made with low percentages, the time series analyzes made with the lagged data of Bitcoin prices are not successful. Therefore, the technical analysis approach can be interpreted as not sufficient for modeling Bitcoin prices. So, these results show that defining bitcoin price movements is not only a forecasting problem but also a classification problem.

Cem Kartal, Mehmet Fatih Bayramoglu

### Chapter 4. Roles and Responsibilities

The Chinese enterprise, in recent past, has transformed itself from a commercial entity whose sphere of operation was almost exclusively confined to the Chinese domestic market to one with global aspirations and an increasing appetite for revenues from markets overseas. To feed that appetite Chinese companies have turned increasingly to foreign talent for support both in their corporate headquarters and in the local offices they have established around the world. To illustrate how Chinese companies employ and engage foreign staff, how they position those staff within the company’s organizational fabric, and how they envision the role that foreign staff play in overall corporate development, this chapter presents cases drawn from Chinese hi-tech industry because the companies it comprises have been among the most aggressive in entering markets outside of China and among the largest employers of foreign talent.

Paul Ross

### 16. Blockchain-Voting für MyPolitics und OurPolitics

E-Voting kann mit Blockchain-Technologien realisiert werden. Im Kapitel werden zuerst Anforderungen an ein elektronisches Wahlsystem erläutert, nämlich Gleichheit, Berechtigung, One Man One Vote, Authentifikation, Schutz der Privatsphäre, Gerechtigkeit sowie Verifizierbarkeit und Vollständigkeit. Nach der Diskussion von Sicherheitsaspekten wird eine Klassifikation der auf Blockchain-Technologie basierenden eVoting-Systeme vorgenommen, wie die Nutzung von Kryptowährungen, Smart Contracts oder die Blockchain als Ballot Box. Das Fallbeispiel BroncoVote und ein Protokoll für die Verwendung von blinden Signaturen zeigen im Detail, wie E-Voting-Systeme auf Blockchain-Basis realisiert werden. Ein Vorschlag zum Fuzzy Voting und zur Spannungsbreite zwischen anonymem Wahlverhalten (MyVote) und öffentlichem Abstimmungsverhalten (OurVote) erläutern Entwicklungsoptionen einer digitalen Gesellschaft für die Zukunft. Eine Diskussion von Chancen und Risiken rundet das Kapitel ab.

Andreas Meier

### Divisible E-Cash from Constrained Pseudo-Random Functions

Electronic cash (e-cash) is the digital analogue of regular cash which aims at preserving users’ privacy. Following Chaum’s seminal work, several new features were proposed for e-cash to address the practical issues of the original primitive. Among them, divisibility has proved very useful to enable efficient storage and spendings. Unfortunately, it is also very difficult to achieve and, to date, quite a few constructions exist, all of them relying on complex mechanisms that can only be instantiated in one specific setting. In addition security models are incomplete and proofs sometimes hand-wavy.In this work, we first provide a complete security model for divisible e-cash, and we study the links with constrained pseudo-random functions (PRFs), a primitive recently formalized by Boneh and Waters. We exhibit two frameworks of divisible e-cash systems from constrained PRFs achieving some specific properties: either key homomorphism or delegability. We then formally prove these frameworks, and address two main issues in previous constructions: two essential security notions were either not considered at all or not fully proven. Indeed, we introduce the notion of clearing, which should guarantee that only the recipient of a transaction should be able to do the deposit, and we show the exculpability, that should prevent an honest user to be falsely accused, was wrong in most proofs of the previous constructions. Some can easily be repaired, but this is not the case for most complex settings such as constructions in the standard model. Consequently, we provide the first construction secure in the standard model, as a direct instantiation of our framework.

Florian Bourse, David Pointcheval, Olivier Sanders

### Kapitel 4. Anwendungsoptionen

Dieses Kapitel stellt Anwendungsoptionen für Blockchains vor: Kryptowährungen, Identity Management, Smart Contracts, Smart Grid, Digitale Stimmzettel und Smart Cities. Zu jeder Anwendungsoption wird ein Überblick über das jeweilige Gebiet gegeben und es werden aktuelle Entwicklungen im Kontext von Blockchains vorgestellt, um die praktische Realisierung einschätzen zu können.

Hans-Georg Fill, Andreas Meier

### Multinationals from Russia and Turkey

As of December 2018, Austria was home to 377 headquarters or regional headquarters of multinational companies. The majority of these headquarters belong to multinationals based in developed economies, such as Germany, Italy, the USA, or and Japan. However, a growing number of investments originate from firms which are referred to as “emerging market multinationals”. This chapter takes a closer look into Turkey and Russia, and asks, how Austria is perceived as a business location by managers from these two countries. Based on qualitative Interviews, the results show that Turkish and Russian managers have a rather detrimental view of Austria.While Turkish investors prefer to target markets around Austria, such as Germany, France, or Switzerland, Russian managers appreciate the political stability in Austria, its traditional and well-established relations with Russia, and Austria as a hub for accessing both Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe.

Andreas Breinbauer, Johannes Leitner

### 7. Digital Logistics

Um die Diskussion um Logistik allgemein und die Digital Logistics im Speziellen zu versachlichen, wird zunächst der drittgrößte Wirtschaftsbereich in Deutschland definiert und abgegrenzt. Im Anschluss steht die Digitalisierung in der Logistik im Mittelpunkt, indem die Entwicklung vom tradierten Verständnis der Güterbewegung zur Logistik 4.0 erläutert wird. Hierbei werden die Auswirkungen der Logistik 4.0 und die langfristigen Perspektiven vorgestellt. Dies dient als Überleitung zur Digital Logistics und deren Anwendungen. Dieser Abschnitt wird mit der Beschreibung der Landschaft der aktuellen Digitalisierungswerkzeuge abgerundet.

Christian Kille

### Smart Wallets on Blockchain—Attacks and Their Costs

Smart wallets are the future of e-payments and digital payments but to utilize them to their full potential, we need to secure them from malicious actors who have already started exploiting various vulnerabilities in the existing wallets. In this work, we study the existing attacks and vulnerabilities and present possible hypothetical attack scenarios which may get executed in future by these particular vulnerabilities. We have surveyed on different attacks with comparison of attack cost and benefits of the attacker and comparison of mitigation cost and damage cost of each attack. We focus on the different attacks and usecases on the blockchain smart wallets which would help developers to secure the smart wallets. We describe each attack with its mechanism, usecase, benefits and requirements of attacker for successful attack with the possible damage scenarios and consequences, comparison of attack cost and benefits, comparison of mitigation cost and damage cost, possible mitigation and some security measures for each attack.

Akshay Pillai, Vishal Saraswat, Arunkumar V. R.

### Chapter 2. Sustainable Development Goals: Role of Agriculture

Irrespective of high economic growth the agriculture sector in India is at high risk due to various reasons. Agriculture is the major provider of livelihood for the poor, especially in rural areas. With the increasing vulnerability, the major challenges of the policymakers are to develop strategies to promote sustainable agriculture for achieving SDGs. In this context, there is urgent need to ensure reorientation of ongoing efforts toward higher efficiency and effectiveness of various initiatives for drawing a roadmap and develop a well-established sustainable model, which can also be shared with other developing countries. Thus, the chapter makes an attempt to analyze the causes of poverty and malnutrition and explores the use of technologies to overcome the productivity issues in agriculture. It captures various challenges and prospects for effective, sustainable and resilient agriculture. It also discusses issues relating to climate change and suggests ways to mitigate the same, particularly through the use of technologies. Lastly, the chapter assesses the role of various programs, policies and institutions in moving forward to achieve the targets of SDGs in India and makes specific recommendations.

R. S. Paroda, P. K. Joshi

### 4. Der CFO als Finanz- und Kapitalmarktexperte

In seiner Rolle als Finanz- und Kapitalmarktexperte hat der CFO jederzeit für eine ausreichende Liquidität zu sorgen. Dabei geht es einerseits darum, sicherzustellen, dass das Unternehmen jederzeit in der Lage ist, den laufenden Zahlungsverpflichtungen nachzukommen. Dabei geht es aber auch darum, die zur Erreichung der Rentabilitätsziele geplanten Investitionen in das Anlagevermögen (einschließlich Akquisitionen) und/oder das Working Capital adäquat finanzieren zu können. Betrachtet man das Spektrum möglicher Finanzierungsarten, so ist klar, dass eine Innenfinanzierung hier in den meisten Fällen nicht ausreicht, dass sich der CFO vielmehr regelmäßig im Rahmen der Außenfinanzierung auf den Kapitalmärkten um Eigenkapital oder Fremdkapital bemühen muss. Das damit verbundene Kompetenzspektrum ist dabei sehr vielschichtig.

Matthias J. Rapp, Axel Wullenkord

### Chapter 8. Fintech Regulation

Well-established financial regulation is the key to innovation in the financial services industry; and with the emergence of numerous startups in the domain of payment, remittance, open banking, digital currency, there is much more need of formal regulation and oversight for the new participants of the finance industry. Regulatory sandboxes are giving innovators the opportunity to understand the expectations of customers in the financial services sector. Sandbox tests can help also help participants gather valuable regulatory input on design, evaluate strategy and devise potentially safer financial products. This chapter explores the need of regulation for fintech providers and presents a case study on fintech regulation in Malaysia, one of the key hub of Islamic finance.

Nafis Alam, Lokesh Gupta, Abdolhossein Zameni

### Port Community System Adoption: Game Theoretic Framework for an Emerging Economy Case Study

Port community systems (PCS), as platforms for connecting the stakeholders of a port community (PC), build a basis for improving information exchange. These systems support automation and visibility along global supply chains, thereby helping to enhance the overall PC performance in both local and foreign trade activities. However, successful real-world PCS adoption often involves multiple collaborating parties interacting with at least two different types of PC stakeholders. This study assesses the payoff of the alliances between three types of stakeholders to ensure the adoption of a PCS. In order to accomplish the former, it also identifies the different possible collaborations at the inception of a PCS. We use different simulated scenarios to obtain the expected payoff of each stakeholder, in terms of lead time savings achieved, and based on the Shapley value method allocate profits to each coalition. Also, we present a sensitivity analysis to test each coalition with different variation of the market while adopting a PCS. The main result is that profits gained from the adoption of a PCS funded by the port community grand coalition are higher than those from pairs or individual members. Also, the profits gained from the coalition of two cooperative members are higher than any individual effort. Therefore, the stakeholders’ individual incentive to join a PCS coalition should be relatively high coming from a steady coalition.

Adriana Moros-Daza, René Amaya-Mier, Guisselle Garcia-Llinas, Stefan Voß

### 12. Anwendungen zur Vernetzung mit Kunden und Lieferanten

Anknüpfend an das fünfte Kapitel des Buches beschreibt dieses Kapitel zunächst die Treiber zur verstärkten Vernetzung mit Kunden und Lieferanten. Zu den, die betrieblichen ERP-Systeme ergänzenden Anwendungen zählen jene für das Customer Relationship Management, für den elektronischen Handel (E-Commerce) sowie für das Supply Chain Management. Die Systeme sind mit den Kernfunktionalitäten sowie jeweils einem Fallbeispiel dargestellt. Eine Zusammenfassung der betriebswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen zu diesen überbetrieblich ausgerichteten Anwendungen schließt das Kapitel ab.

Prof. Dr. Paul Alpar, Prof. Dr. Rainer Alt, Prof. Dr. Frank Bensberg, Prof. Dr. Peter Weimann

### Kapitel 9. Die Digitalisierung in der Verwaltungspraxis – wir sind weiter als gedacht

Anwendungsbeispiele aus den Ländern des Dataport-Verbundes

Die Verwaltung ist viel digitaler als ihr Ruf. Zwar sind noch viele Verwaltungsprozesse – insbesondere die Schnittstellen zum Bürger – in Papierform organisiert, aber die Verwaltung hat sich vor allem im Backend in vielen Bereichen vom papierbasierten in Richtung des digitalen Zeitalters bewegt. Ein Blick auf die Entwicklung in den Ländern des Dataport-Verbundes und darüber hinaus zeigt, dass die Verwaltung seit vielen Jahren ins digitale Zeitalter unterwegs ist und schon viele Wegmarken passiert hat. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über den Status quo in den Ländern des Dataport-Verbundes.

Johann Bizer

### Chapter 5. Limits of the Possibility to Exclude

While the previous chapter dealt with the limits to rights in the internal relationship between rightholders, this chapter is devoted to the limits in the external relationship with third parties. More concretely, this chapter covers the provisions on the exercise of rights that restrict or eliminate the possibility of rightholders to exclude others from the use of protected subject-matter, thus interfering most with the concept of exclusivity.

Nikita Malevanny

### An HCI Perspective on Distributed Ledger Technologies for Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading

Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT), such as blockchain, are gaining increasing attention in the energy sector, where they can be used to support Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading. Several proof-of-concept and pilot projects are running all over the world to test this specific use case. However, despite much work addressing the technical and regulatory aspects related to DLT for P2P energy trading, our understanding of the human aspects affecting the adoption of these systems and technologies is still minimal.The development of a decentralized energy market poses interesting challenges to the HCI community and raises important questions that need to be answered: do people trust a system which is, by definition, trust-free? How do they perceive P2P energy trading? What are their needs and motivations for engaging in energy trading? Moreover, are people willing to use cryptocurrencies as a medium of exchange for energy? And, to what extent is full-automation desirable?To shed light on these and related questions, we developed and tested PowerShare, a decentralized, P2P energy trading platform. In this paper, we report on our findings from interviews with nine families that have used PowerShare for a month. Motivated by our empirical findings we conclude by highlighting guidelines for designing P2P energy trading platforms and elaborate directions for further research.

Sabrina Scuri, Gergana Tasheva, Luísa Barros, Nuno Jardim Nunes

### Chapter 14. Examining Adoption of eNAM Platform for Transforming Agricultural Marketing in India

Sanjay Chaudhary, P. K. Suri

### Verwaltungsdigitalisierung integriert betrachten

Die Verwaltungsdigitalisierung führt nur dann zum Erfolg, wenn sie innerhalb der Verwaltung integriert betrachtet wird. Dieser Prozess kann mit einer handlungsfeldorientierten Steuerung gelingen, die systematisch Themen identifiziert, die interdisziplinär getrieben und bearbeitet werden müssen. Ein zentraler Rahmen, z. B. in Form von Standards, etablierte Steuerungsprozesse und ein über die Prozessoptimierung hinausgehendes Prozessmanagement sind dafür wichtige Voraussetzungen.

Marc Groß, Anika Krellmann

### E-Government in Deutschland: Ein Überblick

E-Government in Deutschland tut sich augenscheinlich schwer. Nicht erst seit gestern nimmt Deutschland in vielen europäischen und internationalen Studien zum Technikeinsatz in der öffentlichen Verwaltung maximal mittlere Rangplätze ein. Und die Nachfrage nach E-Government-basierten Dienstleistungen hält sich durch Bürger und Unternehmen ebenfalls in engen Grenzen. Nichtsdestotrotz gibt es sowohl in der Vergangenheit als auch aktuell zahlreiche Initiativen, Ansätze und Programme, die die Einführung von E-Government nachhaltig festigen und entwickeln sollen. Der Beitrag hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die wesentlichen Entwicklungslinien in Deutschland aufzuzeigen, die wichtigsten Institutionen und Ansätze vorzustellen sowie die zentralen Einflussfaktoren zu benennen, um darauf aufbauend zukünftige Perspektiven zu entwickeln.

Jürgen Stember, Victoria Hasenkamp

### Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und technische Umsetzung von E-Government in Österreich

Das Zusammenspiel von Recht und Technik ist essenziell für die Umsetzung nachhaltiger E-Government Services. Dieses Kapitel beleuchtet ausgewählte rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen des E-Government in Österreich und fokussiert dabei elektronische Identifizierung und Vertrauensdienste besonders. Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, Kernelemente des österreichischen E-Government-Rechts überblicksartig darzustellen, auf Erfolgsbeispiele hinzuweisen und Schlaglichter auf die dahinterliegende Technologie zu werfen. Rechtliche und technische Grundlagen sind für die Weiterentwicklung von E-Government zwar notwendige Faktoren, aber keineswegs die einzigen Voraussetzungen. Vielmehr ist gebietskörperschaftsübergreifende Zusammenarbeit entscheidend, um Prozessdesign im Hinblick auf den dahinterliegenden Zweck, das Angebot möglichst reduzierter Behördenkontakte bis hin zur Ermöglichung von antragslosen Verfahren und die Weiterentwicklung interoperabler Systeme zu voranzutreiben.

Bettina Höchtl, Thomas J. Lampoltshammer

### Das Ökosystem der Digitalisierung

Digitalisierung passiert nicht einfach so, sie muss aktiv gestaltet werden. Kommunen spielen als Zentren des kommunalen Lebens dabei eine besondere Rolle. In ihrer Verantwortung liegt es, die fortschreitende digitale Transformation nicht nur zu ermöglichen, sondern sie im Sinne einer guten Lebens-, Arbeits- und Standortqualität sowie eines nutzerorientierten Bürgerservices in produktive, aktive und erfolgreiche Systeme zu lenken. Dafür brauchen sie u. a. einen klaren Denk- und Handlungsrahmen. Dazu gehört ein gemeinsames Verständnis von Digitalisierung, klare Rollen und Verantwortungsbereiche und ein vernetztes Denken und Handeln im gesamten Ökosystem der Digitalisierung.

Marc Groß, Anika Krellmann

### E-Government auf den unterschiedlichen administrativen Ebenen in Deutschland

Dass Deutschland im Bereich des E-Governments derzeit eher mittlere oder hintere Plätze in internationalen Rankings einnimmt wird oftmals dem starken Föderalismus und der darüber hinaus sehr ausgeprägten kommunalen Selbstverwaltung zugeschrieben. Ob das wirklich so ist, bleibt auch in Wissenschaft und Praxis zumindest umstritten. Unzweifelhaft sind bestimmte Innovationsstrategien jedoch nicht so einfach und schnell aufzubauen und umzusetzen. Dass dennoch zahlreiche bemerkenswerte Aktivitäten auf den einzelnen administrativen Ebenen entstanden sind und dass zahlreiche regulative, institutionelle, aber auch programmatische Ansätze entwickelt worden sind, versucht dieser Beitrag mit zahlreichen Beispielen aufzuzeigen. Am Ende erfolgt ein interessanter Blick in die „administrative Zukunft“.

Jürgen Stember, Victoria Hasenkamp, Franz-Reinhard Habbel

### Chapter 7. Report on the Development of the Financial Industry in China’s Special Economic Zones

Under the dual pressure from the complex and changing external environment and downward economic development domestically, hard-won achievements were made in the rapid-scale expansion of the financial industry in China’s special economic zones, but the quality of assets continued to decline and risks increased. In 2016, the important task for the financial industry in China’s special economic zones lies in strictly controlling the operating risks and improving the quality of assets amidst the sustained expansion of the asset scale.

Guo Maojia

Open Access

### Chapter 3. Base Platform Security Hardware Building Blocks

Historically, the attacks on platforms have been transitioning from application-level software (SW) to user mode SW to kernel mode SW to firmware (FW) and now hardware (HW). The frequency of HW- and FW-level vulnerabilities increased substantially from 2003 to 2019 and therefore reinforces a concrete need for HW-based security to harden the platform. This is evident from the data cataloged in the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) organized as CVEs; more information about NVD can be found at https://nvd.nist.gov/ . The Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) is a list of entries with the information that identifies a unique vulnerability or an exposure and is used in many cybersecurity products and services including the NVD; more information about CVE can be found at https://cve.mitre.org/ . The NVD has been mined to derive the statistics and visualizations with pertinent search terms such as Firmware and Hardware. It is evident from Figure 3-1 (a) that the firmware-related CVEs have increased significantly and 2017–2018 saw the biggest jump when the hacker community started attaching the FW on the platforms. Similarly Figure 3-1 (b) shows that during the same time period, the HW-related CVEs also hit a peak. Please note that all these CVEs need to be investigated carefully for the impacted areas within a platform. But the trends are clearly pointing toward the HW as the last line of defense.

Sunil Cheruvu, Anil Kumar, Ned Smith, David M. Wheeler

### An Integrated Requirements Engineering Framework for Agile Software Product Lines

Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a determinant role within Agile Product Lines development methods; these notably allow to establish the relevance to adopt or not the product line approach for software-intensive systems production. This paper proposes an integrated goal and feature-based meta-model for agile software product lines development. The main objective is to permit the sepecification of the requirements that precisely capture stakeholder’s needs and intentions as well as the management of product line variabilities. Adopting practices from requirements engineering, especially goal and feature models, helps designing the domain and application engineering tiers of an agile product line. Such an approach allows a holistic perspective integrating human, organizational and agile aspects to better understand product lines dynamic business environments. It helps bridging the gap be-tween product lines structures and requirements models, and proposes an integrated framework to all actors involved in the product line architecture. In this paper we show how our proposed metamodel can be applied to the requirements engineering stage of an agile product line development mainly for feature-oriented agile product lines such as our own methodology called AgiFPL.

Hassan Haidar, Manuel Kolp, Yves Wautelet

### E-Payment Systems Using Multi-card Smartcard

In case cardholders have more than one smart cardSmart card for electronic payments, there is a problem of correlating smart cards and PINs. When a cardholder has more than two smart cards, it introduces additional confusion due to the storage of multiple smart cards and due to the need for memorizing PINs. The idea presented in this paper describes the process of electronical payment using the concept of multi-cardMulti-card smart card by authentication of PIN coded from biometric fingerprintFingerprint. The software of biometric scanner integrated into the PIN PAD device checks a cardholder authentication, by using presented algorithmAlgorithm that codes the biometric fingerprintFingerprint into the PIN. Thus, that encoded PIN is compared with the PIN embedded as an encrypted form in the chip of multi-cardMulti-card smart card or with the control value used in authorization center. Multi-card smart card has the integrated functional button that is controlled by user. If a user wants to make the electronic payment he/she needs to press this button once or a few times. This will activate the virtual card used for electronic payment. The implementation of this idea allows the user to manage the electronic payment by using only one multi-card smart card without entering the PIN. By using this model of electronic payment, a user gets the improved user experience. The idea of this paper is the continuation of previous author’s investigations in order to get the algorithmAlgorithm that will simplify the process of electronic payment as much as possible. The aim of this paper is to introduce the conceptual model of a simplified electronic payment system that meets Strong Customer Authentification, which is required by PSD2 regulations.

### Chapter 5. Changing Technological Trends for E-Governance

The authors have presented the changing technological trends for E-Governance in India. There are many trends that are emerging, which have been discussed in this chapter. Ubiquitous computing, Free and Open Source Software, Analytics, Cloud Computing and Blockchain Technology have been discussed for their role in E-Governance. The changing vision of government for E-Governance has also been discussed. Changes like digitally assisted services, solution development for citizens, enabling inclusive decision making, institutional initiatives, fulfillment of government to citizen services online, and shared services along with Public-private partnership, have been elaborated by the authors. Pillars of Digital India have been mentioned which led to the development of vision of E-Governance. At the end, upcoming projects like eBiz, AGRISNET, Digital Signature Management Cell, and Internet Engineering Task Force have been elaborated. Also, the focus areas for E-Governance in India like digitally green agriculture, healthcare, and education and security concerns have been mentioned in this chapter.

Saibal K. Pal

### Chapter 4. Regional Analysis of E-Governance in India

This chapter presents the regional analysis of E-Governance in India. The progress and development have been defined based on different index values which has been studied by the authors through the collated values from different sources. E-Readiness index, which is the first index to assess E-Governance readiness in Indian states, has been used to identify the states which were most ready for E-Governance. Leaders, expectants and achievers were the different categories under E-Readiness index. Karnataka was found to be consistent performer for the years 2003‑2008. Different components for E-Readiness index have also been studied and reported in this chapter. Various schemes in different states across multiple industries have also been mentioned, which helps a reader to understand the depth of E-Governance implementation in the mentioned states. Other regional index like Regional E-Government Development Index for India has also been used to report the state’s development progress based on various E-Governance initiatives and infrastructure related to it.

Rajan Gupta

### Kapitel 2. Die Grundlagen des E-Procurement

Das E-Procurement steht allgemein als Begriff für den elektronischen Einkauf von Produkten bzw. Dienstleistungen durch ein Unternehmen über digitale Netzwerke. Damit erfolgt eine Integration innovativer Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien zur Unterstützung bzw. Abwicklung von operativen, taktischen und strategischen Aufgaben im Beschaffungsbereich.

Tobias Kollmann

### Kapitel 3. Die Grundlagen des E-Shop

Der E-Shop steht allgemein als Begriff für den elektronischen Verkauf von Produkten bzw. Dienstleistungen durch ein Unternehmen über digitale Netzwerke. Damit erfolgt eine Integration innovativer Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien zur Unterstützung bzw. Abwicklung von operativen, taktischen und strategischen Aufgaben im Absatzbereich.

Tobias Kollmann

### Chapter 10. Shari’ah Code of Ethics in Cryptocurrency

The world of this contemporary era witnesses the Cryptocurrency revolution began in recent years. Noting that facilitating ease is desired by Allah (swt) and that Cryptocurrency seems to be doing this. In any chapter of life, the normative observation by complying the standard etiquette is among the prime concern thus, the Cryptocurrency in the eyes of Shari’ah is no exception and hence, it has to comply with the divine code of ethics within the ambit of Maqasid al-Shari’ah. This chapter proceeds to look at how Cryptocurrency is created and managed as well as analyzes the ethical considerations that arise when the whole Cryptocurrency system is analyzed, this, especially in light of the Shari’ah code of ethics. Issues about the lack of central control and government influence are looked at in view of its potential to make Cryptocurrency more risky. Major concepts like the prohibition of gambling and Garar, equity, harm to the environment and other negative aspects of the Cryptocurrency are equally analyzed. Finally, the paper looks at the way forward and gives recommendations as well as summarizes the issue at hand in the conclusion.

Mohd Ma’Sum Billah, Mohammed Fawzi Aminu Amadu

### Connected Cars in China: Technology, Data Protection and Regulatory Responses

China will be one of the major players of the future connected car industry because of its still growing domestic market, increasing technological advantages in ICT, data processing and platform services, strong industrial investment, and very dedicated industrial strategy and support from the central government. This contribution first reviews the recent developments of the connected car industry in China with respect to technology, innovation, major players and some emerging problems. Further, it discusses the major existing problems and difficulties of China’s new generation car industry, including lack of certain core technologies such as computing chips, complex road circumstances, weak data privacy protection, and platform services security, among other things. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the multiple regulatory responses from the Chinese state authority that has taken the smart car industry as one of China’s future key growing sectors capable of overtaking the west. This includes clear strategic police makings, tremendous financial support, experimental spirits and practices, considerable privacy law updating, etc. In concluding, this contribution offers valuable predictions and advices for both Chinese and foreign players to better engage in China’s increasingly competitive but promising connected car market.

Bo Zhao

### Kapitel 28. E-Commerce im deutschen Arzneimittelmarkt – Umsetzungsstand dynamischer Preisstrategien

Die zunehmende Digitalisierung der Gesellschaft und Liberalisierung des deutschen Arzneimittelmarktes führen dazu, dass der Versandhandel mit Arzneimitteln insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Betriebsform von Online-Apotheken stärker floriert als denn je. Bereits heute generiert der Arzneimittelversandhandel rund zwei Prozent des gesamten Arzneimittelumsatzes und ein weiteres Wachstum scheint in Zeiten des rasant wachsenden Internethandels vorprogrammiert. Im Bereich der Selbstmedikation hat der Versandhandel mit rund zwölf Prozent bereits einen zweistelligen prozentualen Marktanteil erreicht. Bei verschreibungspflichtigen Arzneimitteln liegt der derzeitige Marktanteil mit 0,9 % noch deutlich niedriger. Jedoch wirkt auch hier die aktuelle Rechtsprechung des europäischen Gerichtshofs in Bezug auf die Außerkraftsetzung der in der deutschen Arzneimittelpreisverordnung (AMPreisV) festgelegten Preisbindung für verschreibungspflichtige Arzneien für Versandapotheken aus dem EU-Ausland auf ein weiteres starkes Wachstum in diesem Sektor hin. Speziell in diesem Zusammenhang lässt sich der Einsatz dynamischer Preisstrategien bei Online-Apotheken vermuten, welche aufgrund des steigenden Wettbewerbs und der besseren Vergleichbarkeit stärker unter Wettbewerbsdruck geraten. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Studie wurde durch ein automatisiertes Preisverhaltensmodell untersucht, inwieweit die drei umsatzstärksten Online-Apotheken (Doc Morris, Sanicare und Medikamente per Klick) auf dem deutschen Arzneimittelmarkt im Rahmen ihrer Preispolitik auf dynamische Preisstrategien zurückgreifen. Hierbei steht insbesondere die Preispolitik im Zusammenhang mit rezeptfreien Arzneimitteln aus dem Hause Beiersdorf im Fokus. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei insbesondere die Fragestellung, inwiefern Online-Apotheken die grundsätzlichen Möglichkeiten des E-Commerce im Hinblick auf dynamische Preisstrategien umsetzen.

Frank Hermeier, David Matusiewicz

### A Blind Signature Scheme Applying on Electronic Payment Scene Based on Quantum Secret Sharing

The basic idea of quantum secret sharing is to share classical information through quantum schemes. In reality, the number of secret bits shared will vary according to the actual situation. For this reason, a secret sharing scheme of double qubits is constructed based on single particle. At the same time, combined with the needs of real life in e-commerce, this paper proposes a quantum blind signature protocol suitable for electronic cash payment scenarios. In this protocol, the blinding of the message is an XOR operation, which makes the solution simpler and easier to implement, and the owner of the message cannot be tracked. Moreover, we use quantum key distribution protocol and quantum one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The quantum blind signature applied to the electronic payment system proposed in this paper could protect user’s anonymity as the traditional E-payment systems do, and also have unconditional security which the classical E-payment systems cannot provide. Security analysis shows that our scheme is unforgeability, undeniability, blindness and unconditionally secure.

Jia-lei Zhang, Ming-sheng Hu, Bei Gong, Zhi-Juan Jia, Li-Peng Wang

### A Literature Review of Mobile Payments in Sub-Saharan Africa

The influx of mobile technologies during 1990’s saw to the purchase of mobile phones and subsequently mobile terminals in the form of tablets, PDAs among others. The trend in adoption has seen increasing hikes and drastic impact on business transactions also recorded. Mobile payments have emerged as one of the electronic payment platforms that are creating convenience for many consumers. In order to strengthen the field and to examine the knowledge gap over a decade (2007–2017), a review of literature was opportune. Hence 37 studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa were retrieved, classified based on TOE framework and Porter’s five competitive forces. The thematic areas identified based on the framework were reviewed. In addition, geographical cover, methodological issues, conceptual frameworks and gaps identified for further studies were also studied. The analysis showed that, similar to earlier findings; Changes in technology, merchant adoption and consumer adoption have been well researched into with grey areas like traditional payment systems, socio-cultural factors that affect implementation of mobile payment system. The research gaps and direction of future research were discussed.

Richard Boateng, Maame Yaa Prempeh Sarpong

### An ICT Insight of Digitization of Banking in India

Digitization is basically the procedure in which all the manual or machine-driven exercises are brought out by the electronic gadgets in association with web-enabled services. In these days, the financial and banking area has a major influence on the economy of the country. Now, banks are taking control of supply of cash through the cashless, online transactions and payment gateway. These exercises are the central inspiration for digitize banking evolution of the country. It is a fact that well-constructed and developed banking area is a foundation for the development of a country. The role of ICT is very important for monetary movement. Indeed, even the digitization in banking is financial movement and is the part of information communication technology. So, ICT in banking is essential for the advancement of computerized banking. Presently, point of convergence is changing from traditional banking to smart banking. Electronic banking, mobile banking, electronic fund transfer, and other comparative items are now easily acceptable. This paper endeavors to give a genuine image of the digitization in economical segment with fundamental information study and most recent advancement.

Sanjay Gaur, Lavika Jain, Garima Ojha, Nilam Choudhary

### Kapitel 2. Die Grundlagen des E-Procurement

Das E-Procurement steht allgemein als Begriff für den elektronischen Einkauf von Produkten bzw. Dienstleistungen durch ein Unternehmen über digitale Netzwerke. Damit erfolgt eine Integration innovativer Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien zur Unterstützung bzw. Abwicklung von operativen, taktischen und strategischen Aufgaben im Beschaffungsbereich. Das „E-Procurement“ stellt dabei im Prinzip einen Sammelbegriff für die elektronisch unterstützte Beschaffung dar, ohne dass jedoch eindeutig definiert werden kann, was alles darunter zu verstehen ist. Einigkeit herrscht in der Literatur allerdings darin, dass der Einsatz von Internettechnologien ein Kernelement von E-Procurement-Konzepten darstellt. Die Grundidee des elektronischen Einkaufs ist also darin zu sehen, dass die Beziehung und die einkaufsrelevanten Abläufe zwischen einem Unternehmen (Einkäufer) und einem Lieferanten (Verkäufer) über die mit Hilfe des Internets vernetzten Computer mit dem zugehörigen elektronischen Informationsaustausch abgewickelt werden.

Tobias Kollmann

### Kapitel 5. Die Grundlagen der E-Community

Die E-Community steht allgemein als Begriff für die organisierte Kommunikation innerhalb eines elektronischen Kontaktnetzwerkes und damit für die Bereitstellung einer technischen Plattform für die Zusammenkunft einer Gruppe von Individuen, die in einer bestimmten Beziehung zueinanderstehen bzw. zueinanderstehen wollen. Diese Beziehung kann thematisch durch die Kommunikationsinhalte, aber auch über den sozialen oder beruflichen Status der Community-Teilnehmer bestimmt werden. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei jedoch immer die soziale Interaktion und damit der Austausch selbst geschaffener entweder inhaltlich oder personenbezogener Informationen (sog. User-generated Content).

Tobias Kollmann

### Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi

This chapter will seek to document and profile various initiatives in infrastructure development and related services which are deemed smart. The chapter will focus on transport (mobility), water and solid waste management in Nairobi which are seen as either catalysts or potential in attainment of smart environment in Nairobi. Initiatives such as application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) through Kenyan mobile, web and SMS platform, wants to address mobility, water access and waste management challenges in Nairobi. These three sectors are also considered key and basic to all Nairobians regardless of their social status, hence their understanding of how they are provided and accessed is key in understanding how smart approaches in their provision and use can have positive effects in meeting the elusive smart environment. The chapter discusses various initiatives in terms of infrastructure provided, services associated with those infrastructure and application of digital technology and how these are likely to support attainment of smart environment.

Romanus O. Opiyo, Silas M. Muketha, Wilfred O. Omollo, Dennis Mwaniki

### Kapitel 5. Das Einkaufserlebnis in der betriebliche Praxis und aktuelle Trends

In diesem Kapitel wird auf die aktuelle Erlebnisgestaltung in der betriebswirtschaftlichen Praxis eingegangen. Hier werden aktuelle Trends der Erlebnisgestaltung und deren Anwendung in der Praxis mithilfe von Studien verschiedener Unternehmensberatungen aufgezeigt.

Andreas Toth

### 6. Case Study: Transformational Entrepreneurship in Malaysia—Dare to Dream, Dare to Talk, Dare to Act(ion)

This case study challenges readers to examine the role of self-leadership in entrepreneurship. It is based on a real-life case of how an individual self-influences himself to achieve strong self-direction and self-motivation in pursuing his dream. The entrepreneur started his entrepreneurial journey with a big dream and some basic knowledge of what an entrepreneur does. However, the strong self-leadership in him is the psychological trait that has driven him to continuously seek new opportunities and scale greater heights. According to Neck et al. (Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 26(5), 463–480, 2013), an individual who constantly engages in positive self-talk, self-assessment of what he can achieve and visualisation of success, and if this cycle repeats, will influence his way of thinking and self-motivate him to continuously align his cognitions with what he desires. The outcome is more than just being an entrepreneur, but an individual’s entrepreneurial journey in pursuit of an ever-expanding dream. Is this the manifestation of strong self-leadership, an essential personality trait of a transformational entrepreneur?

Sok Kwan Say, Kii Geat Johan Lim

### Transaction and Identity Authentication Security Model for E-Banking: Confluence of Quantum Cryptography and AI

In any online banking system the major concern is to achieve ultimate security and privacy of customer’s personal information or transactions being carried out in addition to some other banking services. Unfortunately, with the day-by-day advancements in technology, it has become really challenging to withstand such security breaches as banks are the holders of very sensitive data that can cause havocs if misused. At present, modern encryption techniques are said to be sufficient to secure information but still there is a need to enhance these encryption techniques as these are uncertain in providing unconditional security causing some communication security issues. In this paper we have proposed quantum solution to address such security issues by engaging AI. By replacing SSL or SET connections having classical encryption techniques with the quantum cryptographic security systems, privacy and authenticity of data can be ensured and will minimize the chances of attacks. Features of AI like fuzzy logic and knowledge-base are also exploited. By the combination of the two, a robust and responsive security model for E-Banking is proposed.

### Sustainability Impacts of Mobility as a Service: A Scoping Study for Technology Assessment

The potential for positive sustainability impacts of Mobility as a Service schemes is frequently mentioned in both scientific literature and public media, although a systematic evaluation of potential impacts is lacking thus far. In preparation of an in-depth technology assessment, we conduct a scoping study aimed at achieving a better conceptualization of what core elements constitute Mobility as a Service, what risks and opportunities are associated with this concept and how these may be further analyzed as part of a technology assessment project. Reviewing a total of 95 sources from academic literature as well as grey literature and media reports, we provide a synthesis of the core elements of Mobility as a Service schemes, develop hypotheses on the risks and opportunities involved and propose a framework for further assessment of the associated sustainability impacts.

Rikka Wittstock, Frank Teuteberg

### Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Die Kundenzentriertheit muss Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Intelligent IoT Communication in Smart Environments: An Overview

“Internet of Things” (IoT) is expected to revolutionize the application of services by enabling the creation of smart spaces such as smart cities, smart houses, smart transportation, and smart outdoor monitoring (SOM) in the near future. Such smart spaces will require the deployment of a significantly large numbers of devices connected to the Internet such as sensors, actuators, and wearable computing devices and the likes. The growing population in urban areas will pose a significant challenge toward the utilization of public resources. Smart cities provide a promising solution by enabling a smart and efficient way to handle challenges such as waste management, traffic, security, and so on. Consequently, there is a large number of devices deployed in a smart city so as to enable collection and transition of data and data analysis. Therefore, communication is a key aspect in a smart city topology. In this work, we provide an overview about how the IoT provides an efficient communication platform and how 5G will be the main enabler by providing competitive bandwidth, high integrity, low latency, high spectral efficiency, and viable network capacity.

### Chapter 8. Building Information Infrastructures for Smart Cities: The e-CODEX Infrastructure and API for Justice Project Experiences

The case of the Digital Service Infrastructure, developed by the European Union and its Member States to enable the deployment of trans-European digital judicial services, provides the occasion to investigate from a theoretical and empirical perspective the complex features that pertain the creation of the infrastructures that enable the rise of smart cities. The case explores the heterogeneous nature and emergent, non-linear evolution of large-scale information infrastructures. It helps develop a better understanding of the infrastructural components and dynamics that allow to integrate fast evolving technology into everyday people living environment providing new and smart services and to foster public value creation in Smart Cities. Finally, it exposes the relevance of legal components, helping reflecting on their role in addition to that of the technological, human and governance ones already identified by the smart cities literature.

Marco Velicogna

### Chapter 6. Towards a Smart Destination Development Model: Promoting Environmental, Economic, Socio-Cultural and Political Values

The rapid increase in urban population poses significant challenges to the administration of cities throughout the world. However, with the widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT), a growing number of initiatives are being implemented to alleviate such strain by attempting to transform urban centers into Smart Cities. Parallel to the concept of Smart City, a specific variation of this concept is emerging in the Tourism sector, which regards the idea of Smart Tourism Destinations (STD). In fact, mainstream tourism destinations are increasingly implementing ICTs to enrich tourists' experiences and, as a result, improve the competitiveness of the tourism destination. Despite the growing number of STD initiatives in different countries, the extant literature remains silent on this growing phenomenon. As such, the objective of this chapter is to propose a model—The Smart Destination Development Model—aimed at indicating a strategic path that a tourism destination should follow to become a smart one. As such, this chapter discusses the idea of STD, and argues that besides enhancing the destination competitiveness, an STD project should be grounded on a stainable paradigm in order to create public value for the hosting community.

Mariana Brandão, Luiz Antonio Joia, Gabriel Marcuzzo do Canto Cavalheiro

### Kapitel 4. Working Capital Management

Gesundheitsdiät für das investierte Kapital

Das Working Capital ist in der Regel ein stark unterschätzter und deshalb selten beachteter Stellhebel des Wert-Managements. Anders als bei Diskussionen über Investitionen, ist das Working Capital eher selten Gegenstand von Diskussionen im Top-Management. Zwar kann die Finanzleitung kürzere Mahnfristen an Kunden ansetzen und die Lieferanten verspätet bezahlen, jedoch sind die Möglichkeiten dieser Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung des Working Capital beschränkt. Zudem ist die Grenze der finanziellen Belastbarkeit bei den Lieferanten häufig schon erreicht und Kunden akzeptieren keine kürzeren Zahlungsfristen.

Alwin Locker, Pan Theo Grosse-Ruyken

### Kapitel 5. Supply Chain Finance

„Panta Rhei“ – Alles Geld soll fließen

An Supply Chain Finance werden hohe Erwartungen geknüpft. Supply Chain Finance verknüpft physische und finanzielle Flüsse in der Supply Chain zur Optimierung von Cashflow, Kapital- und Prozesskosten sowie Steuern. Die britische und niederländische Regierung haben kürzlich eine nationale Initiative zur Förderung von Supply Chain Finance lanciert, auch die Schweiz fördert beispielsweise Supply-Chain-Initiativen wie das Projekt „Collaborative Financial Supply Chain Management“. Supply Chain Finance erweitert die klassischen Gestaltungsfelder des Supply Chain Management – Material- und Informationsflüsse – um den Fluss der Finanzmittel. Das Just-in-time-Konzept des Materialflusses soll dabei bildlich auf den Finanzfluss übertragen werden, sodass Kapital effizient fließt und dort zur Verfügung steht, wo es benötigt wird – ganz im Sinne eines „Just-in-time-Cashflow“. Eine einheitliche Definition von Supply Chain Finance liegt bisher noch nicht vor. In großen Unternehmen wie beispielsweise Nestlé, Siemens, Nike, Pepsico oder Home Depot finden sich Funktionen des „Head of Supply Chain Finance“, die sich um diese Themen kümmern. In Europa entwickelt sich diese Aufgabe erst allmählich, sodass die Schnittstelle von Finanzen mit Einkauf und Supply Chain Management in Zukunft stark an Bedeutung gewinnen wird.

Alwin Locker, Pan Theo Grosse-Ruyken

### Kapitel 3. Eine empirische Untersuchung

Diesem Kapitel liegt primär eine praktische, ergo empirische Untersuchung zugrunde. Die gewählte qualitative Vorgangsweise wurde im ersten Hauptkapitel ausführlich be- und ergründet. Zehn Finanzexpertinnen und Finanzexperten wurden im Rahmen der qualitativen Sozialforschung zu Leitfaden-Interviews eingeladen, einer speziellen Form des qualitativen offenen Experteninterviews.

Markus Bramberger

### Chapter 6. Fintech and Procurement Finance 4.0

The future of procurement finance is connected to the digital transformation, which in the case of procurement finance is a digital revolution connected with Business 4.0. The correct concept is to consider procurement finance 4.0 as a platform, with several actors—proprietors, providers, producers, and purchasers—with interchangeable roles. Fintech organizations are and will play more and more an important role in this new vision. At the same time, the technological solution which can make all this possible is blockchain, whose characteristics are more and more appreciated around the world. The digital transformation can gain a lot also from artificial intelligence and mobility.

Bernardo Nicoletti

### Introduction: From the Industrial Economy to the Digital Economy: A Giant Leap—Research on the “1 + 10” Framework of the Digital Economy

The digital economy will likely be a significant driver of economic growth. A core emerging technology, digital technology continues to integrate with the economy and drive global change as the world watches in awe. Countries, both developed and developing, are seizing opportunities to develop new technologies, institutions and business models, marking a new chapter in human history.

Xiaoming Zhu

### Chapter 13. Overview of Machine Learning in Finance

A few years back I was approached by the financial client from the Southeast Asia region to help them with their machine learning effort since they were newly implementing it in their industry and they had become stuck with the practical implementation of the machine learning algorithm in their financial advisory services domain. During the implementation, I studied the financial industry around the world in order to get a better grip on what was required in order to implement this assignment.

Puneet Mathur

### ProMaaS - Mobility as a Service for Professionals

Integrated Sectorial Business Platform for Multimodal Cross Border Mobility

In recent years, multimodal mobility and Mobility as a Service (MaaS) have emerged as fundamental concepts in several professional sectors. This trend comes with a wide number of sector-specific technical and functional requirements, including for example delivery time and location in the construction sector, strict in-time delivery for sensitive materials in the healthcare sector and lower transportation times and overall costs in the logistics sector. In this context, this paper introduces a study towards developing ProMaaS: a platform concept developed to open and extend existing mobility services and technologies by addressing multimodal cross-border mobility issues through the lens of sectorial business approaches. This conceptual solution aims to facilitate the daily mobility of professional drivers in Luxembourg, which due to the country size, has an exceptionally high volume of business-related commuting needs from and to neighbouring countries (e.g. to meet partners or to visit customers).

### Chapter 4. Central Asia and Middle East

This chapter illustrates the explanatory power of our theory expounded on in Chapters 2 and 3. It explains the proliferation of corruption, illicit trafficking, and terrorism in Central Asia and the Middle East. Beginning in Afghanistan, narcotics trafficking spreads through corruption as traffickers attempt to get their goods to market. Culture plays an important role in the spread of corruption, and this chapter takes time to illustrate this, especially in the Middle East. Thus, dealing with corruption increases in complexity, given the embedded normative system of the region.

Hanna Samir Kassab, Jonathan D. Rosen

### New Infrastructure Technology and Smart Institutional Interventions: The Case of Implementing Government Cloud Computing in Oman

Cloud computing technology presents a case of centralized technology that requires adherence to standard and planned approach for its adoption and implementation. There is little knowledge on how institutions could influence the successful migration to the cloud considering the challenges of adopting technology infrastructure. This research questions: How do institutions influence the implementation of cloud computing and to what effect? It examines the institutional intervention practices that influence the migration of the IT services of the Ministry of Health to a national government cloud platform in Oman. The study adopts concepts from institutional theory. The findings reveal that isomorphic pressures play an important role in the successful migration to cloud services. It also shows that mimetic pressure plays a propelling role that supports finding and accepting solutions and pushes the migration forward.

### Critical Success Factors of the Digital Payment Infrastructure for Developing Economies

This paper studies the Critical Success Factors’ (CSFs) for the adoption of Digital Payment System in India. There are few studies about the literature on CSFs for the adoption of the digital payment system in the Indian context. This study is an attempt to cover this gap. In this study, we reviewed the theories for adoption model at the individual level used in Information System (IS) and discussed four technology model including “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM). Ten factors have been identified with extensive literature review and review of selected models namely; Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived functional benefits, Awareness, Availability of Resources, Government as a policy maker, Performance Expectancy, Social Influence, Price Value, Experience & Habit, and Risk-taking ability. An expert from academic industry has been taken as a reviewer or consultant of the selected variables. The CSFs may ensure that they are the predictors and the important factors for adoption of digital payments system in India. The study mainly uses the deductive approach to consider the primary and secondary sources of data. The analyses of these models take into account through Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) methodology and develop a model for effective adoption of Digital Payment System in India. The paper also makes future recommendations for further research studies.

Naveen Kumar Singh, G. P. Sahu, Nripendra P. Rana, Pushp P. Patil, Babita Gupta

### Credit Based Incentive Approach for V2V Cooperation in Vehicular Cloud Computing

The Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) represents an important factor of smart cities through which Internet access can be offered to vehicular networks to store and download content via mobile gateways. The deployment of this service is focused on the exchange and the share of information between network entities. However, selfish nodes are an obstacle in a totally distributed network. As a solution, a compensation could be provided to the vehicles that are willing to participate in VCC or to become an Internet gateway, while preserving their anonymity. Different credit-based incentive schemes are discussed in this paper. A scenario based on the Blockchain technology which implements a virtual payment service for the VCC members, for the resource consumption and for the gateway service in V2V routing mode, is proposed.

Lylia Alouache, Nga Nguyen, Makhlouf Aliouat, Rachid Chelouah

### HEAP- Genus 2 HyperElliptic Curve Based Biometric Audio Template Protection

Increasing evolution of technology demands the innovative applications. E-commerce, e-banking, e-health, and e-payment, etc. being carried out by mobile devices. Mobile device-based speaker authentication is one of the predominant biometric-based authentication schemes. As the mobile devices are vulnerable to physical attacks, speech template stored in the mobile devices may be compromised. To protect the speech template, it should be stored in the encrypted form. Audio templates produce the large bitstream that leads to long encryption phase. Hence, there is a need for lightweight cryptosystem for audio template protection. In This paper, a light weight cryptographic algorithm based on Genus-2 Hyper-Elliptic Curves in Jacobi field is proposed. Genus-2 curves are deployed over a field F such that |F| ≈  $$2^{80}$$ . With these features, improved security is provided for the stored data.

N. Sasikaladevi, A. Revathi, N. Mahalakshmi, N. Archana

### Chapter 5. Smart-Governments for Smart Cities: The Case of Dubai Smart-Government

This chapter examines the smart-government project in Dubai in an attempt to underscore the main opportunities and challenges facing this project on the ground. The study builds on an extensive research and empirical material developed by the author while he was working with the Dubai government on the issue of smart-government governance. The analysis of the Dubai smart-government indicates that the Government of Dubai was keen from day one on putting in place the required incentive schemes and major milestones for the successful implementation of the project. Nonetheless, the full transformation towards the smart cities requires—in addition to providing all the new technology and infrastructure needed—a new way of thinking about the role of government in relation to other societal players.

### Dimensions for Scoping e-Government Enterprise Architecture Development Efforts

Inspired by developed economies, many developing economies are adopting an enterprise architecture approach to e-government implementation in order to overcome challenges of e-government interoperability. However, when developing an enterprise architecture for a complex enterprise such as the e-government enterprise, there is need to rationally specify scope dimensions. Addressing this requires guidance from e-government maturity models that provide insights into phasing e-government implementations; and enterprise architecture approaches that provide general insight into key dimensions for scoping enterprise architecture efforts. Although such insights exist, there is hardly detailed guidance on scoping initiatives associated with developing an e-government enterprise architecture. Yet the success of such business-IT alignment initiatives is often affected by scope issues. Thus, this paper presents an intertwined procedure that draws insights from e-government maturity models and enterprise architecture frameworks to specify critical aspects in scoping e-government enterprise architecture development efforts. The procedure was validated using a field demo conducted in a Uganda public entity.

Agnes Nakakawa, Flavia Namagembe, Erik H. A. Proper

### Adoption of Digital Currencies: The Companies’ Perspective

In recent years, digital currency was launched and spread due to technological developments, economic changes, monetary and political conditions in a steadily rising rate. This paper aims to provide the findings of an academic research about the actual use of digital currency by companies and freelancers. The research was based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model. The goal of the survey was to investigate the actual use of digital currency, as a means of transaction by companies and how it is affected by the constructs of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Security directly and other constructs indirectly, according to the research model. Based on the responses provided by 254 companies and freelancers the findings exhibit that the penetration of digital currency usage is in increasing progress. This survey’s findings are significant for businessmen, banks, financial institutions, digital currency’s users and experts, scientists and policy makers.

Ioanna Roussou, Emmanouil Stiakakis

### Chapter 5. Clean Cyberspace

General Secretary Xi has pointed out that the cyberspace is the common home of humankind. Making it better, cleaner and safer is the common responsibility of the international community, according with the interests of the people. Responsible for society and its people, China always strengthens the cyber content construction, spreads positive energy in cyberspace and cultivates healthy Internet culture. The country promotes integrated development of media, accelerates network communication law enforcement, and enhances cyberspace governance in accordance with laws, so that the cyberspace is full of more positive energy, rich culture and regulated order. All these have made the cyberspace cleaner and favorable to Internet users, especially juvenile users.

### Chapter 6. Open Data Infrastructures

Data represents a key asset in virtually any aspect of society and economy. Open Data in particular represents a source of immense value, as social capital (Lampoltshammer & Scholz, 2017) as well as an asset for business cases. Governments and their public administrations are generating and collecting during their service a plethora of different kinds of data, as well as an enormous amount in terms of volume. To tab into the potential this data holds in terms of stimulating economy, as well as the development and enhancement of governmental service for the benefit of the public (see Fig. 6.1), a sophisticate Open Data Infrastructure is required.

Yannis Charalabidis, Anneke Zuiderwijk, Charalampos Alexopoulos, Marijn Janssen, Thomas Lampoltshammer, Enrico Ferro

### Development of Strategies and Transformation Paths for Structured and Targeted Digital Change: The Case of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana Trinity Congregation

(a) Situation faced: The Church, irrespective of its steady growth from 4 members in 1965 to 2910 members in 2015, struggles to reach out to larger (newer) communities and improve money collection. It struggles as well in reaching its local community especially its members at the right time with the right message. In brief, for the Church to engage its members and the public with respect to worship service, publicizing its social activities (evangelism, donations to the needy, visits to prisons, etc.) and payment of voluntary contributions, it had to count on their physical presence on its premises. (b) Action taken: The Church developed an interactive online presence (website) with payment integration for payment of tithe, offertory, voluntary thanksgiving, etc. Social media accounts were established to help create an online community with the secondary objective of driving traffic to the website and engaging the congregation remotely outside church service hours. Mobile money and a point of sale (POS) device were used to facilitate cashless transactions. Supportive committees were set up while interconnecting existing ones. Some of the pastors upload videos to social media as supplement to morning devotions. Events were promoted on the website and social media. (c) Results achieved: Amongst the lot, there is currently an increase in social media engagements through event posts, live streaming, image and other post formats and also an increase in participation of church events by almost 50% on average as well as an increase in the number of website visitors from 2558 (901 unique visitors) in the first year after deployment to 11,612 visitors (5841 unique visitors) in the third year as at September 2017. Even though membership statistics surprisingly indicated a 638 decline in 2017, which is worth investigating. (d) Lessons learned: Although deploying the online system was successful, it came with its lessons drawn from challenges which cannot be ignored. These include trust in electronic payments, the need for strategic framework in the adoption of technology, the need to educate users. Other lessons include the need for management support and readiness of employees/volunteers and resource availability as a precursor to achieving strategic IS innovation objectives.

Sylvester Tetey Asiedu, Richard Boateng

### Effects of Cognitive Ability, Trust and Time-Saving: Predicting Further Amelioration and Successive Usage of E-ticketing with TAM, TPB and Cognitive Frameworks

Prior research was perused the technology usage on limited factors; our aim is to investigate factor to adumbrate e-ticketing systems accuracy with further improvement and successive usage in the context of Bangladesh. To do so, we designed a research model with the integration of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory Planned Behaviour (TPB), trust theory, time-saving theory and cognitive framework. Survey data were amassed from the different profession of consumers who are using e-ticketing system; 145 valid data were tested the research model to find structural relationship and hypothesis result by using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Cognitive ability has a significant impact on time-saving and trust to purchase the ticket on Internet, while a wispy impact has cited between cognitive ability and perceived usefulness. In addition, trust has positively influenced on attitude towards of buying an online ticket, and time-saving has a positive relationship with TAM. Moreover, the study assists e-ticketing authorities and individual consumer to understand which factor gradually affects the progressive usage of e-ticketing.

Rifat Hossain, S. M. Hasan Mahmud, Md. Altab Hossin, Touhid Bhuiyan, Yin Xiao Hua

### Adoption of E-Book for University Students

This paper employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to study the adoption of E-book amongst higher-education students in a well-known academic institute in the UAE, where E-book was being implemented. Computer self-efficacy, confirmation, innovativeness, satisfaction, and subjective norm are the five factors that this model embarks on to realize the influence on the university students as a result of the adoption of the E-book. This study was conducted among 350 university students through a survey which has used the quantitative evaluation to gain the optimum advantage from the subjective methods. The hypotheses were analyzed, and the model was assessed with the help of the statistical package for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main findings that can be derived from the existing study are the factors that have positive impact on students’ perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of E-book. They are computer self-efficacy, confirmation, innovativeness, and subjective norm. As a result, it is imperative for legislators and managers of E-book applications to concentrate on the factors that are critical for encouraging learning and enhancing students’ efficiency in developing and executing successful E-book applications.

Said A. Salloum, Khaled Shaalan

### Prioritizing Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Financial Services in Emerging Markets—A Fuzzy AHP Approach

Mobile financial services (MFSs) such as ‘mobile banking’ and ‘mobile payments’ have revolutionized the global banking and financial industry by bringing financial services closer to the consumers. Successful diffusion of various types of MFSs depends on their acceptance and adoption by the end-users (customers). Also, customers make trade-offs while choosing MFSs on the basis of various factors that are important to them. The present study attempts to find the relative importance of various factors that influence the customers’ choice of MFSs. The study also prioritizes three MFSs, namely mobile banking, prepaid instruments (PPIs) and payments banks on the basis of multiple factors. The present problem is modelled as a multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, wherein fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to rank the potential factors of MFS selection and to evaluate various MFSs. The findings of the study reveal that functional benefits and economic benefits dominate over trust and perceived risks in customers’ decision-making regarding the selection of MFSs. With regard to the evaluation of the three MFSs, the findings indicate that payments bank is the superior choice as it offers best economic and functional benefits and involves minimum risks. The findings of the study may help MFS providers, to evaluate critical factors of adoption of MFSs. This may help them in achieving cost-effective implementation of MFSs by efficiently managing their resources.

Kriti Priya Gupta, Rishi Manrai

### Securing National e-ID Infrastructures: Tor Networks as a Source of Threats

Securing national electronic identification (e-ID) systems requires an in depth understanding of the associated threats. The trade of identity related artefacts in the darknet facilitates illegal activities such as identity theft in both physical and virtual worlds. This paper reports the findings of an exploratory analysis of identity trading in the darknet. We capture the key features of three major markets of fake IDs in Tor networks, and apply attack-defense trees to show how the security of an e-ID infrastructure is affected by this phenomenon.

Paolo Spagnoletti, Gianluigi Me, Federica Ceci, Andrea Prencipe

### Chapter 12. Prospects and Opportunities in Data Science

There is continuing debate about how data science will evolve in the next 50 years and what it will ultimately look like.

Longbing Cao

### Chapter 10. Data Profession

We are lucky to be living in the age of analytics, data science, and big data. These three fields represent probably the most promising areas and future direction in the current Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) sectors and disciplines.

Longbing Cao

### Chapter 1. The Data Science Era

We are living in the age of big data, advanced analytics, and data science. The trend of “big data growth” [29, 106, 266, 288, 413] (data delugedata deluge [210]) has not only triggered tremendous hype and buzz, but more importantly presents enormous challenges, which in turn have brought incredible innovation and economic opportunities.

Longbing Cao

### Chapter 9. Data Science Applications

In principle, data science can be applied to any application area or business domain. However, data science projects are intrinsically different from ordinary software development and IT projects.

Longbing Cao

### Chapter 7. Data Science Techniques

In the age of analytics, data analytics and learning form a comprehensive spectrum and evolutionary map that cover.

Longbing Cao

### Chapter 8. Data Economy and Industrialization

Data science and big data analytics have led to next-generation economy innovation, competition and productivity [288], as typically shown by the rapidly updated big data landscapebig data landscape [26].

Longbing Cao

### Chapter 10. Study on Technologies for Financial Inclusion in BRICS

Financial inclusion, initially proposed by the UN in 2005, stresses utilizing complete financial infrastructure to expand financial services to underdeveloped areas and low-income groups with affordable cost. Compared with traditional finance, Financial Inclusion attaches more attention to the equitable access of the whole society to financial services. Vast requirements such as financial management, investment and consumption of the high income group can be satisfied through financial services. Now, low-income group is entitled to financial services because this is an equal financial service system aimed at serving the broad masses. At the G20 Hangzhou Summit in 2016, developing financial inclusion had been an important topic attracting vast attention from member states of the G20.

Xijun Zhao, Boyang Wei, Mengzhu Shao

### 3. Supply Chain Network and Logistics Management

Africa’s potential for economic development is largely dependent on sustainable logistics and supply chain operations. This chapter explores these opportunities and associated challenges in relation to supply chain network design. The opportunities arise from Africa’s abundant resources, which are in demand from developed economies. Africa is also considered to be one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. However some challenges are caused by gaps in the infrastructure, affecting logistics and supply chain performance. Logistics managers will need to address these challenges when designing their supply chain networks for the foreseeable future.

Benjamin S. Bvepfepfe

### Measuring the Effectiveness of E-Wallet in Malaysia

In[aut] Nizam, Faisalview[aut] Hwang, Ha Jinof[aut] Valaei, Naser the promising growth of E-wallet in Malaysia, this study aims to discover the important factors influencing consumers purchase decision using E-wallet. Previous studies reveal that factors such as convenience, security, and cost saving influence consumers’ purchase decision using E-wallet. The survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 230 respondents, out of which 222 valid responses were used for further statistical analysis. The result of this study indicated that convenience, security, and cost saving were proved to make significant influences on consumers purchase decision using E-wallet. The small sample size could limit the opportunity of generalization of the findings in this study, which future studies should seek to overcome. For practical implications, the use of E-wallet by the majority of respondents confirms that there is a great potential for future expansion of such payment devices in Malaysia.

Faisal Nizam, Ha Jin Hwang, Naser Valaei

### 4. Building Phase: The Project

In this chapter, you will learn how to actually perform the required transition and/or transformation, how systems are operated during the project and what contractual regime applies to them, how to create a positive human dynamic around the transformation, how to address the people dimension with professionalism and humanity in case of personnel transfer, how to set up the operational governance given the complexity of the outsourcing and, finally, how to switch over from the transition to the future mode of operation.

Lionel Haas

### 2. Fundraising bei Privatpersonen

In der Definition des Fundraising-Begriffs (Kapitel 1) wurden vier Gruppen von Ressourcenbereitstellern (Privatpersonen, Unternehmen, Stiftungen und öffentliche Institutionen) unterschieden. In Kapitel 2 wird das Vorgehen im Fundraising bei Privatpersonen vorgestellt. Systematisiert anhand der Spenderpyramide wird anhand zahlreicher Best Practice Beispiele anschaulich erläutert, wie Interessenten, Erst-, Mehrfach-, Dauer-, Groß- und Testamentspender für eine gemeinwohlorientierte Organisation gewonnen, gebunden und (bei Abwanderung) zurückgewonnen werden können. Da Fundraising als eine Erscheinungsform des Marketing betrachtet wird, werden – in Analogie zum Marketing-Mix – alle erforderlichen Entscheidungen im Rahmen des Fundraising-Mix (Produkt-, Preis-, Vertriebs- und Kommunikationspolitik) vorgestellt und anhand zahlreicher Best Practice Beispiele veranschaulicht. Aufgrund seiner steigenden Bedeutung wird das Online-Fundraising besonders hervorgehoben und auf 80 Seiten detailliert in seinen neuesten Entwicklungen vorgestellt. Zahlreiche Abbildungen, Tabellen, Tipps, Kapitelzusammenfassungen und Literaturempfehlungen runden das Kapitel ab.

Michael Urselmann

### Fundraising Across Digital Divide: Evidences from Charity Crowdfunding

There is widespread belief that crowdfunding can successfully support charity operation by accelerating and simplifying the process of finding large pools of funders. Analysing a unique dataset of donations collected in Italy through crowdfunding in 2016, we identify contextual factors that hamper online donations. Specifically, looking at the role of digital divide, digital literacy, and social network interactions, our study extends the existing literature on charity crowdfunding. Implications are discussed in both theoretical and practical terms on the modes of engagement of online communities and on possible tactics to overcome donations barriers.

Francesca Di Pietro, Paolo Spagnoletti, Andrea Prencipe

Open Access

### Kapitel 11. Digitale Transformation am Beispiel von FinTechs

Während FinTech Start-ups großes Marktwachstum und ein hohes Investitionsvolumen erleben, kämpfen traditionelle Banken mit dem steigenden Wettbewerb und der Angst, bedeutende Marktanteile an die neuen Spieler zu verlieren. Diese Studie analysiert die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von FinTech Start-ups im Banken-Ökosystem und wie sie das Wertesystem umwandeln werden. Aus einer Umfrage unter 1.188 deutschen Studenten nutzen wir das Bradley-Terry-Luce (BTL) –Modell, um die möglichen Auswirkungen auf die Marktanteile der traditionellen Banken abzuschätzen. Wir veranschaulichen, wie unterschiedliche Fintechs entweder traditionelle Bankenprodukte ersetzen oder als Intermediär agieren und komplementäre Güter anbieten. Dieses Paper zeigt erhebliche Verluste an Marktanteilen für bestimmte Bankprodukte auf, insbesondere für risikoreichere Anlageprodukte, wo Fintechs einen geschätzten Marktanteil von über 50 % erzielen werden. Darüber hinaus zeigt unsere Analyse stetig wachsenden Wettbewerb zwischen den traditionellen Banken, der durch intermediäre FinTech Unternehmen hervorgerufen wird, da diese mehr Transparenz schaffen.

Markus Böhm, Gabriela Galic, Christian Olenberger, Maximilian Siegert, Andreas Sperling, Florian Zyprian, Daniel Kehne, Helmut Krcmar

### Chapter 53. Challenges and Opportunities for Information Resource Management for E-Governance in Bangladesh

This paper aims to explore the challenges and opportunities for information resource management (IRM) and suitability of big data for ensuring e-governance in Bangladesh. A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis method is employed with various levels of scales and indicators. Literature survey shows that a number of models have been developed to explain e-governance but systematic research on the challenges and opportunities of IRM and suitability of big data in the process of e-governance is still lacking. This article argues that information management in the public sector can improve transparency which leads to reducing corruption, speeding the service delivery, reducing public hassle, providing easy access to public services, reducing error and reducing poverty. This paper further argues that implementation of big data for IRM has a significant role in cost-effective service delivery to citizens with the utilization of resources which controls corruption and ensure sustainable development. The findings suggest that every public sector should be brought under information resource management like public service information system (PSIS) for land management, e-police system, human resource information system (HRIS), SMS as an alternative delivery channel for meeting citizens easy access, transparency and measurement.

Md Nazirul Islam Sarker, Min Wu, Runqiu Liu, Chenwei Ma

### Management of Innovation in Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

The objective of chapter is to understand management of innovation in micro, small and medium enterprises in MENA region. The aim of the countries of the MENA region has been to achieve better economic growth and development. This is only possible through focusing on innovative practices. Through active innovation culture, organizations adopt best practices. But they face many barriers in this transition. They suffer from operational, financial problems in competing with large enterprises. Addressing these challenges to MSME growth and competitiveness is central to overcoming employment and economic development. This chapter is an attempt to understand strategies adopted by MSMEs in managing innovation in MENA region.

Nomita Sharma

### 2. Vom Tausch zur digitalen Münze

Seit es Geld gibt, gilt es als der Inbegriff von Macht. Viel Geld führt zu Reichtum, Reichtum zu Macht. Geld war im Laufe der Geschichte Anlass für Kriege, hat unzählige Menschenleben gekostet und Begehrlichkeiten geweckt. Gleichwohl ist Geld eine der wichtigsten Errungenschaften in der Geschichte der Menschheit. Geld hat uns auf den Mond gebracht. Geld hat viele Vorteile. In Presseberichten über Bitcoin findet man in der Regel Geschichten über das halsbrecherische Auf und Ab der Kryptowährung, über das Darknet, in dem mit Bitcoins bezahlt wird oder von der bis heute erfolglosen Suche nach Satoshi Nakamoto, dem Erfinder von Bitcoin. Nur selten liest man über Bitcoin als eine epochale neue Form von Geld, das einen grundlegenden Wandel des heutigen Bankwesens herbeiführen könnte.

Patrick Rosenberger

### 9. Daseinsvorsorge im Wandel durch Digitalisierung

Die Digitalisierung ist eine der großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit und bietet damit auch weitreichende Chancen. Mit der Digitalisierung werden zentrale Weichen für die Zukunft gestellt; nicht nur in Bayern, sondern weltweit. Sie ist ein zentraler Standortfaktor und betrifft Menschen in allen Lebenslagen. Vor diesem Hintergrund gilt es, auch das staatliche Handeln anzupassen und auf die Bedürfnisse der Bürgerinnen und Bürger einzugehen. Mittlerweile reicht es nicht mehr aus, Gas, Wasser, elektrische Energie, Abwasserableitung, Verkehrsmittel usw. zur Verfügung zu stellen.Die Digitalisierung verlangt weitere infrastrukturelle Maßnahmen durch den Staat – und stellt damit auch den Staat vor neue Aufgaben. In Bayern sind wir die Digitalisierung mit einer breitangelegten Strategie auf verschiedenen Ebenen angegangen und haben dabei sowohl den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg unserer Unternehmen als auch den sozialen Nutzen für unsere Bürger im Blick. Bei den konkreten Maßnahmen staatlichen Handelns wurde ein großes Augenmerk auf Infrastruktur, IT-Sicherheit und eine moderne, digitale Verwaltung als Service für Bürger und Unternehmen in der Fläche gelegt.

Albert Füracker

### 51. Digitalisierung in der Wirtschaftsprüfung – Perspektive der Wirtschaftsprüferkammer

Die digitale Transformation führt zu einem umfassenden strukturellen Wandel in Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Privatleben. Für den Berufsstand der Wirtschaftsprüfer und vereidigten Buchprüfer eröffnen sich einerseits neue Dienstleistungsmöglichkeiten. Andererseits ergeben sich gravierende Auswirkungen auf die Art und Weise der Durchführung von Abschlussprüfungen. Schlagworte sind hier Big Data, Cloud Computing, Cyber Security, Remote und Continuous Audit. Der Gesetzgeber, die Kammern und Verbände sind angehalten, die digitale Entwicklung zu begleiten und zu fördern und in Gesetzen, Satzungen und Standards adäquat abzubilden.Der Berufsstand der Wirtschaftsprüfer und vereidigten Buchprüfer muss sich der rasanten Entwicklung bewusst sein und sich aktiv mit den Veränderungen auseinandersetzen. Investitionen in neue IT, Erlangung von IT-Kompetenzen, Prozessanpassungen in den WP-Praxen sowie die Gewinnung entsprechend gebildeter Mitarbeiter dürfte gerade kleinere und mittelgroße WP-Gesellschaften vor besondere Herausforderungen stellen. Die Wirtschaftsprüferkammer (WPK) wird die digitale Entwicklung im Berufsstand aufmerksam beobachten und sich für die Schaffung angemessener Rahmenbedingungen einsetzen. Zu den Digitalisierungsthemen will die WPK auch verstärkt Hilfestellung für Berufsangehörige zur Verfügung stellen.

Gerhard Ziegler, Reiner Veidt, Heiko Spang

### Facial Representation Using Linear Barcode

This paper suggests an innovative technique for quality-type linear barcodes from the face image. This procedure calculates the distinction in gradients of image shine and then it requires finding the average of the gradients into a finite number of intervals using normalization. After this, the result of quantization is converted into the limits of decimal digits from 0 to 9 and table is translated into an ultimate linear barcode. A theoretical analysis shows that the upper part of the physiognomy is not affected by a remark (like a change in physiognomy utterance, change of face range size, change in eye range (gaping and occlude eyes, after mirror rotation of input image, changes with human age)) ensuring the stability of representing its features. So, this method generates the standard-type linear EAN-8 barcode of the top part of face image (upper 70% and 75% of face image). However, in this work, a technique which is suggested is established based on the idea that the distances between attributes of a human face by comparing the feature edges of human faces that have been done by determining its image gradient using window technique. The determined gradient data is further reduced into a smaller data set for the representation of a histogram of each face. From this histogram, the barcode is generated for each face image. This method is tested by using “Face94”, “YaleB Face Database”, “Face database FERET”, FG-NET dataset. A generated barcode holds knowledge about human’s face and can be used for recording, finding, recognition, and search for peoples.

Sanjoy Ghatak

### Chapter 6. Identifying Critical Success Factor (CSFs) for the Adoption of Digital Payment Systems: A Study of Indian National Banks

Global Internet connectivity and updated and latest electronic devices increase in the availability of digital payment (e-payment) system according to your choice. Previous research showed that there are few variables which are important to implement digital payment system. But no study has been undertaken to understand the interaction/interrelationship between the selected variables and to develop the hierarchy of digital payment adoption variable. This paper aims to investigate the critical success factors (CSFs), through interpretive structural modelling (ISM). To identify the contextual relationships between the variables, experts from banking personnel and academia were consulted. The CSFs may ensure the customer adoption of digital payment. The research study mainly uses the deductive approach to consider secondary and primary sources of data. An extensive literature review was conducted to identify the ten CSFs, namely, compatibility, complexity, customer support management, top management support, infrastructure, expert selection, security, cultural factor, government policies and awareness. With the help of model development, these ten variables are interrelated and prioritised for digital adoption system. Moreover this paper explores sustainability and adoptability issue to digital payment. This study will assist researchers and policymakers in relevant fields.

G. P. Sahu, Naveen Kumar Singh

### Development of Policy Designing Technique by Analyzing Customer Behavior Through Big Data Analytics

Technological developments and market trends are two leading affairs of the current era, posing customer as most important entity to be caught. Use of big data analytics to retain customers by offering them customer-oriented policies and making them feel important and precious for the service-providing company is the core thought behind this research paper. A framework to obtain process and analyze service usage data, with a new algorithm known as Altered Genetic K-Means clustering algorithm based on mapReduce is presented here. This paper implements mapReduce-based Altered Genetic K-Means Clustering (AGKM) algorithm on data acquired from BSS/OSS of telecom CRM and cleaned by R, to categorize customers having similar call activities. Results show that specific group of customers such as students, senior citizens, housewives, business people, and employees can be identified and according to their call timings, durations, call types, net usage, etc., policies (tariff plans in this case) can be designed. The novelty of this work is in its thought of capturing customers by knowing them well in place of first predicting churn and then taking action.

Puja Shrivastava, Laxman Sahoo, Manjusha Pandey, Sandeep Agrawal

### A Study on Blockchain-Based Circular Economy Credit Rating System

Circular economy is distinct from the linear economy model in the past. Circular economy emphasizes regeneration instead of possession of resource, and proposes using shared resources to create new supply chains and new economies. When practicing circular economy, prior to collaboration, each economic entity must learn of each other’s credit rating. This study applies the blockchain technology to establish each economic entity’s transaction details, and then employs confidence level algorithms to calculate each entity’s credit rating; the method utilizes the concept of decentralization to reduce third-party broker fees, which, aside from decreasing transaction costs, provides effective credit rating of public economic entities.

Hsin-Te Wu, Yi-Jen Su, Wu-Chih Hu

### Chapter 1. Changes in the Domestic and International Economy

Compared with 2014, the global economic conditions grew more complicated in 2015. Volatility of world economy presented a rising trend in general, whereas China maintained a steady growth. “Address overcapacity, reduce inventory and de-leverage” has become the reform direction. Interest rate marketization, RMB internationalization, internet finance, and “the Belt and Road” Initiatives led and shaped the overseas development of Chinese companies.

Ben Shenglin, Jiefang Yu, Yue Gu, Jiamin Lv, Lijun Zhang, Huichao Gong, Hanting Gu, Qi Shuai

### 5. Ghana’s Recurrent Miracle: Cocoa Cycles and Deficient Structural Change

Chapter 5 examines potentials and obstacles to productivity growth and structural change in an African “miracle” economy, Ghana. The focus is on an examination of long-term growth in the cocoa industry. The history of the cocoa industry exhibits a pattern of recurrent booms and busts with episodes of great economic success followed by long periods of stagnation and decline. This chapter investigates whether the structure of the industry in the current boom may be undergoing a process of change or if the drivers of growth are similar to those prevailing in an earlier expansion a hundred years ago. If the recent boom is driven by land expansion and increased use of labour rather than by productivity growth doubts can indeed be raised about the sustainability of Ghanaian cocoa production.

### Chapter 24. Harvesting Sunshine with Smart Solar Panels and Cryptocurrencies

This paper outlines new ideas associated with smart solar panels containing an embedded secure processor. This turns individual PV arrays or solar roof tiles into a blockchain node which can generate cryptographic proof regarding the amount of renewable energy it has produced. The processor is based on a smart card chip with an operating system which supports a proprietary blockchain and cryptocurrency payment software stack. The security module which certifies that the metering data has not been altered and manages strong encryption of the various communications links. It also improves resistance to cyberattacks and detects attempts to tamper with a panel from cheating customers.We also examine how smart contracts can support new ways of rewarding investment in renewables and local energy storage. Funds could come from P2P lending and crowdfunding. Importantly, these are linked to physical assets recorded in a distributed ledger. This supports new smart energy ecosystems such as “solar allotments” where individuals can purchase rights to the income from electricity fed into the grid or sold to local residents from individual smart solar panels. Rewards could also be in the form of “SolarCoins” or “Solar Dollars”. Investors can build a portfolio of these digital property rights which can be sold, assigned or donated, and investors do not have to be located in the same country as the electricity users.

Colin T. Mallett

### Recognition of Telecom Customer’s Behavior as Data Product in CRM Big Data Environment

This paper approaches toward the standardization of telecom customer’s behavior by specifying the call activities like frequency, duration, time of calls with the type of calls like local, national, and international. In the same way specifying the SMS/MMS activities as behavior of customers plus the rate of data pack and talk-time recharge. It is an attempt to identify meaningful attributes to describe behavior of customer plus study the available call detail records in big data environment and recognize the procedure that uses customer behavior for the designing of data product which is tariff plan.

Puja Shrivastava, Laxman Sahoo, Manjusha Pandey

### Kapitel 3. Digitalisierung im Baugewerbe

Das Baugewerbe gilt als „Bricks & Mortar“-Geschäft, das von den Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung wegen seines analogen und materiellen Charakters scheinbar kaum betroffen sein dürfte. Diese Annahme ist falsch. Besonders in den Bereichen der Bauplanung und Bauvorbereitung, der Logistik an verschiedenen Stellen im Bauprozess und des Managements von Kundenbeziehungen manifestiert sich die digitale Transformation am deutlichsten. Unternehmen der Baubranchen müssen sich darauf einstellen, wenn sie am Markt bestehen und das Feld nicht allein den großen Baukonzernen überlassen wollen. Dieses Kapitel stellt die unterschiedlichen Trends und Entwicklungen der Digitalisierung im Baugewerbe dar, ordnet sie analytisch ein und gibt praxisrelevante Empfehlungen zum erfolgreichen Umgang mit den genannten Herausforderungen.

Andreas Moring, Lukas Maiwald, Timo Kewitz

### Chapter 3. A Systemic Approach to Integrate SOEs and SMEs in Business Ecosystem

This chapter focuses on the integration between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through national strategic projects (NSPs). It offers a holistic model for designing a new SOE in order to play a greater role in governmental initiatives towards economic diversification and create a platform for a value co-creation and experience-sharing. It also supports other governmental initiatives towards economic diversification like generating jobs, employing local workforce and building national knowledge. By performing systemic analysis of the organisation and its environment, suggestions are made to (a) enhance collaboration and promote alliances particularly with SMEs, (b) unfold the complexity resulting from the environment, (c) identify the SOEs’ core operational activities and (d) connect with numerous potential private companies.

Alfadhal Al-Hinai, Angela Espinosa, Richard Vidgen

### Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Die Kundenzentriertheit muss Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

### The Roles of Perceived Risk and Trust on E–Payment Adoption

E–payment is one of the major constituents of e–commerce, which assists to enhance user efficiency and smarten intention to use of e–commerce in the digital era. This study investigates the roles of perceived risk and trust on e–payment adoption. Data is collected from respondents who have used or intend to use e–payments for e–commerce in Ho Chi Minh City. The structural equation modelling (SEM) is analyzed on a total convenient sampling of 200 respondents. Interestingly, research results externalize that perceived risk and trust have the principal roles of the structural model of e–payment adoption. The research model accounts for 38% of e–payment adoption.

Thanh D. Nguyen, Phuc A. Huynh

### 4. Islamic Contracts

Contract is the root of an Islamic business as it involves trade and commerce, hence governed by Islamic commercial law. The contract in Islamic business is the measure of transaction validity. It is equivalent to an intention (niyah) taken for an action, which differentiates the action from a ritual practice or custom and which will bring either rewards or sins. The various forms of commercial contract in Islam can be identified in the Holy Quran and in the jurisprudence of Islamic scholars, both ancient and modern. Islamic banking operates under Islamic commercial law and is known as fiqh-al-muamalat in an Islamic legal term. It is an important branch of law dealing with issues of contracts and the legal effect(s) arising from a contract, which can be further categorized into valid, invalid, void contract and so on as the case may be and obligations must be fulfilled in the contract. Contracts ensure transparency of transactions structure, agreed terms and condition between parties to contract. Islamic banking is all about trading and the Islamic contracts are important part of structuring the financial transactions.

Nafis Alam, Lokesh Gupta, Bala Shanmugam

### The Impact of Cashless Policy Tools on Money Circulating Outside Nigerian Banks

Monetary and fiscal policies aimed at improving an economy’s performance are worth any trial. The Nigerian government’s move to implement the cashless policy (CLP) in 2012 was just a step in this direction. This research is embarked upon to assess the pre-and post-implementation period of Nigeria’s CLP with focus on the relationships between tools of CLP and currency outside banks in the Nigerian economy. Focusing on the entire economy, data for the period 2009–2012 was regressed through OLS to test for the impact of these tools on currency circulation in the economy. The results showed a high level of collinearity and perfect fitness, thus making it impossible to compute the influence on COB. On considering only two of the variables (ATM and CHQ), it was discovered that a positive insignificant relationship exists on the predictive relationship. This insignificant relationship could be attributed to the period under observation. Majority of the period observed by the study covers the preimplementation period (2009–2011), while only 1 (2012) post-implementation period was studied. Since ATM and CHQ have insignificant influence in a perfect fitness situation, then it can be concluded that CLP tools do not affect currency circulation outside Nigerian banks. It is, however, recommended that an equal period of pre- and post-implementation (2009–2014) be covered if an acceptable consensus is to be arrived at.

### Chapter 7. Good Practices and Considerations in Conducting Email Survey for Fashion Retail Industry

Correct and up-to-date market information is key to marketing strategy formulation and campaign planning. Email surveyEmail survey is often used by fashion retailers as a tool to capture the market information. It is particularly important for the email survey to capture the market information from a mass market in a short period of time. However, there are many cases that fashion retailers get poor qualityQuality result from survey rather than high-quality and reliable results with actionable findings. This paper intends to discuss good practices in conducting email survey for the fashion industryFashion industry. It refers to a consultancy project administered by the authors to discuss issues and considerations on conducting email survey. A mixed-mode approach, of which email survey with telephone follow-up, incentivesIncentives (for survey), and onsite face-to-face interviewFace-to-face interviews, was adopted to achieve a cost-effective survey with adequate response rateResponse rate and high representativeness. The details about conducting email survey, which includes incentive, design, database, and follow-up action and facilitated the email surveyEmail survey are discussed.

Chi Wai Wu, Kwok Fai Geoffrey Tso

### Das Projekt E-Government-Modellkommunen des Bundesministeriums des Innern in Deutschland

Ende September 2016 fand die Abschlussveranstaltung zum bundesweiten Projekt „E-Government-Modellkommunen“ im Bundespressehaus in Berlin statt. Gemeinsam hatten das Bundesinnenministerium und der Fachbereich Verwaltungswissenschaften der Hochschule Harz zu dieser fachlich bedeutsamen Veranstaltung eingeladen, die das Projekt offiziell abschließen sollte.

Jürgen Stember, Emanuel Hesse

### Chapter 11. China–Europe Investment Cooperation: A Digital Silk Road

The EUEU–China Investment Cooperation is still in an incipient stage since it was launched at the EU–China High Level Economic Dialogue in BeijingBeijing on 28 September 2015. This chapter briefly reviews both the Silk RoadSilk Road initiative and the European Fund for Strategic Investment. Analysis of these two economic initiatives raises the question of how to align them to identify possible avenues for cooperation. The chapter looks at this new Sino-European investment cooperation. Through examining both economic initiatives and objectives, a number of common sectors can be highlighted, including infrastructureInfrastructure, R&DR&D, pharmaceuticals, clean energy, and education. It then explores a specific field, the digital industryDigital industry, and particularly the 5G5G market, which opens a variety of doors regarding the internet of things, big data, clouding, intelligent transport, entertainment, and media.

Mireia Paulo

### Chapter 7. Internet Finance in China

In the past decade, the financial services industry has changed significantly, especially after the 2008 global financial crisis. The emergence of FinTech has been enabled by a “perfect storm” of rising customer expectations for services, increased access to VC funding, reduced barriers to entry, and accelerated technological advancements (World FinTech Report, Capgemini Consulting Technology Outsourcing, 2017). The dramatic rise of FinTech opens up a revolutionary means of financing and global FinTech investment continues to grow; it reached \$15 billion by mid-August 2016 (The Fintech Ecosystem Report, Business Insider’s premium research service, 2016). More than 80% of global financial services companies consider their business at risk and plan to increase FinTech partnerships with tech companies to avoid losing revenue to innovators (Redrawing the lines: FinTech’s growing influence on Financial Services, Global FinTech Report, 2017). As mainstream financial institutions adopt new business models and emerging technologies, FinTech and the financial industry become more integrated. The influence of FinTech on the markets is growing with significant long-term potential.

Chunxia Jiang, Shujie Yao

### Chapter 6. E-Government Development in the Central Asian States: Best Practices, Challenges and Lessons Learned

Many states of the world are developing e-government to raise operating efficiency, better service delivery to citizens, and reduce corruption. But successful development of e-government depends on many factors, such as the level of economic development, the development level of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure, the ICT literacy of citizens, legal framework, political leadership etc. This chapter attempts to confirm this statement using the example of the Central Asian states. The chapter also describes best practices, main challenges and obstacles, and lessons learned from e-government development in the countries of Central Asia.

Ulan Brimkulov, Kasym Baryktabasov

### Kapitel 3. Digitalisierung auf kommunaler Ebene

Die Situation der Digitalisierung auf kommunaler Ebene wird aus vier Betrachtungswinkeln heraus betrachtet: Zunächst aus der strukturellen Situation der Anbieterlandschaft mit einer Vielzahl Öffentlicher IT-Dienstleister, die teils in Konkurrenz bei einzelnen Aufträgen zueinander stehen, teils aber auch zunehmend miteinander in netzwerkartigen Strukturen kooperieren. Dann aus dem Blickwinkel der IT-Unterstützung von Fachverfahren, darunter als derzeit noch in kleinen Piloten bestehenden „digitalen Dörfern“, und als Drittes aus dem Optimierungspotenzial von Fachverfahren durch Nutzung weiterer digitaler Angebote in der gesamten Prozesskette. Als großes viertes Thema wird das umfassende Konzept der „Smart City“ generell und dann ihre Ausprägung in ausgewählten deutschen Städten und der Hauptstadt Österreichs, dem schönen Wien, betrachtet.

Roland Heuermann, Carsten Jürgens, Peter Adelskamp, Tanja Krins

### Chapter 12. Sustainable Well-Being Objective Indicators: Basic Necessities, Complementary Needs and Desired Opportunities

Abstract Purpose: This study assesses the theories and approaches to sustainable well-being in developing objective social indicators to recognise the all-inclusive wellness of Malaysians. Problem: Currently, in Malaysia, well-being is measured by the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) Malaysia through the Malaysian Quality of Life Reports and Malaysian Well-being Report. The reports cover the social progress of Malaysians through a set of indicators categorised under economic well-being and social well-being. The three main issues found in the current approach include (1) a lack of output indicators for some components, which makes it impossible to interpret the true performance of well-being, (2) the absence of a hierarchy of needs to identify more prioritised components and indicators, and (3) a narrow understanding of progress due to a strong reliance on the correlation with GDP growth. Approach: This study employs a literature review and document analysis. Findings: A new approach is necessary to improve the current approach to measuring well-being in Malaysia. Based on the theory of the hierarchy of needs, the objective indicators are categorised into specific components of three dimensions of sustainable well-being – necessities, complementary needs, and desired opportunities. Through reconsideration and re-coordination of the existing indicators and selected additional indicators, the elements that constitute well-being as well as the data appear consistent and transparent. Significance: Sustainable well-being indicators will prioritise what is most important to the citizens. The model recognises the progress of the survival requirements of human beings, the moral basis of happiness, and the greater life prospects of Malaysians.

Aisyah Abu Bakar, Mariana Mohamed Osman, Syahriah Bachok, Alias Abdullah

### 12. Electronic Commerce Payment Systems

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe cross-border EC and the issues that arise in EC payments.2.Describe the major changes in retail and their impacts on EC payments.3.Discuss the different payment cards used online and processing methods.4.Discuss the different categories and potential uses of smart cards.5.Describe the issues with and solutions to online micropayments.6.Understand PayPal and third-party payment gateways.7.Understand the major types and methods of mobile payments.8.Describe the differences and key characteristics of digital and virtual currencies.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

### 1. Overview of Electronic Commerce

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Define electronic commerce (EC) and describe its various categories.2.Describe and discuss the content and framework of EC.3.Describe the major types of EC transactions.4.Describe the drivers of EC.5.Discuss the benefits of EC to individuals, organizations, and society.6.Discuss social computing.7.Describe social commerce and social software.8.Understand the elements of the digital world.9.Describe some EC business models.10.List and describe the major limitations of EC.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe the B2B field.2.Describe the major types of B2B models.3.Discuss the models and characteristics of the sell-side marketplace, including auctions.4.Describe sell-side intermediaries.5.Describe the characteristics of the buy-side marketplace and e-procurement.6.Explain how reverse auctions work in B2B.7.Describe B2B aggregation and group purchasing models.8.Define exchanges and describe their major types.9.Describe third-party exchanges.10.Describe how B2B can benefit from social networking and Web 2.0.11.Describe collaborative commerce.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

### Chapter 4. Collaborative Spaces and Coworking as Hybrid Workspaces: Friends or Foes of Learning and Innovation?

This contribution is oriented toward understanding collaborative workspaces and their impact on innovation. More in detail, the authors propose a focus on Coworking spaces as recent and disruptive innovation in the workspace template. Far from being just a logistic business solution, Coworking encompasses a complex social phenomenon, which combines work solutions, learning opportunities, and social relations. Thus, the contribution will speculate on Coworking as a hybrid organizational layout. Authors analyze this phenomenon from a theoretical standpoint that combines organizational design with innovation management principles. In particular, the contribution is structured in order to account for opportunities and threats provided by such collaborative spaces.

Lucia Marchegiani, Gabriella Arcese

### Barriers to Adopting E-commerce in Chinese Rural Areas: A Case Study

Although e-commerce has been adopted and developed rapidly in rural areas in China during the past two years, serious issues have been encountered as well. Practitioners and scientists proposed lists of barriers. However, such lists differ with each other for different regions and at different time. Fixed lists may not help much practically. Present research proposes a framework named N3F4 to structure and formalize such barriers. Based on the framework, researchers could make a list of barriers for a given region, perform surveys among interested people, prioritize the barriers, analyze reasons and propose solutions. In this paper, we introduce the N3F4 framework, and present a case study of applying the framework in one small county in China. The result shows that the N3F4 framework helps structure barriers before performing the survey, and it also helps analyze the result and come up with solutions afterwards, both effectively and efficiently.

Hong Guo, Shang Gao

### Paradigm Shift of Indian Cash-Based Economy to Cash-Less Economy: A Study on Allahabad City

This paper is an attempt to study the important factors responsible for successful implementation of digital payment (e-Payment) system in India. Examine the status of e-Payment at Allahabad city (Uttar Pradesh, Indian) and to conduct an analysis of imitation of e-Payment in other regions of India. A qualitative study with extensive literature review, interview and expert opinion was adopted to conduct the study. To analyse the result and to identify the success factor NVivo 11 Pro software is used. With the help of software 13 success factors identify namely: Anonymity, Bank Involvement, Drawer, Infrastructure, Mobility, Parties, Popularity, Range of Payment, Risk, Security, Transfer limit, Transfer mode, and Transfer time for successful implementation of digital payment at Allahabad city. The outcome will be helpful for implementation of digital payment in various other cities of India.

G. P. Sahu, Naveen Kumar Singh

### Chapter 1. Introduction

The last decade has witnessed the emergence of new payment systems which enable financial transactions to be made securely from one organization or individual to another over a mobile network called Mobile Payment System which offers attractive opportunities to financial institutions, merchants, and end-users. This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts that underpin mobile payment systems: we introduce the concept of electronic money (including characteristics, advantages and disadvantages) to understand the evolution from traditional money to electronic money. We also present an overview of mobile commerce, mobile payment characteristics, current mobile payment methods, mobile payment stakeholders, and technologies for mobile payments. We also discuss the benefits and drawbacks of mobile payment systems and the entities that comprise such systems.

### Chapter 3. Architectures and Models for Mobile Payment Systems

Many mobile payment models have been proposed by researchers in the last decade. This chapter classify them based on their specific features to enable readers to stay up-to-date with state-of-the-art mobile payment models. The core features used in our classification include: (i) micro-payments, (ii) cryptographic technique (asymmetric cryptographic and symmetric cryptographic), (iii) technology used such as short message service, biometric technology, Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology, Near Field Communication (NFC), 2-D barcode technology, and peer-to-peer technology, (iv) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), communication restriction, (v) mobile agent technology, and (vi) wireless application protocol.

### Chapter 3. Case Study 2: Toward Surabaya Cyber City: From GRMS to e-Sapawarga (2004–2014)

InnovationInnovation in public service deliveryService delivery and in the conduct of government affairs has long been an area of keen interest for public administrationPublic Administration academics and government affairs practitioners alike.

Agus Pramusinto, Erwan Agus Purwanto

### Chapter 7. Epilogue

Inclusive growth model requires reduction of poverty at a sustained level by allowing people to contribute to the economic growth. Entrepreneurial activity is a way for individuals to pursue either own motivation or meet their needs. In order to achieve the inclusive growth in the society macro- and microstructures along with policies formulated by the policy makers for generating entrepreneurship and inclusive growth are important.

Farzana Chowdhury, Sameeksha Desai, David B. Audretsch

### Chapter 1. Einleitung

Die Digitalisierung, verstanden als die Integration technologischer Neuerungen in allen Bereichen des täglichen Lebens (vgl. Gray und Rumpe 2015, 1319) hat Auswirkungen auf gesellschaftlicher, politischer, wirtschaftlicher und individueller Ebene. Digitalisierung der Geschäftsprozesse als eine der zentralen, branchenübergreifenden Anforderungen an Unternehmen betrifft konsequenterweise auch das Finanz- bzw. Bankenwesen. Als eine sichtbare Veränderung ist in diesem Zusammenhang das Aufkommen sogenannter FinTechs, definiert als Finanztechnologieunternehmen die auf Basis von Softwarelösungen Finanzdienstleistungen anbieten, zu nennen (vgl. European Banking Federation 2015a, 11). Fin-Techs werden als Konkurrenz zum Bank- bzw. Finanzwesen speziell im Bereich der digitalen Zahlungsdienstleistungen eingeschätzt (vgl. World Economic Forum 2015, 10ff; Bitkom 2015a, 3–8).

Michael Ginner

### Chapter 5. Development under Digital Divide in India

The emergence and development of new technologies is a complex and dynamic socio-economic process.

Dilip Dutta

### Automated Electric Bill Generation System Using Internet of Things

Smart City vision attempts to make human life easy. To achieve this, technology has to be used meticulously. Digital service is one of the most vital parts of Smart City. Technology is applied to enhance quality of human life and make it hurdle-less. Human intervention is still a necessity when it comes to electricity bill generation and payment for each household. This research paper proposes an automatic electric bill payment system which reduces human effort. Further the proposed solution supports the smart city vision. The system measures electrical units that is being consumed by the consumers, using Raspberry Pi, and it sends consumption data to the supplier’s cloud server wirelessly. The consumption cost will be calculated at the server as per government norms. An e-bill is generated at the server and delivered to the customer via developed Android application. The system has been tested in real time and the usage statistics displayed on the Android application is verified.

Shreyas H.N., Nikhil Aatrei M, Sumesh S. Iyer, Prakash P

### Chapter 10 Partial Retirement

Partial Retirement (Altersteilzeit) aims to facilitate the smooth transition from working life into retirement of older employees and is codified in the Partial Retirement Act (Altersteilzeitgesetz, AltTzG). However, in most significant economic sectors collective agreements have been concluded to regulate partial retirement.

Eva Einfeldt, Jens Kirchner

### Chapter 5. Mobile Banking Services—Business Information Management with Mobile Payments

The service sector is closely related with the technology developments and consequently the access to services, their provision, and consumption are optimized. The banking industry is no exception to it. It is strongly influenced by technology developments and tries to meet new challenges and thus to develop further itself. Particularly affected and being put under increasing pressure are the core banking businesses—accounts and payments. Their central element is the money that has experienced a change in its form of existence over time. Money (same as many other goods and services) were being digitized and its value were being transferred to plastic card and lately mobile phones (PPP (paper—plastic—phone) evolution of money). Along with the technological developments comes both the socio-demographic shifts and changes in the legal environment. On the other hand, opportunities for new participants (other than banks) on the (cashless) payment market are opening up and with it the position of the banks on the payment market is threatened. Due to the fact that banks are very much impacted by the developments in technology and they count among the heaviest investors in information technology, this paper will attempt to provide valuable insight into how the banks implement or could implement the new (mobile) technologies and the smartphone. Further, this paper comprises three aspects of our contemporary society: the importance of the tertiary sector of the economy—services in the developed countries, the development of new (mobile) technologies, and the high penetration rate and acceptance of “the device” of the contemporary history—the smartphone. The aim of this work is to translate these three aspects into the banking service sector in Austria (with a focus on the payments).

Katerina Markoska, Iryna Ivanochko, Michal Gregus ml.

### Chapter 3. Asset Substitution and Currency Substitution behind Dollarization and De-dollarization Policy in the Lao PDR: Evidence from Bank-Level Data

This chapter investigates dollarization in Lao PDR with bank-level data on foreign currency deposits (FCDs)Foreign Currency Deposits (FCDs) as well as monetary statistics. FCDs are disaggregated by account type (demand and fixed deposits) and account holders (individuals and corporations). Bank-level data first indicates that FCD holdings of individuals for asset substitutionAsset substitution (fixed deposits) responded more quickly to economic stabilization than those of FCD holdings of corporations for transactions (demand deposits), implying more persistence of currency substitutionCurrency substitution. Second, FCDs are more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. Furthermore, monetary statistics indicate a sharp increase in the amount of local currency in circulation, which is possibly attributable to successful de-dollarization policies.

Phetsathaphone Keovongvichith

### Some Aspects of Connectivity in South Asia: Issues and Way Forward

The contribution of infrastructure to economic growth is two-fold. Firstly, infrastructure facilitates development of other sectors by contributing in the production process of other sectors. Secondly, the presence of good infrastructure reduces the transaction and other costs, thereby increasing the total factor productivity and allowing the use of existing inputs more efficiently. This chapter throws light on the existing infrastructure networks in South Asia. It elucidates the deficits in these existing networks and suggests policy steps to improve the state of infrastructure in South Asia and bridge the deficits, highlighting the core of the problem being infrastructure-financing. In the light of building infrastructure, the chapter discusses the collective initiatives—public, private and public–private partnerships of the South Asian economies that are being undertaken. It also examines some success stories of infrastructure development which impart lessons that can be emulated. Finally it concludes with the way forward with respect to co-operation in the infrastructure development in South Asia.

Ram Upendra Das

### Kiss the Documents! How the City of Ghent Digitizes Its Service Processes

(a)Situation faced: The case focuses on the digitization of service processes in the City of Ghent. Front-office e-services are integrated into the corporate website and into the back office thanks to digitization of the internal way of working in value chains. Before 2014, the City’s digital services were limited primarily to web forms offered by three departments for taxes, mobility and parking affairs, and citizens’ affairs in a non-integrated way, as the departments used different applications and a considerable amount of manual work in the back office. Other departments focused primarily on downloadable forms that were available on the corporate website. Customers could also create profiles for some services, resulting in multiple user names and passwords to be managed for the same customer. Because of this silo mentality, the digital investments did not pay off, and a more integrated approach was needed to make the digital service processes more efficient in terms of return on investment (ROI) and customer-oriented.(b)Action taken: The City of Ghent formulated a digitization vision based on fifteen reusable building blocks, including that facilitate the use of an authentication platform, a single customer profile, a digital signature platform, and a service-oriented architecture. These building blocks guide projects that digitize the total value chains or business processes. To stimulate reuse, the building blocks were built as generic components or process activities that e-services typically contain (e.g., “create profile,” “pay electronically”). The generic components were first translated to the digitization of three pilot chains regarding taxes, environment-related subsidies, and citizens’ affairs. The pilots were chosen based on their having volunteered to participate and their opportunities to take advantage of digitization.(c)Results achieved: Although the pilot for citizens’ affairs is still running, the results of the pilots for digital tax submissions and environment-related subsidies are already positively perceived. All environment-related subsidy requests are now digitally processed in the back office, with a digital alternative in place for the process steps of receiving and responding to the subsidy requests in the front office since 2015. The number of digital tax submissions increased to a third of all submissions in 2016, compared to only five percentage in 2014, while the number of input forms was cut in half in favor of prefilled tax proposals. Besides being generalized to apply to all services in the City of Ghent, the digitization approach with building blocks and building projects will also be applied in other business processes and future projects such as a participation platform or intranet, so it is not exclusive to e-services. The main idea is to develop once and then to reuse it maximally.(d)Lessons learned: The case concludes with five lessons learned, from which other public and private organizations may benefit. First, from the perspective of reuse and inter-organizational collaboration, data about products or services should align semantically with external partners. The City of Ghent used linked open data for this purpose. Two lessons learned promote a pragmatic approach to achieving success by concretizing initial principles and temporary workarounds to achieve quick wins. The fourth lesson was the need for assistance by an internal support office or competence center. Finally, the demonstrated advantages arise from working with a single profile per customer, rather than working in silos.

Amy Van Looy, Sabine Rotthier

### e-Government Requirement Elicitation

The quality and productivity of e-Government is measured by its successful usage for country development. The e-Government requirement is one of the most important features, which must be elicited from related stakeholders. The e-Government crisis normally comes from the shortage or unqualified IT Man, Machine, Money, Methodology, and Management (5M framework). The e-Government requirement elicitation requires a good management of 5M. This paper introduces the requirement process that is a super set of requirement elicitation and modeling. The e-Government architecture, which is classified into three layers, is discussed.

### 17. paydirekt – Herausforderungen und mögliche Wachstumsoptionen für Mobile Payment in Deutschland

In diesem Beitrag werden der Status, die Herausforderungen und die möglichen Wachstumsoptionen für Mobile Payment beleuchtet. Im Gegensatz zu dem weltweiten Boom der Mobile Payments ist das Wachstum in Deutschland noch zurückhaltend. Fest steht jedoch, dass bei der Bezahlung im Internet die Deutschen am meisten den Banken und Sparkassen vertrauen. Diesem Kundenbedürfnis hat die deutsche Kreditwirtschaft entsprochen und mit paydirekt ein sicheres und gleichzeitig einfaches Online‐Bezahlverfahren entwickelt. Bezüglich der weiteren Kundenbedürfnisse gibt es eine Differenzierung hinsichtlich der unterschiedlichen Formen des Mobile Payment. Diese werden entlang der aktuell dominanten Formen des Mobile Payment diskutiert, die entsprechenden Wachstumsoptionen bewertet und selektiv anhand des Beispiels paydirekt konkretisiert.

Dr. Niklas Bartelt, Prof. Dr. Silke Finken

### Chapter 9. IT Governance in E-Government Implementations in the Caribbean: Key Characteristics and Mechanisms

There have been sustained calls related to the need for countries to improve public service delivery as well as the methods by which governments interface with citizens. E-government strategies have been proposed and developed with the aim of transforming the operations and effectiveness of public bodies. As a grouping of small island states, the CaribbeanThe Caribbean region is faced with unique institutional and structural challenges to the adoption and implementation of these measures. The results of various e-governmentE-government strategies have been varied across the board. It is recognized that a key component in the implementation and further development of e-government initiatives entails the supporting IT governance framework. This paper offers a critical assessment of e-government strategies across the Caribbean focusing on the challenges, success factors and opportunities for implementation. The study explores the challenges and opportunities for advancing in and beyond e-government to c-governmentC-government and more generally, in utilising emerging technologies and innovations, facilitated by IT governance mechanisms, towards improved public governance.

Arlene Bailey, Indianna Minto-Coy, Dhanaraj Thakur

### Making EU Justice Smart? Looking into the Implementation of New Technologies to Improve the Efficiency of Cross Border Justice Services Delivery

Recently, there is a growing attention on the topic of “smart technologies”. Many scholars and specialized journals pay attention to the development of smart tools and to their characteristics of “smartness”. Despite scholars talk of smart technology in many fields from e-government to health-care, there is a very scarce focus on technologies developed in order to digitalize justice procedures (e-justice). This chapter focuses on the topic of e-justice through the lenses of the smart technology literature in order to understand which are the main elements of smartness in the e-justice context and how a service can support them. In order to pursue this objective, the study first analysed the smart technology literature in order to acknowledge which are the main features of a smart technology. This allowed to design a “smart technology framework” that has been applied to the analysis of two e-justice services developed in Europe, the European e-Justice Portal and e-CODEX. By checking which features of smartness the two services are endowed with, we shed light on the peculiarities of e-justice and on which are the main issues that may impede these systems from being smart. In particular, the study acknowledges that when digitalizing justice procedures often the technology reproduces the same issues affecting the legal procedure itself. Even if both cases analyzed demonstrate to be “smart” in terms of multidimensionality, interoperability, adaptability and effectiveness, they are affected by issues related to diffusion and equal accessibility mainly due to the legal procedure that the two services digitalize.

Giampiero Lupo, Marco Velicogna

### Empirical Study of Algerian Web Users’ Behavior

The Case of Ouedkniss.Com

ICT’s are changing business and marketing, and internet is a major evolution that leads to electronic commerce. In Algeria, e-commerce is perceived as “Myth” for some while it is a “Reality” for others. Being visited more than Facebook in Algeria, Ouedkniss.com this platform of classified ads is an exception of a website that succeeded in the Algerian market. Thus, understanding the determinants of its adoption is essential for Algerian managers to launch successful e-commerce website.The current study was supported by a quantitative research using an online survey to explore the role of the variables of the Technology Acceptance Model in the adoption of an e-commerce website. After validating the measurement scales used in the study, the results confirmed that TAM variables are relevant to explain the adoption of Ouedkniss.com and e-commerce. Moreover, the determinants of perceived usefulness were significant except one variable. Finally, the determinants of perceived ease of use were not significant.Thus, this model can be used, taking in consideration the significance of all variables, to explain and predict the adoption of e-commerce by Algerian users.

Fares Medjani

### Chapter 29. Consuming, Consumption, and Overindebtedness in (Hyper) Contemporaneity

Commercial societies are now known by the elements that characterize them; we hear talk of an information society, a network society, and an exclusionary society. Among other ideas, there is a logic that drives a society to offer, which then attracts the society that consumes, which in turn provides opportunities for a credit society and ultimately produces a society in debt.

Diogenes Faria de Carvalho

### Case VII: ICBC in the Digital Times

In the past more than ten years, the disintermediation wave struck the whole society. Especially when some non-financial enterprises used the mobile internet technology to infiltrate into the financial field rapidly, the internet finance was born. This new business gave birth to the new environment and pattern of the non-bank payment and financing intermediary so that the traditional banking was challenged seriously.

Xiaoming Zhu

### Kapitel 6. Social Media im Privatbereich

Der Privatbereich von Social Media-Anwendungen, d.h. die Nutzung von Social Media durch Privatpersonen in ihrem eigenen persönlichen Bereich, steht hier in Kap. 6 im Vordergrund, nachdem die Anwendungen von Social Media in Unternehmen in Kap. 4 und beim Staat in Kap. 5 bereits behandelt wurden. Der Privatbereich wird im Folgenden in vier Teilbereiche gegliedert, die starke Zusammenhänge und auch Überschneidungen aufweisen (vgl. Abb. 1.2 in Kap. 1), und zwar in den Konsumbereich, den Bildungsbereich, den Unterhaltungsbereich und in den Freizeitbereich (bzw. Freundeskreis). Ziel des sechsten Kapitels ist es, die vielfältigen Anwendungen von Social Media im Privatbereich, der einen wichtigen Bereich der mobilen Anwendungen darstellt, zu beschreiben. Ziel ist auch die Gegenüberstellung der Chancen und der Risiken von Social Media, die das private Leben unserer Gesellschaft stark bestimmen und einen zunehmenden Einfluss haben.

Roland Gabriel, Heinz-Peter Röhrs

### Kapitel 4. Social-Media-Anwendungen in Unternehmen

Social Media stellen für Unternehmen hervorragende Instrumente bereit, um vielfältige Anwendungen zu unterstützen, Dies gilt vor allem für betriebliche Kommunikationsprozesse (im Rahmen der Unternehmenskommunikation) und für Marketingaktivitäten (im Rahmen des Marketingmanagements bzw. der Marketingkommunikation), die effizient gestaltet und ausgeführt werden. Social Media lassen sich bei allen internen und externen Geschäftsprozessen innerhalb des Unternehmens und mit den Partnern des Unternehmens sinnvoll und erfolgreich einsetzen. Ziel des vierten Kapitels ist es, mögliche Anwendungen von Social Media in Unternehmen mit ihren Potenzialen, Chancen und Risiken vorzustellen und kritisch zu bewerten. Die Sicht der Unternehmen, d. h. die der Unternehmensführung bzw. des Managements und die ihrer Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter im Vordergrund stehen. Es wird gezeigt, wie die vielfältigen Möglichkeiten des Einsatzes von Social Media in Unternehmen genutzt werden und zum Unternehmenserfolg beitragen können.

Roland Gabriel, Heinz-Peter Röhrs

### Kapitel 1. Der Mensch im sozialen Netzwerk

Jeder Mensch ist in ein „soziales System“ bzw. in ein „soziales Netzwerk“ eingebunden und Teil einer Gesellschaft, unabhängig von der Nutzung computergestützter Systeme und Netze. Menschen tauschen in ihren Privat- und Arbeitsbereichen Informationen aus, um ihr Privat- und Arbeitsleben zu gestalten. Dabei bedienen sie sich ihrer Sprache und der Hilfsmittel wie z. B. Schrift und Telefonie. Ziel des ersten Kapitels ist es, die Grundlagen der sozialen Systeme zu beschreiben, die die Basis für die in den folgenden Kapiteln behandelten computergestützten bzw. Internet-basierten sozialen Netzwerke bilden, und damit den Einstieg in das Thema „Social Media“ vorzubereiten.

Roland Gabriel, Heinz-Peter Röhrs

### Intention to Adopt the Cash on Delivery (COD) Payment Model for E-commerce Transactions: An Empirical Study

The cash on delivery (COD) model has been increasingly used in the last few years as a method of payment for e-commerce transactions. However, little research has empirically investigated the factors that influence customers’ intention to adopt this method as opposed to traditional electronic payment methods. As a result, this paper aims to predict and test the factors that influence the customer’s intention to adopt the cash on delivery (COD) model for e-commerce transaction payments. A research model of key influencing factors and three hypotheses was developed based on previous conceptual research. To test these hypotheses, a questionnaire was designed to collect the data, which were analysed using the partial least squares (PLS) method in SmartPLS software. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that perceived security, privacy and trust exerted significant influence on the customers’ intention to adopt a COD payment system. The interpretation of the results and implications for practise and future research are also discussed.

### The Influence of Trust on User Interactions in e-Transaction Platforms: The Context of a Developing Country

This paper reports recent findings which aims at informing design ideas and identifying characteristics that could help to develop e-transaction applications and systems that promotes perceived trust. To accomplish our goals, we employed the socio-technical model of trust by Sousa et al. [26], to on one hand determine if users’ trust such e-payment system hosted by a third party company outside well known financial institutions (banks); then we further investigate how to incorporate trust into the platform. And on the other hand, as a design critique to establish bespoke visual clues that promotes perceived trust in the system and inform the system of potential pitfalls in their service design. A questionnaire was deployed to 500 current users of the platform and 106 valid responses were received. Our findings indicated that the trust features of concern to users are willingness, competency, predictability and benevolence with exception to honesty, reciprocity and motivation. Results presented are part of an ongoing research on trust related characteristics that should be tackled when designing and deploying e-transaction platforms in developing countries.

Godfrey O. Kingsley, Sónia Sousa, Abiodun Ogunyemi

### E-Payment Plan: A Conditional Multi-payment Scheme Based on User Personalization and Plan Agreement

In the past two decades, the development of payment solutions has significantly changed the way online retail businesses are conducted and enlarged the scope of numerous payment technologies offered in the market. Despite the multitude of payment solutions, card-based systems are still the most prevalent. While secure, card-based systems still lack privacy protection, user control and supervision. In this paper, we propose a new e-payment framework relying on card-based payment systems, with the aggregation of virtual credit cards and a personalized conditional E-Payment Plan defined by the cardholder. In our framework, the cardholder’s privacy is ensured with the use of Virtual Credit Cards. Moreover, with the E-Payment Plan Service Manager (E-PPSM), our proposed framework brings considerable improvements to the shopping practice. Through this service, cardholders can efficiently control and supervise their online purchases. The proposed framework thus ensures three considerable concentrations: personalization, control, and supervision applicable in multi-purchase checkouts, which are, in addition to privacy protection, our main contributions.

### 11. Electronic Commerce Payment Systems and Order Fulfillment

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe cross-border EC and the issues that arise in EC payments and fulfillment.2.Describe the major changes in retail and their impacts on EC payments.3.Discuss the different payment cards used online and processing methods.4.Discuss the different categories and potential uses of smart cards.5.Describe the issues with and solutions to online micropayments.6.Understand PayPal and third-party payment gateways.7.Understand the major types and methods of mobile payments.8.Describe the differences and key characteristics of digital and virtual currencies.9.Define EC order fulfillment and describe the EC order fulfillment process.10.Describe the major problems of EC order fulfillment.11.Describe various solutions to EC order fulfillment problems.

Efraim Turban, Judy Whiteside, David King, Jon Outland

### 1. Overview of Electronic Commerce and Social Commerce

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Define electronic commerce (EC) and describe its various categories.2.Describe and discuss the content and framework of EC.3.Describe the major types of EC transactions.4.Describe the drivers of EC.5.Discuss the benefits of EC to individuals, organizations, and society.6.Discuss social computing.7.Describe social commerce and social software.8.Understand the elements of the digital world.9.Describe some EC business models.10.List and describe the major limitations of EC.

Efraim Turban, Judy Whiteside, David King, Jon Outland

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe the B2B field.2.Describe the major types of B2B models.3.Discuss the models and characteristics of the sell-side marketplace, including auctions.4.Describe sell-side intermediaries.5.Describe the characteristics of the buy-side marketplace and e-procurement.6.Explain how reverse auctions work in B2B.7.Describe B2B aggregation and group-purchasing models.8.Define exchanges and describe their major types.9.Describe third-party exchanges.10.Describe how B2B can benefit from social networking and Web 2.0.11.Describe collaborative commerce.

Efraim Turban, Judy Whiteside, David King, Jon Outland

### Design of Secure and Efficient Electronic Payment System for Mobile Users

The recent advancement in smart phones and its widespread popularity switches the users of traditional computing to mobile computing. In addition, to facilitate users, hand held devices such as a mobile phone application for the payment method should be accepted for practical implementation. Recently, Yang et al. proposed an electronic payment protocol using payment gateway and claims that this scheme is suitable for cloud computing, where payment gateway is placed in the cloud area and all the communication between user, merchant, bank is performed via the payment gateway. However, it is known that cloud server is not considered as completely secured entity. Hence, by putting payment gateway on cloud server the author is endangering the security of system as a consequence it is not suitable for cloud environment. In this paper, we propose an efficient electronic payment protocol for mobile environment where mobile users can directly communicate with the merchant. It has been shown that our protocol has better security performance in terms of different attacks.

Prerna Mohit, Ruhul Amin, G. P. Biswas

### Chapter A: Changing consumer behavior as a challenge for brand management

Consumer purchase behavior is changing. This observation is underlying the MARKETING SCIENCE INSTITUTE’S central research priority “Understanding Customers and the Customer Experience”, and is a fact that is equally well acknowledged by academic researchers and marketing managers. In literature, the profound changes are often related to two underlying trends in industry dynamics.

Dr. Alexander Dierks

### 7. Security in Distributed Systems

The goal of this chapter is to give a broad overview on recent developments in securing distributed systems. Special emphasis is put on multilateral security which equally includes the mechanical protection of systems and the guided privacy preservation for users. In the cloud age, characterised by ubiquitous connectivity but also by almost sneaky data collection and activity pattern collection, such a broad view on security is warranted to not put anybody who eventually uses such complex systems at risk more than necessary. Despite extreme caution, there will never be an absolute security, and operational or interaction mistakes may still put users at risk.

Andriy Luntovskyy, Josef Spillner

### Demand Assessment and Design Aspect of City Gas Distribution Network

Natural gas is a promising policy element in achieving equitable, balanced, and sustainable economic growth by widening its user base beyond conventional industries. The City Gas Distribution is what we call the “last mile” in entire gas value chain. Gas supplies usually are at low/medium pressure to the residential/domestic, commercial, industrial consumers, and this is called as pipe natural gas and is compressed to very high pressure to increase the volumetric efficiency in order to make it compatible for the usage automobile sectors as compressed natural gas.

Sie lernen- verschiedene Einsatzmöglichkeiten webbasierter Anwendungssysteme unter dem Begriff „E-Business“ kennen,- wie sich Beschaffungsprozesse mit Hilfe eines E-Procurement-Systems optimieren lassen,- warum es wichtig ist, die Kundenbindung mit Hilfe eines CRM-Systems zu intensivieren,- welche Chancen und Risiken sich durch eine informationstechnische Unterstützung kompletter Wertschöpfungsketten ergeben,- wie Internet-Portale und elektronische Marktplätze funktionieren,- welche Möglichkeiten es zur Bezahlung bei Online-Geschäften gibt,- warum weltweite Standards eine wichtige Voraussetzung für das Funktionieren von E-Business sind,- welche Geschäftsmodelle im Internet kommerziell erfolgreich sind.

Dietmar Abts, Wilhelm Mülder

### 7. Fast Growing Internet Banking and Finance

In 2015, upon instruction from the State Council, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC), the banking supervision agency, granted six banking licences to non-banking institutions “on an experimental basis”. This initiative was aimed at spurring competition in the banking sector, promoting financial innovation and diversifying the range of banking products and services. With 600 million internet users who are already processing 50% of their shopping through online sale sites (against 20% in France and 33% in the UK), and 40% of global users of mobile banking through smartphones, China is already the world’s largest market. According to the World Bank, 55% of Asians, 64% of Chinese and 90% of Americans have a bank account. China has great growth potential.

Dominique De Rambures, Felipe Escobar Duenas

### Kapitel 3. Neuerfindung des stationären Handels

Der stationäre Handel gilt gemeinhin nicht als sehr innovativ. Dennoch bietet er hervorragende Ansatzpunkte, um die online praktizierte Kundenzentriertheit auch offline umzusetzen. Mit Hinblick auf die Digitalisierung sind zunächst aber noch die Basisvoraussetzungen zu schaffen. Vor allem die mentalen Blockaden und Barrieren, die mittlerweile sogar Politik und Verbände beschäftigen, sind abzubauen. Darüber hinaus müssen auch die technischen Grundlagen wie unter anderem elektronische Warenwirtschaftssysteme erarbeitet werden, bevor mit der digitalen Agenda losgelegt werden kann. Multi- und Omni-Channel-Handel stellen allerdings nur Vorstufen dar, da mit ihnen in der Regel der Laden nicht angefasst wird. Darum geht es aber vorrangig, und zwar sowohl aus einer „Outside-in“- als auch aus der „Inside-out“-Perspektive.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Cut Down the Tree to Achieve Constant Complexity in Divisible E-cash

Divisible e-cash, proposed in 1991 by Okamoto and Ohta, addresses a practical concern of electronic money, the problem of paying the exact amount. Users of such systems can indeed withdraw coins of a large value N and then divide it into many pieces of any desired values $$V\le N$$. Such a primitive therefore allows to avoid the use of several denominations or change issues. Since its introduction, many constructions have been proposed but all of them make use of the same framework: they associate each coin with a binary tree, which implies, at least, a logarithmic complexity for the spendings.In this paper, we propose the first divisible e-cash system without such a tree structure, and so without its inherent downsides. Our construction is the first one to achieve constant-time spendings while offering a quite easy management of the coins. It compares favorably with the state-of-the-art, while being provably secure in the standard model.

David Pointcheval, Olivier Sanders, Jacques Traoré

### Market Structure and Innovation Policies in Luxembourg

Luxembourg has attractive news media markets for international media companies due to its regional economic policy, the high ratio of foreigners to nationals, the highly skilled workforce and the multilingualism. It offers an attractive investment climate for companies. Luxembourg established the roots for commercial radio and TV in several other European countries. The Luxembourg’s media regulation style especially for broadcasting is characterized as minimalist liberal. This chapter shows that Luxembourg follows a combined approach between the regional economic policy to settle international media companies and to ensure a variety of multilingual media for the citizens and commuters. Media policy is viewed holistically as a part of the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector where infrastructure policy plays a major role. The country has the ambition to maintain its leading role in the ICT development in Europe.

Bernt von zur Mühlen, Andrea Zweifel

### Feature Selection Approaches to Fraud Detection in e-Payment Systems

Due to the large amount of data generated in electronic transactions, to find the best set of features is an essential task to identify frauds. Fraud detection is a specific application of anomaly detection, characterized by a large imbalance between the classes, which can be a detrimental factor for feature selection techniques. In this work we evaluate the behavior and impact of feature selection techniques to detect fraud in a Web Transaction scenario. To measure the effectiveness of the feature selection approach we use some state-of-the-art classification techniques to identify frauds, using real application data. Our results show that the imbalance between the classes reduces the effectiveness of feature selection and that resampling strategy applied in this task improves the final results. We achieve a very good performance, reducing the number of features and presenting financial gains of up to 57.5% compared to the actual scenario of the company.

Rafael Franca Lima, Adriano C. M. Pereira

### 9. The Internet, Crowdfunding and the Banking Industry

This chapter discusses some issues at the crossroads between the Internet and banking. It focuses on the impact of the Internet on the banking industry. As the topic is still very broad and the available space limited, only a selected number of more specific themes are covered. The section “The Internet, Network Effects and the Horizontalization of Organizations” discusses network effects and the horizontalization of established organizations and communications that arise from the Internet and social media, and how such horizontalization may ultimately affect market structure. The section “Loan‐Based Crowdfunding, Peer‐to‐Peer Lending and the Banking Industry” covers the main theme of the chapter, namely loan-based crowdfunding and peer-to-peer lending. This new form of corporate finance for smaller businesses is likely to affect banks’ core activities in several ways, some of which have already been studied in recent years. The section “Further Issues” discusses a few other topics related to the Internet and the banking industry that have attracted attention among researchers and for which data have become available. “Concluding Remarks” draws the chapter to a close.

Armin Schwienbacher

### Chapter 3. From NWICO to Global eCommerce: Telecommunications Restructuring and the GII

This chapter reminds us of the key concepts of international regime formation and points to several relevant historical international regimes. It then takes us back to the global contestation of the New World Information and Communications Order (NWICO), where some of the more influential civil society actors in the information society got their start. This chapter also illustrates how the ideological battles being fought in NWICO were continued into the broader restructuring of the international telecommunications regime (ITR), leading to what the chapter calls the Global Electronic Commerce versus the Global Information Society (GIS) debate. This framing of the debate highlights the differences between the principles and values required to facilitate the development of a corporate-driven global electronic commerce (GEC) regime in contrast to an open and people-centered GIS regime.

Derrick L. Cogburn

### Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Die Kundenzentriertheit muss Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Kapitel 5. Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz im Online-Handel

Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz ergeben sich aus der bestmöglichen Umsetzung der Erfolgsfaktoren, die sie auf der anderen Seite aber auch maßgeblich mit bestimmt haben. Die folgenden Best Practices wurden durch Online-Recherchen identifiziert. Die Daten, Zahlen und Fakten dazu wurden größtenteils den aktuellen Geschäftsberichten aus 2014/2015 oder Informationen auf den Websites und aus der Presse entnommen.

Gerrit Heinemann

### Herausforderungen und Chancen für die Digitalisierung von Handelsunternehmen.

„Durch die zunehmende Digitalisierung aufgrund technologischer Innovationen haben sich die Arbeitswelten im Handel grundlegend verändert und werden dies weiter tun“ (Weinfurtner et al. 2015, S. 2). Diese Aussage von Weinfurtner spiegelt exemplarisch eine Vielzahl aktueller Einschätzungen wider, die den fundamentalen Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf bisherige sowie zukünftige Prozesse in Handelsunternehmen diskutieren. Darüber hinaus ist aus unternehmerischen Sicht dem Umstand Rechnung zu tragen, dass die Komplexität entscheidungsrelevanter Rahmenbedingungen zugenommen hat.

Bernd Leukert, Rainer Gläß
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