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2021 | Book

EcoDesign and Sustainability II

Social Perspectives and Sustainability Assessment

Editors: Dr. Yusuke Kishita, Dr. Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Dr. Masato Inoue, Dr. Shinichi Fukushige

Publisher: Springer Singapore

Book Series : Sustainable Production, Life Cycle Engineering and Management


About this book

This book highlights cutting-edge ecodesign research, covering product and service design, smart manufacturing, and social perspectives in ecodesign. Featuring selected papers presented at EcoDesign 2019: 11th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, it also includes diverse, interdisciplinary approaches to foster ecodesign research and activities. In the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it addresses the need for the manufacturing industry to design innovations for sustainable value creation, taking into account technological developments, legislation, and consumer lifestyles. Further, the book discusses the concept of circular economy, which originated in Europe and aims to increase resource efficiency by shifting away from the linear economy.

Focusing on product life cycle design and management, smart manufacturing, circular economy, and business strategies, and providing useful approaches and solutions to these emerging concepts, this book is intended for both researchers and practitioners working in the broad field of ecodesign and sustainability.

Table of Contents

Correction to: EcoDesign and Sustainability II

In the original version of the book, the following belated corrections have been incorporated: In chapter “Embedding a Sustainability Focus in Packaging Development Processes”, the author group was incorrect. The author group “Kenichiro Chinen, Hideki Endo, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, and Yongliang Stanley Han” has been changed to “Bjorn de Koeijer, Iris Borgman, Jörg Henseler, Roland ten Klooster, and Jos de Lange” in the Frontmatter, Backmatter and in the Chapter. In chapter “Consumer’s Perception of Plastics in Everyday Products in Relation to Their Personality”, the author group was incorrect. The author group “Kenichiro Chinen, Hideki Endo, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, and Yongliang Stanley Han” has been changed to “Lore Veelaert, Els Du Bois, Laure Herweyers, and Ingrid Moons” in the Frontmatter, Backmatter and in the Chapter. This has been corrected in the updated version.

Yusuke Kishita, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Masato Inoue, Shinichi Fukushige

Sustainable Design and User Behavior

Chapter 1. The Chinese-Brand Electric Vehicles in the Eyes of the US Consumers

Researchers have found how driving electric vehicles (EVs) can be one solution to the negative environmental impact of petrol or diesel cars because they produce substantially lower emissions and are more energy-efficient than conventional cars. EVs are predicted to be the disruptive market force for transportation and technology. Of one million EVs sold in 2017, more than half of global sales were in China. China has a strong leadership position in the EV industry. The purpose of this study is to examine the US consumers’ reliance on Country-Of-Origin (COO) information in evaluating the quality of the Chinese-brand EVs (CBEVs) made-in various countries. Researchers suggest that consumers use COO as an information cue when evaluating a product, particularly if they lack detailed knowledge of the product. The results show that the perceived product quality of electric vehicles made in various countries influences consumers’ purchasing behavior. The study also found that consumers’ ethnocentrism has an effect on their buying behavior.

Kenichiro Chinen, Hideki Endo, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Yongliang Stanley Han
Chapter 2. Comparative Analysis of the Users’ Kansei Evolutions Over Their Short and Long-Lived Products’ Lifetimes in Iran

Indeed, a sustainable product ought to be able to last throughout its expected lifetime not only objectively, but subjectively. The concept of Product Subjective Sustainability (PSjS) is to address ‘a product capability to age emotionally/affectively/aesthetically and last satisfyingly and pleasantly during its expected long/short lifetime’. Using Kansei Engineering approach, in order to approach PSjS experientially, this paper presents the results of an analytical study on the evolution of Iranian users’ Kansei comparatively respecting their short-life and long-life products during the entire lifetimes of these products. The short and long lived product types specified for this research are respectively mobile phone, private passenger car and traditional handicraft.

Seyed Javad Zafarmand
Chapter 3. A Toolkit for Designing Products and Services Fit for Circular Consumption

This paper introduces the Use2Use design toolkit—a set of tools that can be used to design for circular consumption. In contrast to other available circular design tools, the toolkit emphasises the importance of applying a user perspective when exploring opportunities for product circularity. It aids designers and other agents to explore user needs, identify consumption-related design challenges, and design products and services that can create enabling preconditions that make it possible, more convenient, and preferable for people to circulate products from use to use. The process to develop the tool is initially presented followed by a description of the toolkit and its five tools. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding how the proposed toolkit compares to other circular design tools and what implications it has for design practice and future research.

Oskar Rexfelt, Anneli Selvefors
Chapter 4. Embedding a Sustainability Focus in Packaging Development Processes

Despite packaging sustainability aspects often being embedded in companies’ strategic aims, the structured implementation of such targets is limited at the operational level, where a product’s commercial viability (strategic fit, business case feasibility, and a limitation of commercial risks) and development aspects (timing issues, material use, and supply chain efficiency) are prioritized over desired sustainability goals. Packaging acts not as an isolated entity but as a part of a symbiotic product-packaging combination, of which the development is the shared responsibility of stakeholders with different backgrounds and interests. With the development and design process of product-packaging combinations being a concatenation of decisions made by multidisciplinary teams in various organizations, the structured integration of sustainability-related considerations in product-packaging development can benefit from a synthesized focus on development teams’ efforts, decision-making processes, stakeholder interaction and dynamics, and trade-offs. This research addresses a vision on an approach to explore, understand, and analyze this field, specifically its key characteristics that act as enablers and barriers of product-packaging sustainability. This is targeted by interactively modelling the decision-making processes of product-packaging development, both within multidisciplinary development teams, companies, and product-packaging chains, by means of a collection of interactive tools. Key within these tools is the ability to address the multidisciplinarity of stakeholders, the decision-making processes within and beyond development teams, and the proposed and realized inclusion of sustainability-related considerations, all within a framework of tacit and explicit knowledge.

Bjorn de Koeijer, Iris Borgman, Jörg Henseler, Roland ten Klooster, Jos de Lange
Chapter 5. Consumer’s Perception of Plastics in Everyday Products in Relation to Their Personality

In order to contribute to a circular economy, as designers, we can aim to assure an extended product lifetime, which can be done following a strategy of creating product attachment. From a consumer perspective, people tend to identify themselves with the products they (want to) own and use, reflecting their identities, who they are and how they see themselves. Thus, product attachment can be positively affected by the congruity with one’s personality. A successful product needs to fulfil the user’s needs, create meaningful experiences and evoke emotions to survive in the competitive market, which also counts for the materials that the product is made of. These materials can be considered from both a technical engineering (production, durability, waste, etc.) and a user-centred experiential perspective (material perception). Therefore, this qualitative research aims to explore the consumers’ perception of plastic materials in everyday products and its link with their own personality. The paper describes the results of a mobile survey in which respondents (n = 195, average age of 29 years) were asked to upload a picture of their most and least favourite, plastic product that they use in everyday life, to describe the material(s) it is made of and explain why it (does not) fit with their personality. By means of content analysis, a categorization was made of the uploaded products and the various characteristics that described the materials and attributed to the personality fit, and a cluster analysis was done to create four personality clusters of consumers and their associated material descriptions. We suggest that insights in the relationship between the consumer’s personality and his/her material preference will support designers in choosing appropriate materials to create desirable products with a prolonged life-time.

Lore Veelaert, Els Du Bois, Laure Herweyers, Ingrid Moons
Chapter 6. User Activity Matters: An Activity Theory Informed Design Toolkit for Sustainable Behavior Design

Recent developments in eco-design have shown a growing interest in incorporating user perspectives in sustainable product and service design. However, users’ needs and behavior are not static, but under a dynamic transition process. Design purely informed by user needs thus may lead to environmental and social sustainability issues. In this paper, we approach this sustainable design challenge from an activity theoretical perspective. First, we conducted a literature review on the use of activity theory (AT) in sustainable design-related studies. Based on the literature insights, we translated the abstract AT concepts into more descriptive and practical design implications. Following that, we developed an activity-centered design (ACD) toolkit prototype to support design practitioners in integrating users’ dynamic activities with specific sustainable design goals in the early-stage design ideation process. Finally, we evaluated the practical use of the toolkit with both design experts and participants without a design background in a case study. Results indicated that the ACD toolkit prototype allowed participants to engage with complex sustainability issues while taking multiple aspects of users’ activity into account. It also offered an interactive way for designers to better develop early-stage design ideas to solve sustainability-related problems from a product and service design perspective.

Wanjun Chu, Wiktoria Glad, Renee Wever
Chapter 7. Strengthening Aesthetic Individualization in Product Design to Enhance Customer Loyalty and Sustainability

This paper analyzes how the aesthetic individualization of products affects product sustainability. Furthermore, it depicts the need to strengthen the degree of individualization in mass customization concepts and reveals ways to enable stronger participation by customers in design processes. Customers often replace products before the functional end of the product’s life cycle. This psychological obsolescence of products is caused by multiple factors. Frequently addressed reasons are the unsatisfied need of customers for uniqueness in product design and the absence of sufficient attachment to the product caused by insufficient functional/aesthetic identification of the customer with the product. One way to tackle these deficiencies is by addressing and implementing the concept of mass customization. A demographic survey presented in this paper indicates that the majority of customers want more creative freedom in designing their products and a stronger participation in the design process. It also shows that stronger individualization leads to a higher degree of product attachment. A qualitative follow up study held a workshop for user-centered design with relevant stakeholders: designers, manufacturing engineers and customers of different age groups. In this workshop the needs of potential users were analyzed, and possible solutions were created and subsequently evaluated.

Lisa Hagedorn, Gerald Kremer, Rainer Stark
Chapter 8. Analysis of the Personal Cars Sustainability in Relation with Their Formalistic Characteristics in Iran

Considering the importance of personal cars in Iranian users’ daily life, this research is aimed to firstly make it clear what level of sustainability the personal passenger vehicles used in Iran have. One of the most important issues that all car makers and designers are concerned about is the formalistic characteristic or stylistic feature of a car. So, the other aim of this research is to understand whether there is any relation between the cars sustainability levels and their formalistic features. In this research, 45 samples of sedan and hatchback cars, which are the most commonly used ones in Iran, are collected. After extracting the indicators of vehicle sustainability from the scholar works, the samples levels of sustainability are calculated. The samples are then analyzed on the basis of their formalistic characteristics. Accordingly, the relation between sustainability levels and the formalistic characteristics of the samples is drawn. The results of this analysis could be effective for developing the design guideline for formalistic features of the sustainable cars.

Mohammad Zolfaghari, Seyed Javad Zafarmand

Sustainable Consumption and Production

Chapter 9. Enhancing Role and Participation of Industry and Community for Sustainable E-Waste Recovery for Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP): Case Study Kuala Lumpur Malaysia

Malaysia rapid development has benefitted its people while continuously gain better quality of life and are now demanding modern and high technology lifestyle. For example, the subscription of hand phone and smartphone in 2004 was 12.3 million and increased to 42.3 million, while population of Malaysia in 2004 was 23,522,480 and in 2017 the population increased to 32,022,600. Life style and rapid growth of electronic products consumptions accelerated the generation of E-waste in Malaysia. The need to manage E-waste in a sustainable manner has created many challenges. One of the challenges is to educate and make individual or community to be more responsible and participate for sustainable E-waste management in Malaysia. A sustainable E-waste recovery is important for sustainable consumption and production (SCP) of electronic products. For this purpose a study was conducted to understand the readiness of key stakeholders to support for efficient E-waste recovery in Kuala Lumpur City. The study has identified key factors important for E-waste recovery to ensure sustainable production and consumption of electronic products. Survey was conducted with selected Kuala Lumpur community asking their understanding of E-waste and how they handle six types of E-waste namely televisions (CRT and LED/LCD), refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and desktop computers. Almost 61% of the respondents understand the E-waste definition, and aware of E-waste impacts towards the environment and human’s health. The practice of E-waste recovery was found encouraging for the six E-wastes. The number of respondents recover or recycle LED/LCD TV (43.3%), CRT TV (50.8%), refrigerators (45.8%), washing machines (48.4%), air-conditioners (49.1%) and desktop computer (50.8%). Material flow analyses findings shows that there is a weakness in collection system, retailers capability are underutilized, household attitude lead to poor collections and low amount of household E-waste treated. While the strength of the existing E-waste recovery is a strong scrap collector’s influence and established E-waste recycling industry within and outside Kuala Lumpur. Findings from this study shows that there is a need to enhance participation and the practice of E-waste recovery especially among the community and consumers. Mechanisms and system which improve the existing systems and mechanisms for E-waste recovery in supporting SCP will requires industry commitment and participation with strong support from the consumers and government agencies.

Ahmad Fariz Mohamed, Muhammad Izzat Rasnan
Chapter 10. Understanding of Individuals’ Intention Toward Car Sharing Usage in the Southeast-Asia Region: From University Students in Thailand and Indonesia

Increased car ownership-levels in Southeast-Asian developing countries may lead to extensive environmental and social issues, thus unsustainable development. Car sharing is one promising approach to change the way people use cars. Socio-demographic, psychological, or infrastructural attributes (variables) are influential factors of transport mode choice and may determine the adoption and diffusion of car sharing services in the Southeast-Asia region. In this article, we focus on several factors that might affect the decision toward car sharing use in the Southeast-Asia region, where car sharing is so far effectively non-existent. This paper presents the result of a preparatory study conducting comprehensive literature reviews and semi-structured interviews performed in Thailand and Indonesia to understand the potentially influential factors for car sharing adoption in the Southeast-Asia region. Based on the preparatory study, this paper also formulates the hypotheses that the identified factors positively (or negatively) influence the car sharing adoption intention. It is hoped that these hypotheses will be further tested by statistical analysis to investigate the interplay among the factors, and car sharing decisions of Southeast-Asian residents. The findings will give us implications for business opportunities and policies to promote environmentally-sustainable car sharing services in the Southeast-Asia region.

Yoon-Young Chun, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Tahara
Chapter 11. Economy-Wide Material Flow Analysis and Its Projection: DMI Versus TMR in Japan

Economy-wide material flow analysis (EW-MFA) is of importance to monitor the material input and to understand the current national material situation. Among various indicators developed for EW-MFA, this study focuses on the direct material input (DMI) and the total material requirement (TMR). DMI is a well-established and simple attribute, which have been widely utilized in the globally well-known institute and national government. On the contrary, TMR is the most encompassing indicator, which involves the evaluation of hidden flows arising from non-economic activities as well as direct and indirect inputs arising from economic activities. Although numerous studies monitored the chronological transition of EW-DMI and EW-TMR, the mechanism and composition depends on each of unique national characteristics. In addition, domestic recycled resources have yet to be fully evaluated in EW-TMR. Furthermore, a top-down approach has been widely employed to obtain the value of TMR for each of categories, whereas calculating the TMR of each product in a bottom-up approach has scarcely been adopted because of its complexity and difficulty. As such, this study calculates the specific TMR of high level of disaggregation of material categories in the bottom-up approach and chronologically analyzes the material input in Japan on both DMI and TMR basis in 1990–2013. Then, considering the relationship between economic development and material utilization, EW-DMI and EW-TMR in 2020 and 2030 are projected by using the historical trend of material input in the course of economic growth. It is found that from 1990 to 2013 in Japan, DMI has constantly decreased by 25.0%, while TMR has increased by 18.4%. The reduction of fine aggregate, gravel, domestic limestone, and stone in the domestic resources primarily contributed to the decrease in DMI, whereas steam coal, iron ore, liquefied natural gas, and coking coal in the imported resources primarily contributed to the increase in TMR. In addition, the overall specific TMR in Japan has continuously increased by 57% from 4.0 Mton-TMR/Mton in 1990 to 6.3 Mton-TMR/Mton in 2013. Then, it is forecasted to constantly increase and, in 2030, reach in the range between 11.8 and 14.6 Mton-TMR/Mton. In particular, the recent study revealed that TMR is highly associated with environmental and ecological issues due to mining activities and the specific TMR represents the environmental and ecological impacts arising from mining activities. The forecasted acceleration of overall specific TMR alarmingly raises the environmental and ecological burdens arising from mining activities. The developed algorithm to conduct the material flow analysis by using the bottom-up approach for the calculation of TMR can be readily implemented in any country confronting the issue of sustainable material utilization. It may of use to policymakers in designing more well-grounded material management policy.

Shoki Kosai, Eiji Yamasue
Chapter 12. Ecological Smart and Sustainable Waste Management: A Conceptual Framework

This study has an objective to formulate a conceptual framework of sustainable municipal waste management in Indonesia. The framework validation was taken place in four urban cities in Indonesian, inorder to identify whether the framework applicability to be used in developing country environment. The approachs to the study consists of literature review and formulating conceptual framework, validating and revising the conceptual framework based on phenomenon and local tradition, and implications of the revised framework. Based on the analysis, it was found that there are two specific components that called animal edible materials and combined waste bank which should be integrated into the revised framework. Internet of Thing makes the integration possible. The revised framework undertakes to resolve complex and huge amount of waste, to maximize economic benefit from the waste, to increase effective waste management, to provide affordable green material food for animals, and to substitute expensive animal concentrate, and to provide better public health sectors.

Yun Arifatul Fatimah, Rochiyati Murniningsih, Agus Setiawan
Chapter 13. Information Flow System for Chemicals in Products (CiP) with Adequate Attention to the Social Dimension: The Japanese Challenge and the Way Forward

In Japan, a new information flow system for chemicals in products (CiP), named chemSHERPA, was initiated in 2016. This system provides the name of a chemical, its Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number, and its proportion by weight in each part of a product, combined with legal information covering upstream to downstream companies. ChemSHERPA may be the first major step to control CiP of various kinds, as it incorporates a database other than IEC 62474. However, future steps should be considered. We reviewed the conceptual background for information systems such as chemSHERPA and considered how it could be modified. Most systems stress efficiency, wherein chemical management issues are considered at the beginning of system development; this attitude leads to the circular economy (CE). However, some warnings have been made about the CE. For example, the CE is such a young field with many definitions that there is a risk of overlooking the social dimension. In response to this warning, adequate attention should be paid to the social dimension and construction of a “closed loop”, remembering that the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes should be avoided. We examined how chemSHERPA’s information content may be improved, especially from a legal perspective focusing on the final waste management. In this context, we analysed legal systems in Japan, the US and EU, and compiled a list of landfill criteria. Finally, we propose a sample list to be added to chemSHERPA. This revision enables the control of hazardous substance emissions, strongly related to the social dimension of sustainability.

Makiko Kohno, Masahiko Hirao

EcoDesign of Social Infrastructure

Chapter 14. Forecast of Future Impacts of Using ICT Services on GHG Emissions Reduction and GDP Growth in Japan

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can potentially contribute to realizing a decarbonized and dematerialized society through increased productivity in many industries and lifestyle changes. Several previous studies have focused on these environmental impacts of ICTs use by estimating and comparing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions with and without existing ICT use. However, few studies have estimated the environmental impacts of future ICT use. In this paper, a method is proposed to make scenarios and estimate future environmental and economic impacts of ICTs use on the basis of a computable general equilibrium (AIM/CGE [Japan]) model. The evaluated ICT services are ICT services already in common use and several new ICTs. Two scenarios (baseline and ICT accelerated) until 2030 are set for assessing the environmental and economic impacts of using these ICTs. Model simulation results show Japan’s GHG emissions to be about 34 Mt-CO2eq lower and gross domestic product (GDP) more than ¥33 trillion higher in 2030 in the ICT accelerated scenario than in the baseline scenario. This demonstrates that ICTs will be able to contribute to both economic growth and GHG emissions reduction in the future.

Xiaoxi Zhang, Machiko Shinozuka, Yuriko Tanaka, Yuko Kanamori, Toshihiko Masui
Chapter 15. Methodology for Modeling the Energy and Material Footprint of Future Telecommunication Networks

This paper presents important methodical aspects in conjunction with the ongoing development of a novel multi-level-model in support of lifecycle environmental assessments of telecommunication networks. The new approach is, to some extent, emulating the OSI-layer model (Open Systems Interconnection), starting at the bottom with the main physical components, followed by product configurations, network architecture and control. On the top layer, the model scales through application and use case scenarios. This complex inventory model furthermore distinguishes between constructive (hardware-defined) elements on the one hand and operational (software-defined) elements on the other. By combining technical data as fixed values with application data as variable values, it is now possible to analyze the causal interaction between different technology generations, network configurations, and utilization intensity. It will allow identifying the best starting point for eco-design and improvement measures. Due to fact that the new methodology is not limited to energy consumption only, it supports a holistic understanding of the environmental impact of telecommunication networks.

Lutz Stobbe, Nils F. Nissen, Jan Druschke, Hannes Zedel, Nikolai Richter, Klaus-Dieter Lang
Chapter 16. Towards Intercity Cooperation: Comparison of Spatial Transport Energy Efficiency Between Central and Peripheral Cities in Japan

Interest in transport energy efficiency in a given spatial area has been increasingly growing as a research topic. Various studies have analyzed the overall association of energy-related indicators with the city form, whereas the compassion of individual city has yet to be fully evaluated. Given the importance of developing the efficient intercity transport cooperation, the consideration of intracity transport situation in the two relevant cities is necessary before determining the intercity travel mode among various modal choices. There is a possibility that even if the intercity public transport infrastructure is developed, automobiles would be the first choice for the intercity travel as long as the public transport system inside of the peripheral cities is not well developed. Therefore, a focus on differences of spatial transport energy efficiency between central and peripheral cities is of significant importance. In particular, the city combination in Japan would be an appropriate case study. In response to the decrease in population, networking the central city with peripheral cities to construct the coordination through the public transport is highly required in Japan to maintain quality of life and sustainable city management. This study first assesses the transport energy efficiency of various transportation modes in the form of transport energy intensity in Japan. The assessed transportation means include walks, bicycles, automobiles, buses and electric trains. The transport energy intensity is obtained on the basis of well-to-wheel (WTW) fuel consumption and energy input for the material structure. Then, this is integrated with the modal split to obtain the spatial transport energy intensity in a given city. This study focuses on 44 cities in Japan and evaluates its relationship with population. Finally, by using the hierarchical cluster analysis, its differences between central and peripheral cities in the major metropolitan area, the sub metropolitan areas and regional urban areas are evaluated from the perspective of the geographical location and city scale gap to assist in identifying the specific areas where limitations on constructing the coordination in future are imposed and in providing the strategy depending on the city categorization. It was found that transport energy intensity decreases in the order of automobiles, buses, electric trains, bicycles and walks and the energy input for the material structure significantly affects the transport energy intensity for the small-scale transportation means. In addition, the cities in Japan of lower spatial transport energy intensity were also those with greater population. This trend seen in the case of Japan is matched with the global trend which has been widely reported. In the major metropolitan areas, the spatial transport energy intensity in the peripheral city decreased with distance from the central city. Some peripheral cities more than 30 km away from central cities were identified as the most challenging city combination for constructing the coordination with respect to the spatial transport energy intensity.

Shoki Kosai, Eiji Yamasue
Chapter 17. Energy Efficiency Within Sustainable Development in Asia: A Boundary Infrastructure and Knowledge Based Frame of Reference

Effective implementation of energy efficiency measures is becoming increasingly relevant for rapidly industrializing nations, most prominently those emerging in Asia. It is necessary to manage rapid growth of demand and develop new energy infrastructures at the same time. Despite the positive impact of energy efficiency measures in industrial and commercial sectors, there still remain considerable hurdles in practice, preventing them from achieving their full potential. Unfortunately, there is a tendency for problems to be approached from a Western perspective, discounting the differences in the Asian context. In this paper, an alternative reference frame is presented, with a knowledge-based approach taking into account those differences. This is discussed as a first step in regard to energy auditing and one of its immediate explicit outcomes, the energy audit report. This approach is aimed at providing grounds for building an alternative and more adequate perspective on the issue.

Harald E. Otto
Chapter 18. Study on the Quantitative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Sewage-Sludge Treatment System

Global economic development has highlighted the issue of climate change, which is one of the most important environmental issues plaguing human beings. It is widely agreed that excessive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are important factors contributing to global warming. Many countries have formulated corresponding GHG emission reduction plans to deal with climate change issues. An important GHG emission source is released from sewage-sludge treatment systems. However, there has not been a comprehensive quantitative GHG emissions evaluation system in the case of sewage-sludge treatment systems, due to multiple emission sources, complex processes, and different standards. In previous studies, the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2006) and Chinese Greenhouse Gas Inventory (National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation, NCSC, 2005) were widely applied to estimate GHG emissions from sewage-sludge treatment. However, IPCC does not consider CO2 emissions from sewage treatment, and NCSC does not consider CO2 emissions from the sewage treatment and N2O emissions from sludge treatment. Therefore, the following have been conducted in this study: (1) A GHG estimation model basing on Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) was constructed, and the research objects were CH4, N2O, and CO2 that were produced by the sewage-sludge treatment system. The estimation model of CO2 and N2O, which were ignored in the IPCC report, were analyzed and discussed. The models of the GHG emission estimation were summarized and improved in the urban sewage-sludge treatment system under the different sewage-sludge treatment process scenarios. (2) The GHG emission load of major urban sewage-sludge treatment processes was analyzed, and the level and key links of environmental impacts generated by different processes were identified. This helps to understand and compare the environmental impacts of different treatment processes and provides suggestions for the sustainable development of wastewater treatment processes. (3) The GHG emission characteristics of nine scenarios of different sewage-sludge treatment processes were analyzed, and the environmental impacts caused by energy consumption and chemicals consumption were studied. Consequently, the sewage-sludge treatment process under low carbonization and low environment impact were proposed.

Zhiyi Liang, Toru Matsumoto, Lei Zhang, Bing Liu

Sustainability Education

Chapter 19. Gamifying Sustainable Design to Enhance Environmental Consciousness of Industrial Design Students

Gamification is the use of game elements, mechanics, and experience design to engage user behaviors and solve real-world problems. Applications of serious games and gamification in sustainable design education have been novel. To raise environmental consciousness and knowledge of industrial design students, the gamification design system was integrated into sustainable design pedagogy. The aim is to evaluate the learning effectiveness of this intervention. The study was conducted in a sustainable design course for three consecutive years at the Department of Industrial Design, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Nine Eco-Game projects were designed and playtested. Participant observations and evaluations by checklists and web-based questionnaires were then performed during in-classroom activities among sophomores and juniors. Results revealed that the integration can enhance learning outcomes in environmental information and design aspects depending on the complexity of game rules, adequacy of prototype testing period, and concentration for physical actions and game tasks. In this way, students can learn through playing and designing games. However, this phase is solely at the early stage of intervention in this field. Further research is needed to fully integrate systematic gamification into the learning environment and encourage pro-environmental behavior change.

Suphichaya Suppipat, Allen H. Hu, Treechada Chotiratanapinun
Chapter 20. Consideration of Communication Methods with the Next Generation for Sustainable Living Through the Case Study of a Visiting Lecture

Energy-saving features of buildings are often promoted as a countermeasure against climate change. In housing, not only is the performance of the building important, but social awareness is also needed to encourage people to lead a lifestyle that consumes less energy. As part of the international sustainable housing competition called the Solar Decathlon, the authors of this paper prepared and conducted a visiting lecture for elementary school students aimed promoting awareness of and interest in future sustainable housing. This paper describes a visiting lecture that was conducted by university students of the Faculty of Engineering in collaboration with the Faculty of Education at Chiba University in Japan and examines communication methods that can be implemented to teach sustainability to the next generation of society.

Shota Tajima, Satoko Nasu, Daisuke Fujikawa

Sustainability Assessment and Indicators

Chapter 21. Progress for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment by Means of Digital Lifecycle Twins — A Taxonomy

To understand and optimize the impact of a product along its lifecycle, the consideration of social, economic and environmental factors is of increasing interest for customers and regulating institutions. In this context, Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) is used to monitor and understand the trade-offs of the three sustainability dimensions. Today, LCSA still faces major challenges, such as availability, actuality and validity of data or consistent and appropriate measures to support Design for Sustainability. New technological innovations may support the enhancement of the methodology. In the background of a digitized product and service lifecycle, especially Industry 4.0 technologies, Digital Twins and the integration of Artificial Intelligence may solve data and feedback challenges through new ways of data collection, transfer, validation and intelligent analysis. This paper aims at exploring this potential of new technological innovations for an enhanced LCSA of capital goods and durable consumer goods as well as related services and proposes a taxonomy. Therefore, a literature review to identify existing digital solutions and research gaps is established. For the identified gaps, a new concept, the Digital Lifecycle Twin for LCSA is presented. The authors address both, the positive but also the negative implications put on the LCSA framework from a sustainability perspective. Ultimately, these findings will contribute to the enhancement of the LCSA methodology as well as to the design of a support system to enable environmentally and socially sound design of products and services.

Theresa Riedelsheimer, Sabrina Neugebauer, Kai Lindow
Chapter 22. Adopting Life Cycle Assessment for Various Greenhouse Typologies in Multiple Cropping Environment in Australia

Over the last decades, dramatic population growth worldwide has been directly reflecting in food security. United Nations (UN) projects a world population will increase more than one billion people within the next years, reaching 8.5 billion in 2030. With this anticipated scenario, agricultural industry is experiencing monumental pressures and challenges in adopting and utilising cutting-edge technologies for both open field and controlled agriculture aiming for a sustainable and profitable food production per unit of area of plantation. This study focuses on the controlled agriculture or commonly referring to “greenhouses”, which is broadly categorised under three main typologies: (1) low, (2) medium, and (3) high technologies. In general, adopting new materials lead to an increase for both durability and cost of greenhouse structures. Australian horticulture industry has set ambitious and new export targets that would lift export earnings by hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Australian conditions are very different to those that prevail under the northern European climate of the Netherlands, where technologies, associated management systems and accumulated experience were first developed. The study aims to investigate the environmental impacts of a common high technology greenhouse configuration in Australia, which encompasses various infrastructural and production components such as greenhouse structures, soilless cultivation systems, irrigation/fertigation systems, heating/cooling systems, and relevant production applications. The methodology is based on a critical literature review identifying the knowledge gap in Australia, as many studies have been focusing on individual crops in the northern hemisphere. Gaps in life cycle assessment applied to a variety of crops and in high technology greenhouses incorporating green components were identified.

Ana Evangelista, Yi-Chen Lan, Zhonghua Chen, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Rina Datt
Chapter 23. Process Modelling for an Efficient and Dynamic Energy Consumption for Fresh Produce in Protected Cropping

There are significant research and knowledge gaps on how greenhouse vegetable production can be optimised and the energy consumption can be minimised. In this study, we conducted the analysis of crop production and energy consumption together with the greenhouse climate and local weather records for a capsicum crop in a national high-tech greenhouse facility at Western Sydney University, Australia. The analysis of energy consumption over the production cycle indicates that daily energy consumption varies, due to the seasonal nature of temperature and the need for maintaining desirable temperatures at different growth stages of the capsicum crop. Results also suggest that the system for maintaining temperature using for cooling and heating works within acceptable level of operations. The theoretical and practical implications of this research include the importance of assessing the impact of production cycle on overall performance, and complexities around setting optimum crop production cycles subject to the changing environment. It is concluded that protected crop production provides desired and quality products at estimated times and costs, but further analysis is required for making protected crop production can be adopted by growers in the region, under sustainable conditions of all aspect of resource sustainability. Future research will focus on developing a simulated process model to provide recommendations on appropriate greenhouse practices and crop management in order to effectively manage energy consumption in the protected cropping environment.

Premaratne Samaranayake, Goran Lopaticki, Wei Liang, Vivian Tam, Zhonghua Chen, Yi-Chen Lan
Chapter 24. CO2 Removal Using the Sun and Forest: An Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Solar & Biomass Hybrid Carbon Capture and Sequestration Plant

This paper proposes and analyses an innovative sustainable energy option; a concentrated solar and biomass hybrid carbon capture and sequestration plant. This conceptual plant utilizes concentrated solar as the heat source for the biomass gasification process. The produced synthetic gas will then be used for electricity generation and carbon dioxide will be removed and sequestrated in an underground reservoir. With this new energy option, a sustainable future energy system can be designed whereby the carbon removed by the forest can be both utilized and sequestrated using the power of the sun. The environmental impact of 1 kWh of electricity production was assessed through a life cycle assessment using ecoinvent, and the life cycle GHG emissions of the plant were estimated to be −0.812 kg CO2-eq/kWh. This result shows that even at the 95% percentile, net GHG emissions from Solar Hybrid BECCS (−0.492 kg/kwh) is lower than that of a conventional BECCS plant (−0.474 kg/kwh). To summarize, this technologically fusible energy option may have a great potential in achieving energy sustainability towards the 2.0- and 1.5-degree scenarios by achieving carbon removal with the two fundamental gifts from the nature: the sun and the forest.

Shutaro Takeda, Andrew John Chapman, Hoseok Nam
Chapter 25. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Biofouling on Marine and Coastal Heat Exchangers

Biofouling is a major problem that affects the heat transfer efficiency of marine and coastal heat exchangers. The reduced heat exchanger efficiency results in energy loss and thereby affects the overall energy efficiency in the marine industry segment. Additional energy is required to compensate for the energy loss leading to increased fuel consumption which in turn contributes to global environmental issues like climate change. The current industrial methods of biofouling mitigation or removal from heat exchanger surfaces increase both operational and maintenance expenditure causing further environmental damages. This paper presents two models to provide an overview of the major environmental and economic impacts due to biofouling in marine heat exchangers. The study results suggest the need for sustainable biofouling prevention techniques to improve the energy and resource efficiency of marine heat exchangers.

Ninan Theradapuzha Mathew, Johan Kronholm, Klas Bertilsson, Mélanie Despeisse, Björn Johansson
Chapter 26. Ecological Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Sensor-Based Parking Prediction Service

The fast-growing sector of smart city applications resulting from the ongoing digitalization has a huge impact on our society. They use innovative technologies to improve for example mobility, optimize shopping or offer intelligent travel guide assistance. However, these applications have not only the potential to benefit our daily life with precisely targeted services, but also to reduce the environmental impact we create. In this paper the authors present the proceeding for a simplified life cycle assessment on the special case of a sensor-based parking prediction service of the Deutsche Telekom called “Park&Joy”.

Jan Druschke, Stephan Fath, Lutz Stobbe, Nils F. Nissen, Nikolai Richter, Klaus-Dieter Lang
Chapter 27. Scenario Analysis of Environmental Impact of Paddy Rice Farming Systems Utilizing Different Fertilizer Materials

Assessment of the environmental impact of applying materials to the paddy rice farming system is crucial to the promotion of low inputs of chemical fertilizers and crop protection chemicals, and encouraging the application of composted livestock manure. In this study, we assessed greenhouse gas emissions, total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses from soil, and acidification gas emissions from paddy rice farming systems using different inputs, employing scenario analysis and life-cycle assessment strategies. Scenario analysis of farms in Shiga prefecture indicated a lower environmental impact from paddy rice farming systems using organic fertilizer compared with conventional systems. On the other hand, the environmental impact from the paddy rice farming systems in Tochigi prefecture using composted manure was greater than that from systems applying chemical fertilizers.

Tatsuo Hishinuma, Saaya Ono, Atsuo Ikeguchi
Chapter 28. Techno-Economic Assessment on Waste from Palm Oil Mill to Electricity in Malaysia

In the production process of palm oil, three types of biomass; Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Kernel Shell (KS) and Mesocarp Fiber (MF) are produced as wastes. In real society, many palm oil mills utilize only MF as fuel for internal electricity generation and other biomass are just disposed. We focus on these three kinds of biomass and conduct an economic assessment on utilizing all combined cases of the three biomass not only for internal use of generated electricity but also for selling local area via the grid. We evaluate seven cases; namely, case 1 (utilizing all biomass), case 2 (EFB and MF), case 3 (EFB and KS), case 4 (MF and KS), case 5 (only EFB), case 6 (only MF, generally used currently), case 7 (only KS). Unutilized biomass is assumed transferred to a nearest palm oil mill in simplicity. We estimated costs consisted from direct construction of generating electricity from biomass, operating, maintenance and transportation for the unutilized biomass. We calculated sales for generated electricity by assuming market price and feed-in tariff (FIT). In addition to the power sales, ash from the boiler is also assumed to be sellable as a fertilizer from expecting market price and active ingredient contents in the ash. Following results are clarified; (1) the transportation cost shared largest among all the cases (2) power is the largest among the three sales components (3) the case 1 utilizing all the biomass wastes shows generally largest profit while the case 6 commonly used recently indicates least among the cases.

Hashizume Michino, Tokimatsu Koji
Chapter 29. Influence of Thermal Conductivity and Subsurface Temperature on Life-Cycle Environmental Load of the Ground Source Heat Pump in Bangkok, Thailand

The aim of this study is to evaluate the life-cycle environmental load of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) in Bangkok, Thailand. We conducted a life-cycle inventory analysis based on the assumption of the introduction of an optimally-designed GSHP to a commercial facility in Bangkok, Thailand. An air source heat pump (ASHP) was selected as a comparison target. Moreover, sensitivity analysis was conducted based on thermal conductivity and subsurface temperature to clarify the influence of changes in groundwater flow and subsurface temperature. Indicators of analysis were the life-cycle CO2, NOX, and SO2 (LC–CO2, LC–NOX, and LC–SO2, respectively) emissions. As a result, the LC–CO2, LC–NOX, and LC–SO2 emissions of GSHP were reduced by 27.8%, 24.8%, and 25.6%, respectively compared with ASHP. The LC–CO2 emissions of GSHP within the scope of sensitivity analysis were reduced by 26 to 28.6% compared with ASHP. These results show the GSHP in Bangkok could achieve smaller environmental load than the ASHP and the changes in groundwater flow and subsurface temperature do not greatly influence on the life-cycle environmental load. However, this study indicated that the large ground heat exchanger is required compared to the other areas, e.g., United Kingdom, and China. This means the economical and space constraints would be the barrier of introduction of GSHP in Bangkok. Therefore, further research is required to evaluate not only the environmental aspect, but also the economic aspect.

Yutaro Shimada, Youhei Uchida, Hideaki Kurishima, Koji Tokimatsu
Chapter 30. Material Criticality Assessment for Business Purposes Using Fuzzy Linguistic Method

A secure supply of raw materials plays a vital role in the rapid growth of emerging technologies. The criticality assessment has been introduced to evaluate the supply risk of materials from economic, social and environmental aspects. From business perspective, multiple critical metrics should be involved, so that the decision makers can focus on the different metrics and put efforts to minimize the corresponding risks. However, due to the complexity of assessment and uncertainties in data sources, some metrics cannot be evaluated quantitatively, but qualitatively. This paper introduces a fuzzy linguistic approach to evaluate multiple risk metrics for material criticality assessment. The risk levels and the importance weight of metrics, expressed in linguistic terms, are modeled by triangular or trapezoid membership functions. We apply this method to evaluate the criticality of three materials: Cobalt, Tungsten, and Yttrium. We use matrix operation to aggregate the MFs of the multiple metrics in order to represent the overall criticality. As a result, the three materials are ranked according to their critical levels. The proposed fuzzy linguistic approach shows the advantage to evaluate the criticality with multi-criteria when only qualitative data is available. The membership function is an appropriate way to represent linguistic terms with imprecision, which are commonly used to interpret risk terms. The definition of multiple metrics provides flexibility for the users to choose risk categories they are interested in, and the aggregation of the metrics supports them to compare the criticality of materials. Further study may focus on how to justify importance weight judgments to make tradeoff decision, or integrate temporal factor to predict the future critical risk for business purpose.

Xiaobo Chen, James Goddin, Jacquetta Lee
Chapter 31. Development of a Method for Measuring Resource Efficiency for Product Lifecycle

In recent years, increasing the efficient use of material resources by circulating them (through reuse, refurbishment, remanufacturing, and recycling) has become an important global goal. However, quantitative methods of measuring resource efficiency during the product life cycle have not previously been established. In this study, we built a framework for a measurement method with two features. The first feature concerns the change in a product’s value due to the reuse, refurbishing, and remanufacturing of products. The second feature is the difference in environmental impact based on the type of material used. As a case study, we formulated five scenarios for refrigerated showcases. In our presentation, we review existing methods for measuring the resource efficiency of products and present our proposed method. Then, we introduce the refrigerated showcase product business of Panasonic Corporation. Next, we describe the baseline and four alternative scenarios developed for our analysis, and we present the results as calculated using different methods. Finally, we discuss the effectiveness of the various measurement methods.

Gaku Miyake, Naoya Miyaji, Akio Tajima, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Keijiro Masui

Energy System Design

Chapter 32. Techno-Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Solar-Hydrogen-Biomass System for Off-Grid Power Supply

Renewable energy sources are considered as the key solution to tackle the energy-related problems—including global energy supply and environmental challenges facing our society. However, the need for utilizing the renewable energies is increasing, but their dependency on weather conditions makes them unable to provide continuous power supply to the load, because of the uncertainty and intermittent nature. Renewable energy sources, like wind, solar, hydro and biomass can be integrated to form a hybrid system which is more reliable and environmentally friendly. This paper aims at introducing a novel Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) based on the integration of renewable power generation and hydrogen generation from supercritical water gasification of wet biomass feedstock. The Techno-Economic Analysis of the proposed HRES is carried out in order to support the annual electricity demand of a selected household area, in a subject district around the Shinchi station which is located in Shinchi-machi, Fukushima prefecture.

Naoto Takatsu, Hooman Farzaneh
Chapter 33. Optimal Design and Operation of a Residential Hybrid Microgrid System in Kasuga City

This study aims to find the optimal configuration of an autonomous microgrid system which can be used to meet the electricity demand of a small community in the city of Kasuga, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. To this aim, an optimization model was developed, using the least cost perceptive approach and the load patterns of the residential end-uses. The proposed microgrid system in this study consists of a cluster of loads and micro sources such as the wind turbines, solar photovoltaic panels, battery storage, and a diesel generator. In this research, the effect of the demand response capabilities and patterns on optimal power generation from the proposed microgrid was investigated by introducing a standard demand pattern for a family, including three residents, living in a standard Japanese house in Kasuga city.

Yuichiro Yoshida, Nagashima Keisuke, Hooman Farzaneh
Chapter 34. Social Equity and Lifestyle Conscious Policy Making for the Energy Transition

This research aims to develop a social equity conscious policy making framework, cognizant of lifestyle, consumption, demographics, proactiveness and the distribution of costs and benefits across society. The proposed framework is applicable in multiple jurisdictions, wherever consumption, environmental footprint intensity, and basic societal demographic data are available. For preference weighting, a survey is undertaken to identify stakeholder preferences toward environmental issues and proactive behavior to reduce environmental burdens. A framework is developed and applied to the case study nation of Japan, which is undergoing shifting demographics including both an aging, shrinking population. This novel study demonstrates the nature of societal outcomes through the lens of inequity underpinned by lifestyle related environmental burdens (objective factors) and stakeholder preferences (subjective factors). We identify that the mitigation of environmental footprints leads to improved social equity outcomes, and that stakeholder proactiveness can positively influence both equity and consumption burden outcomes. A key finding is that broad participation is shown to be more effective than targeted participation. Research findings can assist policy makers through an identification of consumption, demographic and footprint trends and their impacts on social inequity and consumption burden outcomes.

Andrew John Chapman, Yosuke Shigetomi
Chapter 35. Exergy and Environmental Analysis of a Bio-Hydrogen Supply Chain Using Data Envelope Analysis

Hydrogen is a promising fuel for fuel cell (FC) mobility use, given its high energy density and the lack of CO2 emission from its use during the operating stage of mobility. In addition, biomass-derived hydrogen, which is carbon neutral, is an attractive fuel because its use can mitigate CO2 emission during the hydrogen production stage. However, because of the low energy density of biomass feedstocks, they first must be effectively converted to hydrogen; an effective hydrogen use path, including hydrogen storage and mobility and FC utilization for different scale mobility, that takes into consideration the environmental impacts and exergy is needed. In this study, the entire hydrogen path (hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and mobility) was investigated using life cycle assessment and exergy analysis to determine the corresponding environmental and exergy hotspots and an effective hydrogen path. To compare various types of functional mobility, data envelope analysis was used. It was found that metal hydride (MH) utilization was an important factor in the mitigation of environmental damages caused by using hydrogen as fuel and in the effective use of biomass feed feedstock. Also, it was indicated that the reduction of precious metals in MH and FC would be necessary to mitigate environmental impacts.

Daisuke Hara, Chiharu Misaki, Hiromu Sugihara, Seiya Kako, Noboru Katayama, Kiyoshi Dowaki
Chapter 36. The Readiness Levels of Japan Supported Biomass Energy Conversion Technology Development Projects in Emerging Southeast Asia: Verification of the J-TRA Results

We compared the readiness levels of Japan supported biomass energy conversion technology development projects in emerging Southeast Asia measured with two different methodologies; (1) levels as stated by the project fund provider, and (2) Technology Readiness Assessment (J-TRA) method. Results show that while the first method could tell the general idea about a technology development progress, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of J-TRA is better at indicating the project bottlenecks.

Issui Ihara, Andante Hadi Pandyaswargo, Hiroshi Onoda
Chapter 37. Evaluation and Improvement Proposals for a Business Facility Solar and Ground-Heat Hybrid Heat Supply System

In this study, we proposed improvements based on actual measured data of a hybrid heat supply system that uses solar heat and ground heat as the heat sources of a restaurants complex in Honjo city, Saitama, Japan. Our evaluation from the actual monitoring measurements showed that the solar heat collection efficiency was 50–60%. The geothermal Heat Pump’s Coefficient of Performance decreased significantly in the summer. We propose to set the heat insulation and burial depth of the piping from the ground heat collection to the heat pump and recommends five units of 5 units of solar heat collectors as the most ideal scenario.

Daiki Yoshidome, Ryo Kikuchi, Andante Hadi Pandyaswargo, Hiroshi Onoda
Chapter 38. The Import Structure of LNG from Russia to Japan by Cognitive Map and Text Analysis

Japanese energy policy was shifted to natural gas use due to drastic situation domestic and international energy situation, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Accordingly, this study analyzes the structure of natural gas development project and trading between Japan and Russia, as Russia is increasingly becoming an important major supplier of natural gas, which is reflected in the bilateral trade. This study will analyze the two LNG projects as a representative case of the multinational development project of natural gas from the perspective of energy security, economy, technology, and politics. The method of this analysis is “cognitive map” and “text analysis” to quantify the qualitative data collected from four major Japanese newspapers during the period of 1991-2017. One of the findings of this study is that, the Russian government has strengthened exporting LNG to East Asia as a state project since the first Putin administration especially after the US Shale revolution and the Ukrainian crisis, while the Japanese side is driven by major private corporations such as the construction of infrastructure which is little affected from international politics.

Kengo Takeda, Norovsambuu Purevsuren, Koji Tokimatsu, Masako Ikegami, Mikael Hook
Chapter 39. Recovery Analysis of Domestic Electric Storage Water Heaters

In this paper we provide an analysis of the recovery options for domestic electric storage water heaters (DESWH), which are one of the most common devices used to heat water in households of many countries around the world. The analysis considers the characteristics of the product and the condition of its components regarding the functional and safety requirements in order to obtain a remanufactured DESWH that looks as good as new. An inspection guide for determining the adequate recovery option of a used DESWH is provided, with the flow and the detailed description of the operations needed. In addition, we suggest certain recommendations in the design of a DESWH in order to improve its remanufacturing process. The economic benefit related to the DESWHs recovery is illustrated by means of an analysis of the solution obtained from a hybrid production-remanufacturing system that includes the inspection of DESWHs with heterogenous quality and capacity constraints.

Emilia Fernández, Carolina Devoto, Pedro Piñeyro
Chapter 40. Feasibility Study for Electric Vehicle Utilization as Grid Supporting in Indonesian Power System

The improvement of electric vehicles (EVs) selling growth in the last decades also shows the global attention to the climate change. The governments have issued policies and regulation in order to increase the adoption of EVs, such as tax reduction, enlarge charging infrastructure area and facilitate the EV industry to research and development. However, the high penetration of EVs potentially causes stress to the power grid. It can happen in case that the supply cannot cover the unpredictable demand from EVs charging. It is very important to improve the grid capability for balancing its grid conditions due to increasing fluctuating supply and load, such as wind and solar energy. In addition, massive charging of EVs potentially worsen this condition due to significant fluctuation and large gap in the load profile between peak and off-peak periods. The participating opportunities in grid ancillary services have encouraged the idea to use the battery of EVs as a highly responsive power storage in the power system. The techno-economy of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) in Indonesia, especially in Java-Bali grid, is studied in this paper with several the feed-in-tariff schemes. The results show that the peak supply can reduce up to 2.81% (coal replacement) and 8.94% (gas replacement) from driving patterns model. However, V2G potentially increases the generation cost during peak period to 26.5% per month to power company.

Muhammad Huda, Koji Tokimatsu, Arif Darmawan, Muhammad Aziz
Chapter 41. Techno-economic Analysis on Renewable Energy via Hydrogen from Macro and Micro Scope Views

Since 2012, the Japanese government has widely adopted variable renewable energy (VRE), especially photovoltaics (PVs), as a result of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) system. However, energy storage technologies must reduce their burden on the electric power grid to make best-use of intermittent renewable power sources. Power-to-Gas (P2G), which converts surplus power from VRE to hydrogen, is a promising candidate for large-scale and long-term energy storage technology. We utilized analytical models based on actual data from micro-side research and simulation results from macro-side one. We assume that the system either uses a combination of electrolysis cells (ECs) and hydrogen fuel cells (FCs), or ECs and hydrogen co-firing using surplus power from PVs, and will be introduced around 2030 on both sides of the micro (building) and macro (power district area). On the macro side, we investigated power mix by a power planning model. We found that hydrogen fuel cells have great potential to increase local utilization of surplus power. On the micro side, we applied a cost evaluation model consisting of ECs, FCs, hydrogen storage, and PVs, with surplus power selling price as a given parameter. The model shows that total costs are lower when hydrogen is used. Additionally, when electricity selling price is volatile depending on power demand, the model predicts FC capacity expansion. We conclude that P2G has both cost competitiveness and environmental benefit, and that the combination of solar power and hydrogen is a promising technology which expands PV capacity beyond limits without combination.

Meng Chen, Tatsuya Ookubo, Kei Hasegawa, Manabu Ihara, Takuya Oda, Koji Tokimatsu
Chapter 42. Dynamic Simulation of Woody Biomass Co-generation System Considering Time-Varying Heat Demand: A Japanese Community Bathhouse Case Study

Since the implementation of the feed-in-tariff scheme in Japan in 2012, the number of Japanese power generation plants using woody biomass has been increasing. In order to maximize the amount of usable energy extracted from woody biomass, however, it is necessary to use the generated heat in a way that meets heat demand fluctuations. This paper proposes a model that enables the dynamic simulation of a woody biomass co-generation system, taking into account the balance of heat demand and supply. The model is developed using life cycle simulation to evaluate and compare different configurations of energy conversion systems from both economic and environmental viewpoints. A case study involving a community bathhouse in Nara, Japan was conducted using two scenarios: one in which only heat is supplied using conventional heavy oil, and a second in which both heat and electricity are supplied by introducing gasification combined heat and power (CHP) equipment using wood resources. A comparison of the two scenarios showed that CO2 emissions in the CHP scenario were 190% lower than those in the heavy oil scenario. Moreover, the cost of the CHP scenario was 23% lower than that of the heavy oil scenario due to electricity sales based on the feed-in-tariff scheme.

Noriaki Nakatsuka, Yusuke Kishita, Fumiteru Akamatsu
Chapter 43. A Feasibility Study of a Japanese Power to Gas Concept—A Case Study of Rokkasho Village

Power to Gas is a concept of producing hydrogen from intermittent renewable energies. In this study, the authors investigate the feasibility of a Japanese Power to Gas concept. The authors focus on Rokkasho Village in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. The area has affluent renewable energy potential and already has a lot of wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. It also has very cold winter weather and large amount of fossil fuels are used for room and water heating. In order to reduce such fossil fuel usage and CO2 emission in the area, the authors propose a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system for cold area with local hydrogen supply chain, and analyze the feasibility of it. The energy and material balance, cost of hydrogen, and CO2 emission reduction effects are studied. From the electricity and fossil fuel consumption data of public facilities in Rokkasho Village, appropriate fuel cell CHP facilities are selected and hydrogen demand of them are calculated. Hydrogen supply is calculated from wind speed and sun light intensity data of the Rokkasho Village, renewable energy capacity, and threshold of electricity supply usable for hydrogen production on renewable energy output. Hydrogen storage capacities are determined to balance the supply and demand. The CAPEX is calculated based on the equipment in the CHP system and OPEX is calculated from electricity cost and industrial water price. The reduction of CO2 emission is calculated based on the amount of heat and electricity supply replaced with hydrogen CHP. The result indicates that 1. hydrogen production only from “excess” renewable energy is not economically feasible, 2. operation of electrolyzer can reduce the size of hydrogen production facilities and the cost of hydrogen, and 3. Hydrogen combined heat and power reduces more CO2 than just supplying heat from hydrogen.

Yuji Mizuno, Yuki Ishimoto, Shigeki Iida
EcoDesign and Sustainability II
Dr. Yusuke Kishita
Dr. Mitsutaka Matsumoto
Dr. Masato Inoue
Dr. Shinichi Fukushige
Copyright Year
Springer Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN