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2021 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

11. Economy-Wide Material Flow Analysis and Its Projection: DMI Versus TMR in Japan

Authors : Shoki Kosai, Eiji Yamasue

Published in: EcoDesign and Sustainability II

Publisher: Springer Singapore

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Abstract

Economy-wide material flow analysis (EW-MFA) is of importance to monitor the material input and to understand the current national material situation. Among various indicators developed for EW-MFA, this study focuses on the direct material input (DMI) and the total material requirement (TMR). DMI is a well-established and simple attribute, which have been widely utilized in the globally well-known institute and national government. On the contrary, TMR is the most encompassing indicator, which involves the evaluation of hidden flows arising from non-economic activities as well as direct and indirect inputs arising from economic activities. Although numerous studies monitored the chronological transition of EW-DMI and EW-TMR, the mechanism and composition depends on each of unique national characteristics. In addition, domestic recycled resources have yet to be fully evaluated in EW-TMR. Furthermore, a top-down approach has been widely employed to obtain the value of TMR for each of categories, whereas calculating the TMR of each product in a bottom-up approach has scarcely been adopted because of its complexity and difficulty. As such, this study calculates the specific TMR of high level of disaggregation of material categories in the bottom-up approach and chronologically analyzes the material input in Japan on both DMI and TMR basis in 1990–2013. Then, considering the relationship between economic development and material utilization, EW-DMI and EW-TMR in 2020 and 2030 are projected by using the historical trend of material input in the course of economic growth. It is found that from 1990 to 2013 in Japan, DMI has constantly decreased by 25.0%, while TMR has increased by 18.4%. The reduction of fine aggregate, gravel, domestic limestone, and stone in the domestic resources primarily contributed to the decrease in DMI, whereas steam coal, iron ore, liquefied natural gas, and coking coal in the imported resources primarily contributed to the increase in TMR. In addition, the overall specific TMR in Japan has continuously increased by 57% from 4.0 Mton-TMR/Mton in 1990 to 6.3 Mton-TMR/Mton in 2013. Then, it is forecasted to constantly increase and, in 2030, reach in the range between 11.8 and 14.6 Mton-TMR/Mton. In particular, the recent study revealed that TMR is highly associated with environmental and ecological issues due to mining activities and the specific TMR represents the environmental and ecological impacts arising from mining activities. The forecasted acceleration of overall specific TMR alarmingly raises the environmental and ecological burdens arising from mining activities. The developed algorithm to conduct the material flow analysis by using the bottom-up approach for the calculation of TMR can be readily implemented in any country confronting the issue of sustainable material utilization. It may of use to policymakers in designing more well-grounded material management policy.

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Metadata
Title
Economy-Wide Material Flow Analysis and Its Projection: DMI Versus TMR in Japan
Authors
Shoki Kosai
Eiji Yamasue
Copyright Year
2021
Publisher
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6775-9_11