About 80% of all molybdenum mined in the world (not including units recovered via recycling) is used as an alloying element in iron and steel. In general, the intensity of molybdenum use in China is still lower than in more highly developed regions such as the USA and Europe. This difference is manifest in both carbon steels and stainless steels, suggesting a significant opportunity for more widespread use of molybdenum in the future as China follows its self-reliance policy, calling for more sophisticated materials. Active market development, as being pursued by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA), is a key asset in that respect. This article summarizes some key facts on molybdenum mining, use and market development in China.