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2024 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Eco-Friendly Synthesis of MgO Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications: Advances, Challenges, and Future Prospects

Authors : Natarajan Sisubalan, Shalini Ramadoss, Muniraj Gnanaraj, Arumugam Vijayan, Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran, Sivamaruthi Bhagavathi Sundaram, Chaiyasut Chaiyavat, Varaprasad Kokkarachedu

Published in: Nanoparticles in Modern Antimicrobial and Antiviral Applications

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as MgO nanoparticles (NPs), possess various beneficial properties like antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antibiofilm effects. However, traditional chemical synthesis methods for producing MgO NPs have two issues: poor biocompatibility and the formation of harmful substances that can harm the environment. To address these concerns, there has been a growing interest in eco-friendly techniques, employing greener chemistry to produce nanoparticles through alternative routes. Four distinct approaches are used by plants, fungi, bacteria, and algae to generate MgO nanoparticles. These methods utilize the metabolites produced by biological materials and their extracts to stabilize and cap the particles, leading to nanoparticle formation. Factors like pH, extraction ratio, and temperature significantly impact the size, stability, shape, and surface area of the resulting MgO nanoparticles. The use of green methods or biomethods to synthesize nanoparticles offers several advantages, such as being eco-friendly and nontoxic to living organisms, making them well-suited for various biological applications. The synthesized MgO nanoparticles have demonstrated promising potential as effective agents against pathogens, particularly in biomedical fields, due to their biocompatibility and eco-friendliness. Their antibacterial properties primarily result from the disruption of cell walls or membranes and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there remain gaps in our understanding of the long-term toxicity, diffusion, absorption, and excretion mechanisms of these nanoparticles. To further explore their potential uses, additional research is required, either in laboratory settings (in vitro) or within living organisms (in vivo). By genetically modifying plant sources, it becomes feasible to control the configuration, uniformity, and resilience of the nanoparticles. Conducting thorough assessments of the antioxidant potential of biogenic MgO NPs will provide valuable insights into their practical applications. In conclusion, eco-friendly synthesis methods for MgO nanoparticles hold great promise for industrial and biological uses. Their inherent biocompatibility and environmentally friendly nature make them valuable candidates for a wide range of applications, especially in combating pathogens. However, further research is necessary to fully realize their potential benefits and explore their contributions to societal betterment.

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Metadata
Title
Eco-Friendly Synthesis of MgO Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications: Advances, Challenges, and Future Prospects
Authors
Natarajan Sisubalan
Shalini Ramadoss
Muniraj Gnanaraj
Arumugam Vijayan
Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran
Sivamaruthi Bhagavathi Sundaram
Chaiyasut Chaiyavat
Varaprasad Kokkarachedu
Copyright Year
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-50093-0_9

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