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About this book

This textbook reviews and systematically presents the use of the Internet in public administration and politics. Further, it employs a process-oriented layer model to define the opportunities for exchange and participation for all stakeholder groups, covering the following topics: eAssistance, eProcurement, eService, eContracting, eSettlement, eCollaboration, eDemocracy, and eCommunity. In turn, real-world case studies demonstrate the practical applications in industry, administration and research.

The second edition of this book has been completely revised and extended, and includes several new case studies. It offers a valuable asset for students in Business, Economics and Political Sciences courses, as well as practitioners interested in emerging opportunities for digital exchange and participation in the knowledge society.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. eGovernment Framework

Abstract
Chapter 1 introduces the topics eDemocracy and eGovernment. In Sect. 1.1, we will refer to the European eGovernment initiative, which is rooted in the Lisbon Strategy and includes the eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. The concepts of eDemocracy and eGovernment are defined in Sect. 1.2. In addition, we show different possibilities of interaction between administration and citizens on the one hand, and administration and companies on the other hand. The eGovernment Framework of the University of Fribourg consists of the three process levels, i.e., information and communication, production and participation (Sect. 1.3) and provides the structural concept for this book. Section 1.4 differentiates eGovernment from eBusiness and eCommerce. A topical overview of all chapters is given in Sect. 1.5. Bibliographical notes for eDemocracy, eGovernment, eBusiness, and eCommerce can be found in Sect. 1.6. The eight process areas eAssistance, eProcurement, eService, eContracting, eSettlement, eCollaboration, eDemocracy, and eCommunity make up the main chapters of this book and will each be complemented by a case study from either administration or investigation.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 2. eAssistance

Abstract
Chapter 2 procures the basic principles for Web-based information and experience exchange. To this end, Sect. 2.1 outlines the most important Internet services. Trends in the Internet, known by the name Web X.Y, are displayed in Sect. 2.2; in addition to that, a classification of social software is given. In Sect. 2.3, a list of criteria for municipality Web sites allows to make an estimate of the content. A gross architecture for more ample eGovernment portals is presented in Sect. 2.4. The guidelines for barrier-free Web access were created by the W3C and constitute the basis for all publicWeb sites (Sect. 2.5), with the goal that people with mental or physical handicaps can profit from Web-based information and services as well. In order to assure quality in the Internet, there are criteria for usability, content and ethics to be taken into account, as displayed in Sect. 2.6. Section 2.7 contains bibliographical notes. Finally, the case study of the Web site of the Technical Secretariat for Inclusive Management in Disability of Ecuador (SETEDIS) is presented, in which different forms of access to the Web without barriers are considered.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 3. eProcurement

Abstract
Chapter 3 describes Web-based processes of procurement and purchasing for the administration. In Sect. 3.1, partial steps of the eProcurement process are explained and new potential benefits for the administrative institution are shown. Section 3.2 deals with the procurement model Seller-Side, while Sect. 3.3 focuses on the Buyer-Side and Sect. 3.4 on the market solution. To this end, we will discuss the software services for both the administrative institution and the suppliers’ side, including intermediaries. The Public Offering via Internet is a process that starts, as displayed in Sect. 3.5, with publishing a public order and requesting the submission of offers, then it evaluates these offers and awards the contract. In order to determine prices in a dynamic way, Sect. 3.6 presents some current auction possibilities. The purchase of indirect goods with the help of desktop purchasing systems is presented in Sect. 3.7. Section 3.8 gives a summary of the literature. The case study discusses the procurement of Maintenance, Repair, Operations (MRO) goods (indirect goods for maintenance, repair, and operations) for the Swiss Federal Railways. In this, inverse auctions are used to obtain purchasing advantages
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 4. eService

Abstract
Chapter 4 deals with the service management for eGovernment. Section 4.1 makes an argument for the interoperability of systems in order to facilitate exchange relations between heterogeneous system landscapes. The 12 process areas for public services to citizens, as proposed by the European Union, are presented in Sect. 4.2, whereas the eight areas for companies are shown in Sect. 4.3. In the line of an effect-oriented administration, municipality product catalogs were created and then digitized step by step (Sect. 4.4). A service-oriented application architecture for mobile eHealth services is presented in Sect. 4.5. The European Union runs a regular benchmarking to evaluate and compare administrative services (Sect. Sect. 4.6). Section 4.7 gives bibliographical notes. The case study presented at the end of this chapter is related to the service management dealing with electronic health records from scientists of the Medical University of Vienna that introduce to the project “electronic health record,” coordinated by the Austrian Ministry of Health.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 5. eContracting

Abstract
Chapter 5 analyzes the electronic negotiation process and shows how electronic agreements can be designed to be legally binding. First, Sect. 5.1 discusses the elements of electronic contracts, and later on, Sect. 5.2 introduces to generic services for the negotiation process. The identity management, as presented in Sect. 5.3, deals with user identification and user administration. Asymmetric encoding procedures (Sect. 5.4) make it possible not only to encode and decode documents, but also to generate digital signatures (Sect. 5.5). With these, the Law can declare electronic contracts legally binding on Electronic Signatures. In Sect. 5.6, the Public Key Infrastructure is explained, which is needed to issue digital signatures and certificates. Then, Sect. 5.7 presents the basic concepts of blockchain technology and its applications, including eGoverment. An overview of laws and ordinances on data protection and data security is given in Sect. 5.8. Section 5.9 provides bibliographical notes. A case study by the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research demonstrates how the face recognition in the biometric passport (ePass) works.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 6. eSettlement

Abstract
Chapter 6 deals with processing and settlement of transaction in governmental institutions. Section 6.1 explains the sub-steps of a supply chain and the reference model Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR). Section 6.2 classifies electronic payment methods and briefly introduces to some ePayment solutions. Section 6.3 describes online and offline distribution and hybrid forms, respectively, and the advantages and disadvantages that occur when they are used. In the settlement, like in all process steps of the eGovernment, data protection and data security play an important role. Section 6.4 discusses data protection elements and shows measures to protect the privacy of citizens. Section 6.5 argues, how the copyright of digital documents and objects can be protected by digital watermarks. Section 6.6 deals with security measures including risk classes and describes how to secure data and applications with the help of firewalls. Bibliographical notes are provided in Sect. 6.8. In Sect. 6.7, the basic concepts of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduced in the European Union, is presented. The Salzburg Research Society works on data protection in electronic data exchanges, among other things. Two case studies are presented at the end of this chapter, the first one explains the European regulations and puts protection mechanisms and procedure recommendations at discussion. The second case is about consent management system implemented for the BitsaboutMe Platform.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 7. eCollaboration

Abstract
Chapter 7 describes important procedures and systems for computer-aided collaboration. Section 7.1 analyses the components of a Web-based information system and deals with document administration. The architecture of a content management system is the topic of Sect. 7.2. Section 7.3 discusses the use of wiki tools in the eGovernment.Weblogs are in the cross-hairs of communication media; their application in the administration is discussed in Sect. Sect. 7.4. Group-ware systems in Sect. 7.5 are technically mature products for information exchange, work-flow control, collaboration, and data management. Depending on the complexity of the services, the administrative units must rethink their organization (Sect. 7.6). Section 7.7 contains bibliographical notes. The case study about virtual campus is brought in by the distance teaching University of Hagen, in which over 50,000 students of the areas culture and social studies, computer science, business administration, and law are registered. Additionally, a second case study about the implementation of accessibility in Massive Open Online Courses, is presented.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 8. eDemocracy

Abstract
Chapter 8 deals with Web-based processes for the participation of citizens in political events. Section 8.1 proposes a participation pyramid based on the involvement of the citizens and the complexity of public tasks. In electronic votes and elections, there is a multitude of solutions (Sect. 8.2); some especially standing out are time and place independent options via Internet. Section 8.3 explains the sub-processes for eVoting and eElection. The way in which anonymous voting works is treated in Sect. 8.4. Section 8.6 describes multi-dimensional visualization techniques for results of votes and elections. The political and cultural memory (Sect. 8.7), realized in the eGovernment by portals and digital archives, widens the options of an information and knowledge society and makes a democratic political controlling possible. Section 8.8 gives bibliographical notes. The case studies of a VAA for the 2013 Ecuador National Elections and the technical and procedural mechanisms to enhance transparency and trust in Internet voting for the Swiss elections and votes, are presented.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 9. eCommunity

Abstract
In Chap. 9, we will discuss alternatives of communication and Web-based tools for community formation. Section 9.1 deals with communication strategies for the citizens. Another challenge is handling the different communication channels and contact media in the multi-channel management (Sect. 9.2). The performance chain in administrative communication can be carried out by a call center or a more comprehensive communication center (Sect. 9.3). A development model for online citizens is presented in Sect. 9.4. With the help of this development model, the governmental institution can estimate the degree of popularity, the capability to communicate and the personal involvement of the citizens (Sect. 9.5). Further tools for community formation, like civic network systems, buddy or recommender systems, as well as corporate blogs, are introduced in Sect. 9.6. Section 9.8 contains bibliographical notes. The case studies Participa Inteligente and the Swiss center for telemedicine, are presented at the end of this chapter.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Chapter 10. Knowledge Society

Abstract
Chapter 10 deals with the Information and Knowledge Society. First, we will discuss the dimensions of decentralization efforts in the New Public Management (Sect. 10.1), which are brought forward with the help of eGovernment projects. Changes on the market, progress in the information and communication technology and social transformations demand for setting out in the direction of an Information and Knowledge Society (Sect. 10.2). A Knowledge Society distinguishes itself by the fact that it organizes the acquisition, assurance, utilization, and distribution of knowledge, and that it allows institutions and citizens to access knowledge-based systems (Sect. 10.3). Administrative organizations and societies are asked to acquire procedures and techniques of a learning organization (Sect. 10.4). In that process, the digital divide must be avoided, that is the division of society into those citizens who have Internet access and capacities, and those without such means and knowledge (Sect. 10.5). Without ethic rules (Sect. 10.6), a knowledge society is not viable. Section 10.7 contains bibliographical notes for further studies. At the end of this chapter, a case study on the so-called cognitive cities is presented.
Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

Backmatter

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