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After a recall of the genesis of Earth observation from space, the article deals with the issues linked with dual use of space imagery. After an attempt to define duality, some examples of dual-use systems are exposed. The objectives, benefits, but also blocking issues are then addressed through some study cases and analyses.
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The total cost of Helios program was estimated around 10 bFr in 1995 which can be considered as 2–3 b€ of today.
Conflict has to be understood as a period when national security, international obligations, and/or foreign policies may be compromised.
Pleiades is a constellation of two heliosynchronous satellites. P1 was launched in December 2011 and the launch of P2 is expected in December 2012. Resolution of the imagery products provided by the system is down to 0.5 m using a specific algorithm of CNES to enhance the quality of the raw images with a 0.7 m resolution.
DigitalGlobe and GeoEye companies decided to merge in 2012.
A memorandum of agreement was signed in June 2001 between the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (French space agency) and the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italian space agency) for the definition phase of a dual system with an Earth observation capability using optical satellites, radar satellites, and an associated ground segment. The dual system to be developed is composed of the following elements:
An optical component composed of two satellites and the corresponding ground functions, developed under French control
A radar component composed of 4 satellites and the corresponding ground functions, developed under Italian control
A user ground segment developed jointly by France and Italy
The basic resolution of the imagery is 70 cm, but the processing system uses a specific algorithm to provide a product ortho rectified with a ground resolution equivalent to 50 cm.
Using R&D funds from the FP7 and FP6 framework program, EC funded a lot of projects to define what could be the use of space imagery for security and emergency: G-MOSAIC, SAFER, MARISS.
The European Common Security and Defence Policy or CSDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union (EU). This covers essentially external operations using police or military means and troops (Petersberg missions). Part of the “S” of the CSDP is thus covering also military sphere.
In 2009 the space budget for France was $2.7 b and $1.6 b for Germany, compared to $972 M for Italy and $474 M for UK. “Space economy at a glance 2011, OCDE July 2011”
Figures are author’s personal estimation due to his professional experience (military and civilian) after more than 20 years in the area of satellite imagery.
go back to reference 2007 French Finance Bill. Défense, environnement et prospective de la politique de défense. n°3367 tome II, 12.10.06. 2007 French Finance Bill. Défense, environnement et prospective de la politique de défense. n°3367 tome II, 12.10.06.
go back to reference European Space Policy. Frequently asked questions. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/space/faqs_en.html#5 European Space Policy. Frequently asked questions. http://ec.europa.eu/comm/space/faqs_en.html#5
go back to reference Florinini AM. The opening skies Florinini AM. The opening skies
go back to reference Lopinto E, ASI (2006) Overview of COSMO system. In: ASI-JAXA symposium on space technology. http://dmss.tksc.jaxa.jp/dmweb/themes/original/images/06_lopinto.pdf Lopinto E, ASI (2006) Overview of COSMO system. In: ASI-JAXA symposium on space technology. http://dmss.tksc.jaxa.jp/dmweb/themes/original/images/06_lopinto.pdf
go back to reference Risen J (2012) A military and intelligence clash over spy satellites. New York Times, 19 April 2012 Risen J (2012) A military and intelligence clash over spy satellites. New York Times, 19 April 2012
- Earth Observation for Security and Dual Use
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