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2021 | Book

EcoDesign and Sustainability I

Products, Services, and Business Models

Editors: Dr. Yusuke Kishita, Dr. Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Dr. Masato Inoue, Dr. Shinichi Fukushige

Publisher: Springer Singapore

Book Series : Sustainable Production, Life Cycle Engineering and Management


About this book

This book highlights cutting-edge ecodesign research, covering product and service design, smart manufacturing, and social perspectives in ecodesign. Featuring selected papers presented at EcoDesign 2019: 11th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, it also includes diverse, interdisciplinary approaches to foster ecodesign research and activities. In the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it addresses the need for the manufacturing industry to design innovations for sustainable value creation, taking into account technological developments, legislation, and consumer lifestyles. Further, the book discusses the concept of circular economy, which originated in Europe and aims to increase resource efficiency by shifting away from the linear economy.

Focusing on product life cycle design and management, smart manufacturing, circular economy, and business strategies, and providing useful approaches and solutions to these emerging concepts, this book is intended for both researchers and practitioners working in the broad field of ecodesign and sustainability.

Table of Contents


Product and Service Design

Chapter 1. Industrial Designers Towards Design Concepts Based on the Water and Fire Themes—A Review and Comparison of Sustainability Considerations

The preliminary research contributes to an initial discussion in the field of industrial design regarding the natural resources of water and fire for sustainability. It reviews and compares the aptitudes of industrial designers from around the world and submitted to the respected International Design Competition, Osaka organized by the Japanese Design Foundation and supported by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry. It contributes to efforts to support and promote the importance of natural resources of water and fire sustainability from an industrial design perspective. According to the results, the large number of design concepts in differents categories suggests that industrial designers had the most flexibility to express their design concepts in this manner. The respective themes of water and fire had a relationship with each product design fields. The products design from water theme were characterized by common elements of evolutions, like methods of utilizing the nature, non consumption energy, clean use and so on. While in the fire theme was characterized by products design that produce energy through sunlight and products design that previne and protection from accidents caused by fire.

Ueda Edilson
Chapter 2. Time Axis Design as an EcoDesign Method

Time axis design is a design method with which a designer considers temporal changes of social situation, surrounding environment of design objects, users (including their values), and design objects. Although some products were designed with considering temporal changes, the concept of time axis design is not well organized until now. For clarifying the basic concepts of time axis design, this paper first illustrates cases of time axis design and extracts indispensable elements of time axis design. Second, this paper proposes a time axis design support method. Third, as a case study, this paper illustrates time axis design of umbrella. As a result, this paper shows that the proposed design method is effective in stimulating a designer for deriving design ideas.

Kentaro Watanabe, Fumiya Sakamoto, Yusuke Kishita, Yasushi Umeda
Chapter 3. Design of Household Appliances Considering Remanufacturing: A Case Study

Remanufacturing is a manufacturing technology that incorporates cost-effective energy savings and sustainability principles to improve the effective reuse of materials at the end-of-life. Leading global remanufacturing countries are promoting the remanufacturing market through the diversification of remanufactured items and the improvement of consumer reliability. Remanufacturing business can be value-added combining with the rental service which is so called product-service system (PSS). In particular, remanufactured home appliances can easily be applied as product-service business model. Initial important condition for successful remanufacturing is how the product is well designed for disassembly at its end of life. In general, the product is characterized at the initial stage of its development. So, it is necessary to apply the design considering remanufacture at the beginning of the product development if the product is planned to be remanufactured at its end of life. This paper thus presents a method to diagnose the structure of the product and extract the major improvement factors for easy disassembly. Also, the application of these factors to small household appliances in the product design stage is highlighted. The validity of the design methodology is also analyzed through the demonstration of the water purifier in terms of assemblability/ disassemblability, cleaning efficiency and processing time.

Hong-Yoon Kang, Yong-Sung Jun, Ji-Hyoung Park, Eun-Hyeok Yang
Chapter 4. Persuasive Design for Improving Battery Swap Service Systems of Electric Scooters

Automatic battery swap stations have been recently set widely in Taiwan while the system operators have found significant differences among the battery utilization rates of the stations. To reduce the battery idle time in the less visited stations, this study looks for effective persuasive design strategies that persuade users to choose the less visited stations. After useful persuasive strategies were collected from the related literature, eighteen feasible design strategies were proposed by considering the problem characteristics. A questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the persuasion effects of the eighteen design strategies by using the storyboard method. The persuasive design strategies with higher persuasion effect are identified and recommended for reducing the gap of battery utilization rates. Furthermore, by using the statistical analysis like ANOVA to analyze the persuasion effect with respect to demographical variables such as gender and age, the results could help choose effective persuasive strategies for different target customer groups.

Li-Hsing Shih, Yi-Tzu Chien
Chapter 5. Service Design of Rehabilitative Exoskeleton for Sustainable Value Creation: A Case Study of Stroke Rehabilitation in China

Stroke is characterized by high morbidity and high disability rate. Physical rehabilitation can effectively alleviate functional disability of stroke patients, and thus reduce potential nursing costs and save social resources. Given the prominent conflicts between limited resources provision-especially the qualified rehabilitative personnel-and the huge demands of rehabilitation, China is now actively encouraging R&D as well as popularization and application of rehabilitation robots. Aside from the design of rehabilitative exoskeleton itself, which is the focus of most studies in this era, the service design is also critical if rehabilitative exoskeletons are to realize the declared social-economic benefits. Service design may provide solutions to wider and fairer access to exoskeleton, better affordability and satisfaction of exoskeleton-based treatments, while creates monetary or non-monetary benefits for manufacturers, medical facilitates and other possible stakeholders. This study is focused on rehabilitative exoskeleton value creation. The service design of rehabilitative exoskeleton for stroke patients, which is considered the most promising application era of exoskeleton technology in China, are exploited based on the national conditions. First, sustainable value was conceptualized based on the understanding of value from the sustainable view point that includes economic, social and environmental perspectives. Then, the application scenarios of stroke patients’ exoskeleton-based rehabilitation were developed based on China’s multi-level rehabilitation service delivery system. In accordance to a modular product architecture, the service design of rehabilitative exoskeleton driven by sustainable value requirements with life cycle considerations was presented. The proposed sustainable value-driven service design may provide insights to rehabilitative exoskeleton developers and manufacturers in servitization of the emerging technology.

Jing Tao, Suiran Yu
Chapter 6. State-of-the-art on Product-Service Systems and Digital Technologies

Digitalization has undoubtedly revolutionized the way businesses think, plan and operate. This transition finds origin in the dramatic increase in demand of digital solutions, from those that target every day activities to highly-specific manufacturing processes. The last decades have been characterized for having both researchers and practitioners join efforts to innovate through solutions that are smarter, more productive and more efficient. This constant effort has accompanied the appearance of other impactful phenomena, often considered as a new industrial revolution. In a historically parallel line, companies made leaps towards exploring alternative ways to organize their business structure and relate to their customers. So is the case of Product-Service Systems (PSS), which have called for increased attention in the last years due to the extensive opportunities they offer. Recent literature raises the question of which and how sustainability advantages can be derived from PSS implementation. This study aims to understand the interactions of digital technologies and PSS through a state-of-the-art review. The authors have identified that academic literature encounters the challenge of finding digital technologies under a large cloud of different terminologies, which complicates systematization. Therefore, increased efforts will be applied to clarify the area of study and provide novel insights and results. This process will include the dissemination of enablers, constrains and possible effects of integrating digital technologies with PSS. The authors aim to contribute to the on-going discussion regarding the relationship between PSS and sustainability, specifically in applications that have high impacts, such as digital technologies.

Clarissa A. González Chávez, Mélanie Despeisse, Björn Johansson
Chapter 7. Material-service Systems for Sustainable Resource Management

In current supply chains, material suppliers sell raw material resources to producers who sub-sequentially sell produced resourced to consumers. Ownership of resources, therefore, shifts from a few organisations to many consumers who are responsible to deal with them at the end of life. Product-service systems are business models where producers retaining ownership of produced resources have increased control on obsolete resources. Motivated by the need to facilitate an unlimited use of materials and eliminate waste, this research has introduced the concept of material-service systems, which are business models where material suppliers offer materials as a service to product producers. These systems offer the advantage that material suppliers are in control of resources and are incentivized to revalorise them. A scenario is explored in which a material-service system operates in conjunction with a product-service system and one in which it functions on its own. Finally, the benefits and incentives of the proposed service systems are discussed along with potential enablers and challenges.

Marco Aurisicchio, Anouk Zeeuw Van Der Laan, Mike Tennant
Chapter 8. Designing for Vehicle Recyclability from the Perspectives of Material and Joining Choices

The increasing use of lightweight materials and multi-material vehicle designs has improved the environmental impacts during the use phase through reduced vehicle mass. However, the growing complexity of vehicle designs has led to challenges in the choice of joining techniques. Previous ecodesign guidelines encourage less use of joints to reduce potential weak spots. However, minimizing the number of joints contradict with the increasing variety of multi-material combinations and their associated joining techniques. Consequently, the use of multi-material designs and their associated joining choices further reduces the effectiveness of current shredding and sorting recycling processes. This paper proposes a vehicle design framework for material and joining preferences to assist in material recyclability. Observations from previous case studies in Australia and Europe supplemented by literature data are used to assess the correlation between different material types, material separability through commonly used recycling practices, and material compatibility during the metallurgical processing. The method used to evaluate the design preferences for material separation during recycling are discussed. This work provides critical insights into the linkage between vehicle design and recycling phases to promote environmentally conscious design of products.

Vi Kie Soo, Paul Compston, Matthew Doolan
Chapter 9. Eco-innovation by Integrating Emerging Technologies with ARIZ Method

This paper integrates emerging technologies with ARIZ method and presents a process of eco-innovative design. The process is based on emerging technology database and ARIZ-85C (Fey) innovation algorithm. With the connection between the database and ARIZ-85C (Fey), designers can analyze problems step by step and take advantage of the traits of suitable emerging technologies to solve problem and create innovative design. Furthermore, this process adds the concept of functional assessment and eco-assessment to confirm that designers develop an innovative design that not only can effectively solve the problem, but also more friendly to the environment.

Jahau Lewis Chen, Chi-Yu Chou
Chapter 10. Video Networks of Sustainable Design: The Doughnut Perspective

Economics is going through a radical change to better account for biological and social indicators of health and prosperity, the so-called Doughnut Economics proposed by Kate Raworth. Through this framework, design understood as creating ways of being is an integral component of economic development. On the other hand, some recent studies are proposing to incorporate Doughnut Economics in specific design areas. Previous research by the authors analysed YouTube sustainable design videos in English and Spanish. However, the present study classifies the videos according to Doughnut Economics indicators to provide a more comprehensible description of local design processes and products, the contextual factors tied to them, and communication patterns of sustainable design in YouTube. There was a clear difference on design areas and approaches; and types of communication hubs across country groups. The study has implications for the conceptualization of design as a multidisciplinary and participatory process, where global and local dynamics should account for planetary sustainability and resilience.

Vargas Meza Xanat, Yamanaka Toshimasa

Business Models and Policies

Chapter 11. Barriers for Remanufacturing Business in Southeast Asia: The Role of Governments in Circular Economy

Remanufacturing is one of the key determinants in enhancing resource efficiency of economies and pursuing circular economy. Facilitating international remanufacturing supply chain enhances the effects of remanufacturing. This study focused on the current scenario in remanufacturing businesses and related policies in Southeast Asia through interviews with 12 companies in 4 Southeast Asian countries, namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, and Philippines, and 5 Japan-based companies having remanufacturing facilities in Southeast Asia. The study presents the barriers for the remanufacturing businesses and debates on the roles of the governments to promote remanufacturing.

Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Kenichiro Chinen, Khairur Rijal Jamaludin, Badli Shah Mohd Yusoff
Chapter 12. Efforts to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Japanese Automobile Recycling Industry

A CO2 reduction program “Green Point Club”, researched and developed by Waseda University and Japan Automobile Parts Recyclers Association (JAPRA), was announced in 2007 as a groundbreaking effort that has been developed to add a new “Environmental Contribution Index” to recycling parts. With the momentum of CO2 reduction such as abnormal temperature increasing, we promoted the use of recycled parts of vehicles will help to reduce the CO2 reduction effect. In this study, we summarize the CO2 reduction figures from using recycled parts in the past 10 years in Japan and verified it. We would like to the spread the method such as cooperation with the administration, information exchange with foreign countries, point return etc. and aim at further usage expansion.

Sosho Kitajima, Hiroshi Onoda
Chapter 13. Study of Formalization of Informal Collectors Under a Dual-Channel Reverse Logistics: A Game Theoretic Approach

Proper and appropriate collection and recycling of Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are necessary regarding their value and harmfulness. However, the formal collection channel and appropriate recycling of WEEE are still in their infancy in most developing countries. In contrast, informal collection and recycling activities play a big role in end-of-life treatment of WEEE. Informal recycling activities are always associated with environmental pollution, poor working and living conditions for informal recyclers, while informal collection activities are regarded as helpful and beneficial to waste collection as well as jobs opportunity for the low-income population. Considering these, this study is conducted to analyze the possibility of incorporating informal collectors into formal channel and to provide efficient countermeasures for a better formalization extent. Based on game theory, a dual-channel collection and recycling model is established, in which the formal and informal recycling activities are divided. In this dual-channel model, the informal collector has two choices, either sending WEEE to the formal recycler or to the informal recycler. The authors also introduce the bargaining power of the informal recycler in the model. Considering the formal recycler as the Stackelberg leader, the optimal solutions of the dual-channel model are solved. The results indicate that under a certain condition a higher formalization extent can be achieved as the decreased bargaining power of informal collectors and the decreased additional cost of formal recycling. Accordingly, several countermeasures are proposed to promote the formalization of informal collectors.

Juntao Wang, Nozomu Mishima
Chapter 14. Ecodesign and the Circular Economy: Conflicting Policies in Europe

The number of policies that address the various life cycle environmental impacts of products are increasing, especially in Europe. With the rise of the Circular Economy (CE) concept, the traditional product policies have been supported by new ones that pursue new policy objectives such as increasing product lifetimes and encourage more repairs. In this contribution we discuss principles for improving synergies and reduce conflicts among different product policies. We then outline some of the recent conflicts between policies that have emerged in the context of the CE. We conclude that often the conflicts can be mitigated, or that it is possible to reach a compromise. However, we need to accept that in many cases there is no solution that will satisfy all involved stakeholders.

Carl Dalhammar, Leonidas Milios, Jessika Luth Richter
Chapter 15. Sustainable Supply Chain Management of Clothing Industry—Current Policy Landscape and Roles and Limitation of Multi-stakeholder Initiatives

High environmental and social impacts arisen from long and complicated global supply chain of clothing industry has been long recognized. However, a thorough review of the sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) policy development pertaining to clothing industry at the EU level indicates that legislative measures specifically addressing SSCM of clothing industry is currently lacking. Multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) emerged as a non-legislative governance measure engaging various stakeholders, and its role to fill in the governance gap has been highlighted in, among others, the global supply chains of clothing industry. Interviews with nine Swedish brand representatives participating in three selected MSIs—Sustainable Apparel Coalition, Sweden Textile Water Initiative and Textile Exchange—on one hand elucidate tangible contributions of the three case MSIs to the brands’ SSCM measures. We meanwhile also observe the trend of various MSIs to consolidate their efforts and harmonise their activities, and that the discourse within the MSIs tend to be dominated by a few large brands. The outcome of such discourse, such as standards which in light of current lack of legislative measures could serve as default global standards, may become a suboptimal compromise from sustainability standpoint. The paper closes with potential future way forward to enhance sustainability of clothing supply chain.

Dominika Machek, Caroline Heinz, Naoko Tojo

Circular Production and Life Cycle Management

Chapter 16. Production Planning of Remanufactured Products with Inventory by Life-Cycle Simulation

Manufacturers can reduce environmental impact and costs by introducing remanufacturing. In remanufacturing, inventory control of remanufactured and newly manufactured products should be considered for production planning. It is indispensable for predicting the demand quantity of products and the collecting quantity of used products to minimize the total cost incurred by remanufacturing and newly manufacturing. The prediction varies depending on the product characteristics and the time elapsed since shipment. In this paper, we study a remanufacturing system minimizing the total cost by a life-cycle simulation method. In the flow of products, there are two types of inventory: one is a remanufactured and newly manufactured product inventory before shipment to the market, and the other is a collected product inventory for used products. Depending on the time elapsed since launch, products pass through an introductory stage, a growth stage, a maturity stage, and a decline stage in a usual manner. We analyze the impact on the total cost of the prediction accuracy of the product demand and the collected used products to each stage. When the ratio of an ordering cost for newly manufactured products to an inventory holding cost for the finished products has a significant value, or as the life-cycle stage is approaching the decline stage, the predicting accuracy of collection of the used products and the product demand has a high impact on the total cost.

Susumu Okumura, Nobuyoshi Hashimoto, Taichi Fujita
Chapter 17. Stakeholders’ Influence Towards Sustainability Transition in Textile Industries

With the rise of global challenges associated with linear models of production, transitioning to more sustainable models has become increasingly important and urgent. However, this transition is not done systematically due to a general lack of organizational knowledge and motivation to apply existing models, metrics and frameworks for sustainability. The current sustainable value proposition in organizations also shows that management rarely has a clear implementation strategy and underestimates what is required for a successful sustainability transition to take place. In addition, few empirical studies exist to corroborate these observations. This research focuses on analyzing the organizational barriers to the long-term sustainable transformation process, by considering the interests of all stakeholders, including the planet. The objective of the paper is to provide guidelines in the form of a decision support framework to textile industries to adopt and implement green technologies in their sustainability transition process.

Arpita Chari, Mélanie Despeisse, Ilaria Barletta, Björn Johansson, Ernst Siewers
Chapter 18. The Environmental Implications of Digitalization in Manufacturing: A Case Study

The potential of digital technologies is widely discussed and recognized, mainly focusing on process automation, efficiency improvements and quality control. The implications on environmental sustainability is mostly considered from a theoretical perspective rather than operational. This study aims to reveal the potential of digital technologies to reduce the environmental impact in industrial practice. A case study was carried out at two manufacturing sites of an international manufacturing company producing mechanical components for the global markets. Data and insights were collected through interviews and observations. This paper presents the findings in terms of real life implementations and potentials to reduce the environmental impact using digital technologies along the manufacturing value chain, which can serve as input and guideline for the manufacturing industry.

Xiaoxia Chen, Mélanie Despeisse, Patrik Dahlman, Paul Dietl, Björn Johansson
Chapter 19. Life Cycle Simulation System as a Tool for Improving Flow Management in Circular Manufacturing

Circular manufacturing is a system that manufactures items with multiple circulations, that is, reuse or recycling to use these items efficiently in their life cycles. To manage such complex systems and design circular manufacturing scenarios, an accurate circulation flow management method and life cycle scenarios are necessary. In this study, we developed a life cycle simulation system that is versatile enough to improve the flow management method. Further, we applied it to lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles, evaluated its life cycle scenario, and improved the circulation flow management method.

Keito Asai, Dai Nishida, Shozo Takata
Chapter 20. Part Agents for Exchanging Modules of Manipulators

To realize the reuse of mechanical parts for the development of a sustainable society, it is necessary to manage individual parts throughout their life cycles. For this purpose, we develop a part agent system using network agents and RFID (radio-frequency identification) technology. To reuse machine parts effectively, we have developed functions of a part agent to predict its deterioration based on the operation history and deterioration information of the part, and to select an appropriate reuse partner based on consumer preference information. To verify the functions of the part agent system, we develop a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) manipulator with modules that can be exchanged, and perform a module exchange experiment. This manipulator is composed of multiple modules that we designed to be easily exchanged. A part agent assigned to a module controls the module, collects its deterioration information, and manages its data. In addition, a part agent that manages a manipulator cooperates with part agents of other manipulators to select a module that is suitable for exchange with its own module. In this paper, we propose a module exchange method for manipulators using part agents. We also discuss the issues involved in exchanging modules and the solutions to these issues.

Yuki Fukazawa, Yuichi Honda, Hiroyuki Hiraoka
Chapter 21. Closed Loop Tolerance Engineering Modelling and Maturity Assessment in a Circular Economy Perspective

Decisions made in the development stage of a new products will affect the whole lifecycle of the product. Manufacturing costs, product performance, maintainability and customer satisfaction in the use phase are parameters the engineers need to consider. In a sustainability perspective can durability and a potential long lifetime with less breakdowns be regarded as positive. Additionally, in a circular economy perspective the potentials for easy disassembly, recyclability and remanufacturing or reuse at the end of life are important. The selection of precision levels and tolerance limits on geometry and material properties in the design phase of mechanical components are decisive for these aspects. While tolerance selections traditionally focused most on meeting customer requirements and interchangeability of parts for assembly, the product development engineers are now facing several “Design for X”—challenges where tolerance selections and distributions are one of the key issues. This paper describes a Closed Loop Tolerance Engineering (CLTE) model describing information flow for tolerance engineering throughout the product lifecycle. The model includes feed forward and feedback of data and information between functional requirements description, tolerance synthesis and analysis, manufacturing process capabilities, measured product performance and end-of-life considerations.

Kristian Martinsen, Carla Susana A. Assuad, Tomomi Kito, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Venkata Reddy, Sverre Guldbrandsen-Dahl
Chapter 22. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Batteries Recoverability Through a Dynamic Fleet Based Approach

The aim of this study is to propose a dynamic model for forecasting the changes in the number of batteries recovered from end of life electric vehicles considering different power trains. To achieve a sustainable society, the dependency of the energy on fossil fuels must be overcome. One of the first steps to manage this objective is through the reduction of its direct consumption by the wide-scale adoption of EV (HV/PHV/BEV/FCV). Low cost and stable production of lithium ion batteries (LiB) are expected to be a key element for the electrification of the transportation. For this reason, an efficient cascade use of electric vehicle batteries (EVB) to minimize its raw material supply risk, disposal risk, environmental impact and material cost/consumption in its production process become essential. Additionally, by the promotion of a closed loop life cycle, cost reduction in the end of life batteries treatments can be also expected. However, to grab this opportunity and create a sustainable market, balance between the demand and recoverability of LiB must be clarified to propose reliable second life projects. This study proposes a method based on system dynamics modeling for forecasting the vehicle fleet, sales and end of life vehicles by power train considering data of scrapping rates of vehicles by year of use. Moreover, the supply potential of scrapped batteries from a reverse logistic scheme is analyzed. Here, the Japanese vehicle market is considered as a case study and a timeframe of 2018 to 2050 forecasted. Results indicate that the amount of scrapped EVB will increase 45 times from 2020 to 2050. Moreover, a complete closed loop of them can be expected around 2050 only if the exportation of used electric vehicles is hardly diminished.

Fernando Enzo Kenta Sato, Toshihiko Nakata
Chapter 23. Application of Causality Model to Propose Maintenance Action of Parts

This paper discusses the application of a causality model to propose maintenance actions for the purpose of promoting the reuse of mechanical parts. To realize effective reuse of mechanical parts for the development of a sustainable society, it is essential to manage the individual parts over their entire life cycle. For this purpose, we are developing a “part agent” that is programmed to follow its real-life counterpart throughout its life cycle. A part agent provides the user with appropriate advices on the reuse of its part and promotes the circulation of reused parts. In this study, we propose a method to estimate the probability of failure occurrence and determine the corresponding maintenance action. The probability of the failure occurrence is calculated by the causality among events relating to the part and the conditional probability, which is the probability of occurrence of the resultant event against the occurrence of input events. To calculate the conditional probability of events representing the state of a part, the deterioration of the part is simulated based on its operating and environmental conditions. A causality model including this conditional probability is constructed, and the failure probability of the part is estimated. In this paper, we report a mechanism that updates the conditional probabilities according to the operating and environmental conditions that correspond to the different stages in a life cycle.

Takeru Nagahata, Hiroki Saitoh, Hiroyuki Hiraoka
Chapter 24. Life Cycle Simulation of Machine Parts with Part Agents Supporting Their Reuse

To effectively reuse machine parts for the development of a circulating society, it is essential to manage each part throughout its life cycle. Therefore, we propose a part agent that manages the part information and supports the user in reusing the part. A part agent is a network agent that autonomously acts corresponding to an individual part, manages information regarding a part from manufacturing to disposal, and proposes actions such as disposal and reuse to its user at an appropriate time. This activity promotes part reuse, reduce, and recycle. However, it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of a part agent by implementing it in an actual product and operating the product throughout its life cycle. Hence, we developed a system to simulate the behavior of parts and products throughout the entire life cycle with the part agent installed. There are several means to reuse products and the appropriate reuse method for the user differs according to the environment and the user’s manner of thinking. In this study, we conducted a life cycle simulation considering different reuse methods using the part agents.

Takumi Sugahara, Tsuramichi Tanigawa, Hiroyuki Hiraoka
Chapter 25. Model-Based Design of Product-Related Information Management System for Accelerating Resource Circulation

In the manufacturing industry, information about products accumulated through the whole life cycle such as design descriptions, usage data, and failure event history is considered crucial to innovate the industry’s value propositions. Although such information can be used to increase the efficiency of the operations and decision makings in the end-of-life stage, such information is not effectively shared and used by the potential stakeholders involved in the life cycle of products. In order to analyze the value of information sharing among the stakeholders and design a system to realize desired information sharing, this study proposes a simulation-based approach to specify the external and internal requirements of such a system and evaluate the impact of the system on resource circulation and profitability of the stakeholders.

Hitoshi Komoto, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Shinsuke Kondoh
Chapter 26. Recyclability of Tungsten, Tantalum and Neodymium from Smartphones

Despite increasing pressure to reduce the consumption of critical resources, a number of highly relevant elements are still not being recycled from electronics, or only in the few applications, where they are used in bigger units. In high volume products and particular mobile products such as smartphones the content of these materials is low per unit, but still a large quantity when multiplied with millions of units shipped per year. The sustainably SMART projects explores the option to separate components containing tantalum, neodymium and tungsten from disassembled smartphones as these metals are lost in conventional electronics waste recycling processes. In this paper the target components are tantalum capacitors, loudspeakers, and vibration motors. Example quantities per device are explored and mirrored against current and potential recycling processes.

Nils F. Nissen, Julia Reinhold, Karsten Schischke, Klaus-Dieter-Lang
Chapter 27. An Economic Evaluation of Recycling System in Next-Generation Vehicles Considering the Risk of Spilled EOL to Overseas

In recent years, the demand for rare resources used for high-tech products has been increased due to growing populations and industrial developments. Since rare resources are limited in producing countries, countries that cannot produce them at home are expected to become depleted. Therefore, it is important to keep resources by recovering and regenerating rare resources from End-of-life product (EOL). From this, the formation of a recycling-oriented society that considers regeneration to improve resource depletion and secure scarce resources is drawing attention. However, with a recycling business, the expense is required for recovery and reproduction of EOL. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the cost by determining the location and recovery route of the recycling site. Furthermore, in order to maintain a high recovery rate, it is necessary to prevent and protect the risk of spilled EOL to overseas. Therefore, in order to continue maintaining a recycling business, after evaluating risk and economic efficiency in advance, it is necessary to design a system. Furthermore, the overseas outflow of many used products is caused in the pursuit of high profits in recent years. For that reason, the overseas outflow of EOL also causes the outflow of rare earth indispensable to manufacture of the high-tech machine included in used products. If foreign spills occur, countries that cannot produce rare earth in their own country will run out of resources. This lack of resources can reduce the productivity of high-tech products. In other words, if it not only can pursue the present profits but the risk and economic efficiency of a recycling business can be evaluated by taking future value into consideration, it will become possible to build the maintainable recycling system which foresaw the future. If it is possible to construct a recycling system for next-generation vehicles whose production number is increasing with CO2 emission regulations and the trend of the times, overseas spills of rare earth such as neodymium are prevented and future recycling Business will be better. This study considers collecting rare earths from a next-generation car, and reproducing, and aims at performing economic efficiency evaluation with the risk of a new recycling business. In this study, some scenarios are set up and the knowledge to a future recycling business is given by evaluating risk and economic efficiency for each scenario.

Hiroshi Kuroki, Aya Ishigaki, Ryuta Takashima, Shinichirou Morimoto

Green Technologies

Chapter 28. Green Power Generations and Environmental Monitoring Systems Based on the Dielectric Elastomer Transducer

Recently, actuators and sensors using dielectric elastomers (DEs) have attracted attention because they are lightweight, low cost, and efficient. Electric power can also be generated without producing carbon dioxide emissions or using rare earth materials. DE generators (DEGs) can generate electricity from various renewable energy sources. DEGs can actively introduce DE power generation systems tailored to areas such as solar power, wind power, water power, and wave power. As a result, it will reduce the large amount of CO2 generated by conventional power plants and contribute to the improvement of the global environment. In order to build a sustainable social infrastructure in an energy recycling society, methods of using a DE converter system have been studied. In order to succeed commercially, it is necessary to take advantage of the benefits of DE compared with conventional technology.

Seiki Chiba, Mikio Waki, Makoto Takeshita, Mitsugu Uejima, Kohei Arakawa, Koji Ono, Yoshihiro Takikawa, Ryu Hatano, Shoma Tanaka
Chapter 29. A Novel Approach to Artificial Energy-Loss Free Field Emitters: The Outstanding Cathodic Durability of High Crystallized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

We propose a novel approach to improve the durability and energy efficiency of field- emission (FE) devices with a simple structure employing high crystallized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) produced by high-temperature annealing as the cathode material. We succeeded in establishing the generality and efficacy underlying the electrical conductivity of a SWCNT by control of the crystallinity. We measured the FE durability and current fluctuation of the high crystallized SWCNTs, and found them to exhibit good stability for more than 1000 h with a high FE current density of 30 mA/cm2 under an applied DC voltage. Moreover, we designed and successfully constructed elements of a planar electron emission source device composed of a cathode employing highly purified, crystalline SWCNTs dispersed homogeneously in organic solutions by a multi-step dispersion method. It was further confirmed that the field emitters with the high crystallized SWCNTs can be used in breakthrough applications with high loadings of over 3 A. Our new devices may have a significant impact as planar FE emission devices employing purified and high crystallized SWCNTs have a remarkable potential to indicate a new and excellent approach for establishing an artificial energy-loss free device.

Norihiro Shimoi
Chapter 30. Development of Electrostatic Linear Motor for Insect-Type Microrobot

The authors aim to develop an insect-type microrobot system which can operate autonomously like as an insect by mounting a sensor, a power supply, a motor, and a controller in a millimeter-sized body. Realization of robots the same as the performance of organisms is difficult with current robotics. In particular, small size actuator with low power consumption, which can actuate by small-sized energy source are difficult to realize. In this paper, the authors will discuss an electrostatic linear motor to move the legs of the microrobot with low energy consumption using a small power source.

Genki Osada, Asuya Mizumoto, Satoshi Hirao, Yuichiro Hayakawa, Daisuke Noguchi, Minami Kaneko, Fumio Uchikoba, Ken Saito
Chapter 31. Investigation of the Behaviour of a New Nanogrid Concept and the Nanogrid Components

In microgrids a distributed storage is efficient, but in the concept of microgrids the management of generation, storage and the flow between microgrids is needed. The economical situation has to be taken into account also. Nanogrids are smaller size of microgrids, but have the same main features. In an office environment one office could be one nanogrid. We simulated the behaviour of the different components of the office nanogrid to obtain information about the possible time necessary for charging and discharging a battery with given capacity. One possible extension to the nanogrid concept is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices battery to extend the storage capacity. To optimize the charging of ICT devices the battery management system (BMS) has to be extended with a software solution to obtain information from the state of the batteries. Simulations are run to characterize the battery behaviour of ICT devices and its effect on the office nanogrid. With the users calendar entries the software has to predict when the fully charged state of the battery is expected, which also needs the charging times of the different devices batteries. Further investigation is needed to show if this prediction is also possible without the software part providing the battery state of charge.

Ágnes Halász, Tamás Iváncsy, Zoltán Ádám Tamus

Sustainable Manufacturing

Chapter 32. Prediction of Width and Thickness of Injection Molded Parts Using Machine Learning Methods

Injection molding is one of the major processes applied for production of thermoplastic products. Thermoplastic materials are used in manufacturing of dozens of products seen in everyday life, such as: car bumpers, children toys, bodies of electronic devices, etc. At the same time, plastic pollution is a well-known problem. One of the sources of this pollution is plastic scrap, which might appear because of using faulty process parameters during production process. To decrease amount of scrap, injection molding needs to include better process and quality control routines. Quality of a product can be defined in different ways and product dimensions can be one of criteria for accepting or declining a product. The following paper applies machine learning (ML) methods to predict width and thickness of the injection molded HDPE dogbone specimens with 4 mm thickness based on process parameter values used to produce the parts. Data used for creation of regression models with help of ML methods was acquired during an experiment, which included 160 machine runs during which 47 machine and process parameters were logged. Application of ML methods for training of product dimensions prediction models will increase overall intelligence level of injection molding machines and their compliance with Industry 4.0 standards. Beforehand prediction of product’s dimensions will allow to decrease amount of scrap and energy consumption. This will contribute to more environmentally conscious use of thermoplastic materials and more sustainable design of manufacturing systems.

Olga Ogorodnyk, Ole Vidar Lyngstad, Mats Larsen, Kristian Martinsen
Chapter 33. Analysis of Manufacturing Costs for Powder Metallurgy (PM) Gear Manufacturing Processes: A Case Study of a Helical Drive Gear

This paper presents a thorough manufacturing cost analysis for a powder metallurgy (PM) manufactured gear (using press and sintering technique—P/S), through a case study of a R&D 4th drive gear (a helical gearwheel) utilizing both real usage data from six companies and some estimated data from literatures. The chosen costs calculation method, performance part costing (PPC), is comprehensive and designed to follow the manufacturing process routes. The result is an excel based cost calculation tool for analysis of performance driven manufacturing costs for use by practitioners with the capability of serving as a decision support system (DSS) in production development issues. The impacts of three scenarios of (1) gear rolling process automation, (2) overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) parameters improvement and (3) increase in energy price on the total PM gear manufacturing costs are simulated, results are presented and discussed, sensitivity analyses are performed, and outcomes are further discussed.

Babak Kianian, Carin Andersson
Chapter 34. Cyber Physical System in Inverse Manufacturing

The vision and the concept of cyber physical system (CPS) has been gaining more and more interest in recent years. Physical artifacts become more and more closely intertwined with their corresponding models in cyberspace and can be designed and controlled as cyber physical artifacts that are to exhibit optimal performance throughout their entire life cycles by using these models. A connected car, which allows the car to share internet access with other devices to enable safe and optimal navigation, and manufacturing equipment that allows information sharing with other devices for optimizing its operation and maintenance are typical examples of such artifacts. For the success of cyber physical artifacts, an adequate description of use case scenarios as well as usage patterns and functions of systems to be developed is essential. Although many researches have been conducted to improve effectiveness and efficiency of production stages by using CPS, less attention is paid to those in products’ recovery processes (e.g. reuse, repair, remanufacturing, and recycling). To demonstrate the potential of CPS adoption in product recovery processes, the paper designs and proposes CPS utilization scenarios in product recovery processes that can improve through life performance of artifacts.

Shinsuke Kondoh, Hitoshi Komoto, Mitsutaka Matsumoto
Chapter 35. E-Catalogues of Equipment for Constructing an Injection Molding Digital Eco-Factory

A digital eco-factory has been proposed by the authors for the simultaneous simulation of environmental performance, productivity and manufacturability. A virtual production line is constructed as a multi-agent system by connecting virtual equipment implemented as software agents which are automatically generated from equipment models. These models are provided as equipment e-catalogues. An e-catalogue of equipment includes a dynamic behavior model and a static property model of manufacturing equipment. In the previous papers, the above-mentioned concept was applied to constructions and usages of a digital eco-factory for PCA (Printed Circuit Assembly). In this paper, the above concept is applied to the construction of a digital eco-factory for injection molding. A production line consists mainly of an injection molding machine. An injection mold, a molding extraction robot, and a mold temperature controller are connected to the injection molding machine. The connection is not a sequential connection. Therefore, in the virtual injection molding line, more complicated interaction and control among equipment agents are required. Therefore, e-cataloging of equipment models for injection molding lines is more complicated. Trial implementation of e-catalogues for the above equipment has been executed for construction of a virtual injection molding line. On this virtual injection molding line, an environmental performance simulation in terms of electrical energy consumption simulation can be performed. Because this virtual line is structured by equipment agents which are generated from selected equipment e-catalogues, it can simulate environmental performance with various views such as from an equipment level, a production line level and a factory level.

Michiko Matsuda, Tomoaki Kondo, Wakahiro Kawai, Jun Hamanaka, Naohisa Matsushita, Shinichiro Chino, Susumu Fujii, Fumihiko Kimura
Chapter 36. Additive Manufacturing for Circular Manufacturing: Trends and Challenges—A Survey in Japan, Norway, and India

Circular manufacturing such as product remanufacturing, refurbishment, and repair is a key element in promoting a circular economy, whereas enhancing its resource-efficiency-increasing-effects is often dictated by the critical process of material surface restoration. One of the key technologies that enable effective material surface and geometry restoration is additive manufacturing (AM). This study presents, firstly, a survey of the existing industrial usage of AM in circular manufacturing, which includes applications of re-coating, cladding, and thermal spray. The survey was mainly conducted in three countries, namely, Japan, Norway and India. Secondly, the study presents a review of research and development of the applications of metal 3D printing—an advanced AM. Challenges hindering the promotion of AM applications in circular manufacturing are laid on a process-to-process basis. In general, such challenges include advancement of process automations, design for restoration, quality enhancement of metal 3D printing-based restoration, and cost reduction of the process applications.

Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Shingo Hirose, Kristian Martinsen, Suryakumar Simhambhatla, Venkata Reddy, Sverre Guldbrandsen-Dahl
EcoDesign and Sustainability I
Dr. Yusuke Kishita
Dr. Mitsutaka Matsumoto
Dr. Masato Inoue
Dr. Shinichi Fukushige
Copyright Year
Springer Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN