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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

10. Effects of SMI-Branding on Brand Objectives

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Abstract

SMIs strive to formulate honest- and authentic-appearing messages. Thus, regardless if SMIs disclose the sponsorship or not they will strive to add persuasive, honest language to accompany their post with the aim of showing that they wholeheartedly support the brand used in the post. This means that academia needs to address the yet sparsely researched area of “honest opinion” impartiality disclosures.

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Footnotes
1
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2
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 139; BOERMAN ET AL. (2017), p. 82; HOOFNAGLE/MELESHINSKY (2015) pp. 1 et seq.; BOERMAN (2020) p. 199.
 
3
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 2; BOERMAN ET AL. (2020), p. 199; AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD, (2020), p. 558.
 
4
Cf. BREVES (2021), p. 8. The study included N = 144 females that were recruited via Facebook and Instagram and targeted via a varied disclosure (existing vs. non-existing) post of a fictitious SMI.
 
5
Cf. BECKERT ET AL. (2020) analyses three data sets each in a different environment. The first study is set in the Instagram environment and employs an Instagram post of a fictitious SMI (N = 125). All respondents are students. He offers two stimuli with varied disclosure (existing “paid partnership with brand [x]” vs. non-existing). The depicted product is a backpack. However, by completing three studies, the results vary from study to study. Study 2 is set in the blog environment and contains N = 238 respondents. The stimuli remain the same. Study 3 takes place in the online newspaper environment and has N = 81. All three are between-subjects online experiments, with varied disclosure (existing vs. non-existing). BECKERT ET AL. (2020), p. 1168.
 
6
Cf. FORRESTER (2019); STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 211.
 
7
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 210 et seq.
 
8
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531.
 
9
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 218.
 
10
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 212.
 
11
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), pp. 1 et seqq.; KIM/KIM (2020) p. 3.
 
12
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15
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18
Cf. KIM/KIM (2020), p. 3.
 
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20
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21
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22
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23
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24
Cf. KELLY (1973), p. 113.
 
25
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 529.
 
26
Cf. OHANIAN (1990), p. 41; HOVLAND/WEISS (1951); ERDOGAN (1999), p. 297; KÜSTER-ROHDE (2010), p. 77; SEILER/KUCZA (2017), p. 2; DJAFAROVA/TROFIMENKO (2019), p. 1437.
 
27
Cf. ERDOGAN (1999), p. 297; MCGUIRE (1985); SEILER/KUCZA (2017), pp. 1 et seqq.
 
28
OHANIAN (1990), p. 41; STUBB (2019a), p. 112.
 
29
Cf. VRONTIS ET AL. (2020), p. 624; SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 6.; JIN/MUQADDAM (2019), p. 2; MARTINEZ-LOPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1808.
 
30
Cf. VRONTIS ET AL. (2020), p. 624; KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 2.
 
31
Cf. CHU/KAMAL (2008), p. 27, OHANIAN (1991), p. 44.
 
32
Cf. ERDOGAN (1999), p. 297; OHANIAN (1991), p. 44; SCHOUTEN ET AL. (2020), p. 277.
 
33
Cf. XIAO ET AL. (2018), p. 135.
 
34
Cf. MARTINEZ-LOPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1817.
 
35
Cf. DE JANS/CAUBERGHE/HUDDERS (2018), p. 11.
 
36
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 12.
 
37
Cf. FINK (2020), p. 156.
 
38
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), pp. 19 et seq.
 
39
Cf. OHANIAN (1990), p. 41 referring to HOVLAND ET AL. (1953) p. 21; DEKKER/VAN RAJMERSAAL (2013), p. 233.
 
40
Cf. ERDOGAN (1999), p. 297; OHANIAN (1990), p. 42.
 
41
Cf. OHANIAN (1990), p. 4; DEKKER/VAN RAJMERSAAL (2013), p. 233; TATAGE (2017); p. 61; SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 10.
 
42
Cf. OHANIAN (1991), p. 5.
 
43
Cf. CRISCI/KASSINOVE (1973), p. 245; OHANIAN (1991), p. 5.
 
44
Cf. CRANO (1970), p. 239; OHANIAN (1991), p. 5.
 
45
Cf. AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), p. 557.
 
46
Cf. XIAO ET AL. (2018), p. 135.
 
47
Cf. FINK (2020), p. 156.
 
48
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49
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 7.
 
50
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 9.
 
51
Cf. THIEFES (2021), p. 185.
 
52
Cf. OHANIAN (1991), p. 42.
 
53
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 7.
 
54
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 9.
 
55
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 10.
 
56
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57
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 176.
 
58
Cf. FINK (2020), p. 159.
 
59
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), pp. 12 et seq.
 
60
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531; SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 4.; STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 212; BECKERT ET AL. (2020), p. 1178; BREVES ET AL. (2021), pp. 4 et seq.
 
61
Cf. VRONTIS ET AL. (2020), p. 624; SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 6.; JIN/MUQADDAM (2019), p. 2; MARTINEZ-LOPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1808.
 
62
Cf. BOERMAN ET AL. (2012), p. 1047.
 
63
Cf. WOJDYNSKI/EVANS (2016), p. 157.
 
64
Cf. VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2015), p. 78; EVANS/HOY (2016), p. 146; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 113.
 
65
Cf. KLEIN /BECKER (2018), p. 2; BREVES ET AL. (2019), pp. 444 et seq.; DJAFAROVA/TROFIMENKO (2019), pp. 1432 et seq.; SCHOUTEN ET AL. (2020), pp. 260 et seq.; VRONTIS ET AL. (2020), p. 624.
 
66
Cf. TATAGE (2017), p. 37.
 
67
Cf. DE JANS/CAUBERGHE/HUDDERS (2018), p. 11.
 
68
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 10.
 
69
Cf. MARTINEZ-LOPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1817.
 
70
Cf. CARR/HAYES (2014), p. 43.
 
71
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531.
 
72
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 218.
 
73
Cf. HOVLAND/WEISS (1953), pp. 1 et seqq.; SEILER/KUCZA (2017), p. 2.
 
74
Cf. ERDOGAN (1999), p. 297; MCGUIRE (1985); SEILER/KUCZA (2017), pp. 1 et seqq.
 
75
Cf. MCGUIRE (1985); SEILER/KUCZA (2017), pp. 1 et seqq.
 
76
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), pp. 1 et seqq.; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 112; REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2020), p. 96.
 
77
Cf. BREHM/BREHM (1981), p. 194; REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2020), p. 96.
 
78
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 529.
 
79
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), pp. 529 et seqq.
 
80
Cf. HUGHES ET AL. (2019), p. 80.
 
81
Cf. HUGHES ET AL. (2019), p. 79.
 
82
Cf. DEKKER/VAN RIJMERSAAL (2013), p. 226.
 
83
Cf. CHEUNG ET AL. (2014), p. 9.
 
84
Cf. CHU/KAMAL (2008), p. 32.
 
85
Cf. DJAFAROVA / RUSHWORTH (2017), p. 6.
 
86
Cf. LOU/YUAN (2019), p. 24.
 
87
Cf. LOU/YUAN (2019), p. 22.
 
88
Cf. TATAGE (2017), p. 37.
 
89
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 10.
 
90
Cf. DE JANS/CAUBERGHE/HUDDERS (2018), p. 11.
 
91
Cf. THIEFES (2021), p. 185.
 
92
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), pp. 1 et seqq.; EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 140; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 112; REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2020), p. 96.
 
93
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 140; KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 4.
 
94
Cf. WOJDYNSKI (2016), p. 203; FERRER-CONILL (2016), p. 2; CAMPBELL/GRIMM (2019), p. 110 et seqq.; KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 3.
 
95
Cf. WOJDYNSKI (2016), p. 203.
 
96
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 200.
 
97
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 201.
 
98
Cf. VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2016), p. 1461.
 
99
Cf. LEE/KOO (2012), p. 1976; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 112.
 
100
Cf. DE CICCO/IACOBUCCI/PAGLIARO (2020), p. 17.
 
101
Cf. BECKERT ET AL. (2020), p. 1166 et seq.
 
102
Cf. KIM/KIM (2020), p. 3.
 
103
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 201.
 
104
STEINDEL ET AL (2006) p. 205.
 
105
Cf. BREHM/BREHM (1981), p. 194; STEINDEL ET AL (2006) p. 205.
 
106
Cf. STEINDEL ET AL (2006) p. 205; REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2020), p. 96.
 
107
Cf. STEINDEL ET AL (2006) p. 205.
 
108
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), pp. 1 et seqq.
 
109
Cf. HWAMG/JEONG (2016), p. 528.
 
110
Cf. FRIESTAD/WRIGHT (1994), p. 3; LEE/KOO (2012), p. 1976; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 112.
 
111
Cf. VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2016), p. 1416.
 
112
Cf. HWAMG/JEONG (2016), p. 528.
 
113
Cf. DE JANS/HUDDERS (2020), p. 6; VRONTIS ET AL. (2020), p. 626.
 
114
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 13.
 
115
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/ KLEIN/ EDELING (2021), p. 11.
 
116
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 141.
 
117
Cf. BREVES ET AL. (2021), pp. 9 et seq. BREVES ET AL. (2021) define conceptual persuasion knowledge as to the consumer’s ability to recognize advertising, meaning to differentiate it from non-sponsored media content. Evaluative persuasion knowledge is defined as the consumer’s critical attitude toward advertising, including for instance the occurrence of negative attitudes towards the advertisement, caused by the recognition of the persuasive intent. Cf. BREVES ET AL. (2021), p. 9.
 
118
Cf. LEE/KOO (2012), p. 1976; STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 112.
 
119
Cf. HUSSAIN/MELEWAR/PRIPORAS/FOROUDI (2020), p. 549; GREER (2009), p. 11.
 
120
Cf. BECKERT ET AL. (2020), pp. 1166 et seq.
 
121
Cf. MARTINEZ-LOPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1817.
 
122
Cf. SUNDERMANN/MUNNUKKA (2022), p. 2.
 
123
Cf. OHANIAN (1990), p. 41.
 
124
Cf. CARR/HAYES (2014), p. 43.
 
125
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531.
 
126
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 218.
 
127
Cf. CHU/KAMAL (2008), p. 32.
 
128
Cf. DJAFAROVA / RUSHWORTH (2017), p. 6.
 
129
Cf. LOU / YUAN (2019), p. 24.
 
130
Cf. LOU/YUAN (2019), p. 22.
 
131
Cf. TATAGE (2017), p. 37.
 
132
Cf. SOKOLOVA/KEFI (2019), p. 10.
 
133
Cf. DE JANS/CAUBERGHE/HUDDERS (2018), p. 11.
 
134
Cf: THIEFES (2021), p. 185.
 
135
Cf. VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2016), p. 1463.
 
136
Cf. SUNDERMANN/MUNNUKKA (2022), p. 6.
 
137
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 142.
 
138
Cf. KARAGÜR/ BECKER/ KLEIN/ EDELING (2021), p. 65. KARAGÜR/ BECKER/ KLEIN/ EDELING (2021), performed 4 studies. An exploratory field study (N = 3,593) which analyses posts by 61 German SMIs in fashion beauty and fitness and three online experiments. The findings above are based in the first online experiment which included a 3 (disclosure type: in-text disclosure “#advertising”, branded content tool, nondisclosure) × 2 (follower count: macro, micro) × 2 (product prominence: high, low) between-subjects design. (N = 464 participants viewing a modified Instagram post with a male SMI).
 
139
Cf. KARAGÜR/ BECKER/ KLEIN/ EDELING (2021), p. 17.
 
140
Cf. MOWEN / BROWN (1981) pp. 437 et seq.
 
141
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981) p. 438.
 
142
Cf. CHEN ET AL. (2013), p. 851.
 
143
Cf. TRIPP/JENSEN/CARLSON (1994), pp. 540 et seq.
 
144
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981), quantitative, questionnaire / booklet N = 99 USA midwest-students.
 
145
Cf. PANDEY (2010), p. 3; ZHOU/KRAAK (2021), p. 8.
 
146
Cf. ILICIC/WEBSTER (2011), p. 230.
 
147
Cf. CHEN ET AL. (2013), p. 851.
 
148
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 31; ERDOGAN (1999), p. 293.
 
149
Cf. KLEIN / BECKER (2018), p. 8. Quantitative, online experiment, N = 1,238. They observe three influencer types (micro, macro and celebrity) while considering an MPE vs. no MPE scenario, for advertising disclosure (no disclosure vs. hashtag vs standardized disclosure).
 
150
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 65. The findings above are based in the second online experiment which included a 3 (disclosure type: in-text disclosure “#advertising”, branded content tool, nondisclosure) × 2 (follower count: macro), micro) × 2 (MPE: no, yes) between-subjects factorial design. (N = 802 participants viewing a modified Instagram post with a male SMI).
 
151
PARK ET AL. (2010) defines attachment as the bond connecting the brand with the self and its strength. PARK ET AL. (2010), p. 2.
 
152
Cf. MARRONE (2014), p. 21. The work began in 1956 and is split in three volumes.
 
153
Cf. PAK (2006) p. 194.
 
154
Cf. BLOWLBY (1977), p. 208.; THOMSON (2006), p. 194.
 
155
Cf. MOONEY (2010), p. 7; MARRONE (2014), p. 268, PARK (2006), p. 194.
 
156
Cf. HAZAN/SHAVER (1994), p. 3.
 
157
Cf. PARK/MACINNIS/PRIESTER (2006b), p. 193.
 
158
Cf. BOWLBY (1977), pp. 206 et seq.; BOWLBY (1979); BOWLBY (1980); MARRONE (2014), p. 171.
 
159
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78.
 
160
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 77.
 
161
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 77; BOWLBY (1980); HAZAN/SHAVER (1994), p. 3.
 
162
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 77.
 
163
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78; BOWLBY (1979).
 
164
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2006), p. 195.; PEDELIENTO (2016), p. 194.; BIDMON (2017), p. 164.
 
165
Cf. KLEINE/KLEINE/ALLEN (1995), p. 341; PARK ET AL. (2010), p. 14; THOMSON/MACINNIS/PARK (2005), p. 79.
 
166
Cf. WALLENDORF (1988), pp. 542 et seq.
 
167
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 75.
 
168
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78; PIEHLER (2011), p. 198.
 
169
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78.
 
170
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78.
 
171
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2006), p. 198.
 
172
Cf. THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78.
 
173
Cf. PIEHLER (2011), p. 198.
 
174
Cf. GARBARINO/JOHNSON (1999), pp. 71 et seq. The authors describe a behavioral investment regarding the relationship of theater goers and the ticket type they purchase as a psychological bond and thus, cases where the commitment endures over time.
 
175
Cf. THOMSON/MACINNIS/PARK (2005), p. 79.
 
176
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2010) p. 2 et seqq., argues for an emotional item scale.
 
177
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2010), p. 5 et seqq.
 
178
Cf. THOMSON (2006), p. 104 et seqq.
 
179
Cf. PARK et al. (2010), p. 2.; LIENMANN (2021), p. 80.
 
180
Cf. BLOWLBY (1977), p. 208.; PARK ET AL. (2006), p. 195.
 
181
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2006), p. 192.
 
182
Cf. THOMSON (2006), p. 194; ILICIC/WEBSTER (2014), p. 1040; LOROZ/BRAIG (2015), p. 751; KHAMIS ET AL. (2017); FINK (2020), p. 60.
 
183
Cf. THOMSON (2006), p. 194; KOWALCZYK/POUNDERS (2016), p. 345.
 
184
Cf. KOWALCZYK/POUNDERS (2016), p. 354 et seq. The authors employed an online survey with a student sample of N = 196. KOWALCZYK/POUNDERS (2016), pp. 354 et seq.
 
185
Cf. SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ/JIMÉNEZ-CASTILLO (2021), p. 1124.
 
186
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 1. (N = 325 U.S. consumers).
 
187
Cf. JIN/MUQADDAM (2018), p. 13. The sample was comprised of N = 304 female consumers chosen in light of the female SMI in order to avoid identification bias. CASALÓ/FLAVIÁN/IBÁÑEZ-SÁNCHEZ (2020), p. 511, underline that young female Instagram users are often more heavily impacted by Instagram SMIs. Cf. VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2016), p. 328. SUNDERMANN/MUNNUKKA (2022) similarly select a sample of N = 396 only female respondents, while using a female SMI as a stimulus. Cf. SUNDERMANN/MUNNUKKA (2022), p. 5.
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 118. The N = 600 sample was formed by female Instagram users in Germany, between the ages of 16–35, who were familiar with the SMI Pamela Reif and had a personal involvement with the product category “sport attire for women”. The study showed different groups of respondents three different modified Instagram-Posts of Pamela Reif wearing tops with three different brands. The brands (Adidas, Hummel and Jack Wolfskin) were chosen according to their high, moderate and low brand-fit with the SMI.
 
188
Cf. SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ/JIMÉNEZ-CASTILLO (2021), p. 1137.
 
189
Cf. KI ET AL. (2020), p. 11.
 
190
Cf. SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ/JIMÉNEZ-CASTILLO (2021), pp. 1133 et seq.
 
Metadata
Title
Effects of SMI-Branding on Brand Objectives
Author
Corina Oprea
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41364-4_10

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