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2015 | Book

Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation

Reports of the PPP European Green Vehicles Initiative

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About this book

This edited volume presents research results of the PPP European Green Vehicle Initiative (EGVI), focusing on electric vehicle batteries. Electrification is one road towards sustainable road transportation, and battery technology is one of the key enabling technologies. However, at the same time, battery technology is one of the main obstacles for a broad commercial launch of electric vehicles. This book includes research contributions which try to bridge the gap between research and innovation in the field of battery technology for electric vehicles. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
HELIOS—High Energy Lithium Ion Storage Solutions: Comparative Assessment of 4 Chemistries of Cathode for EV and PHEV Applications
Abstract
HELIOS is a 4 year project to carry out a comparative assessment of 4 types of lithium-ion battery technology (NCA, LFP, NMC and LMO-NCA or LMO-blend/Graphite). The assessments concern traction batteries for the automotive sector (Electric Vehicles and Plug-in HEV). The evaluations are carried out on ‘real’ size high energy cells with a capacity of approximately 40 Ah, produced industrially. In total, up to 220 cells have been employed across the various cell types and test activities (safety tests on new and pre-aged cells), cycling and calendar tests (12–15 months). The comparisons have been achieved from laboratory testing and other analysis of full sized battery cells in order to determine comparative assessment of Performance, life, cost, recycling and safety characteristics. This paper makes a review of the main results of Helios project.
Frédérique Del Corso, Horst Mettlach, Mathieu Morcrette, Uwe Koehler, Cedric Gousset, Christian Sarrazin, Ghislain Binotto, Denis Porcellato, Matthias Vest
Development of Novel Solid Materials for High Power Li Polymer Batteries (SOMABAT). Recyclability of Components
Abstract
SOMABAT aims to develop more environmental friendly, safer and better performing high power Li polymer battery by the development of novel breakthrough recyclable solid materials to be used as anode, cathode and solid polymer electrolyte, new alternatives to recycle the different components of the battery and life cycle analysis. This challenge is being achieved by using new low-cost synthesis and processing methods in which it is possible to tailor the different properties of the materials. Development of different novel synthetic and recyclable materials based carbon based hybrid materials, novel LiFePO4 and LiFeMnPO4 based nanocomposite cathode with a conductive polymers or carbons, and highly conductive polymer electrolyte membranes based on fluorinated matrices with nanosized particles and others based on a series of polyphosphates and polyphosphonates polymers respond to the very ambitious challenge of adequate energy density, lifetime and safety. An assessment and test of the potential recyclability and revalorisation of the battery components developed and life-cycle assessment of the cell will allow the development of a more environmental friendly Li-polymer battery in which a 50 % weight of the battery will be recyclable and a reduction of the final cost of the battery up to 150 €/kWh is achievable. The consortium is made up of experts in the field and is complementary in terms of R&D expertise and geographic distribution.
Leire Zubizarreta, Mayte Gil-Agustí, Marta Garcia, Alfredo Quijano, Alexandre Leonard, Nathalie Job, Roberto Renzoni, Angelique Léonard, Martin Cifrain, Franz Pilcher, Volodymyr Khomenko, Viacheslav Barsukov, Eugenia Fagadar-Cosma, Gheorghe Ilia, Peter Dooley, Omar Ayyad, Pedro Gomez-Romero, Farouk Tedjar, Reiner Weyhe, Karl Vestin, Lars Barkler, Iratxede Meatza, Igor Cantero, Stephane Levasseur, Andrea Rossi
AUTOSUPERCAP: Development of High Energy and High Power Density Supercapacitor Cells
Abstract
The study focuses on the materials and small supercapacitor cells manufactured in the first period of AUTOSUPERCAP project. The supercapacitor cells presented in this paper are of the type of symmetrical, electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) cells with organic electrolyte TEABF4 dissolved in propylene carbonate (PC) or acetonitrile (AN). Different active electrode materials have been investigated, including novel activated carbon, graphene and carbon nanotubes produced in this project, as well as combinations of these materials. Supercapacitor cells of 2–4 cm2 area were fabricated and tested in impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests. Ragone plots of energy density against power density were constructed from the charge-discharge test data at different current densities. Furthermore, the results of a cost analysis are presented for the main types of supercapacitors investigated.
Constantina Lekakou, Aldo Sorniotti, Chunhong Lei, Foivos Markoulidis, Peter C. Wilson, Alberto Santucci, Steve Tennison, Negar Amini, Christos Trapalis, Gianfranco Carotenuto, Sofie Khalil, Brunetto Martorana, Irene Cannavaro, Michele Gosso, John Perry, Craig Hoy, Marcel Weil, Hanna Dura, Fabio Viotto
GREENLION Project: Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Low Cost Greener Li-Ion Batteries
Abstract
GREENLION is a Large Scale Collaborative Project within the FP7 (GC.NMP.2011-1) leading to the manufacturing of greener and cheaper Li-Ion batteries for electric vehicle applications via the use of water soluble, fluorine-free, high thermally stable binders, which would eliminate the use of VOCs and reduce the cell assembly cost. The project has 6 key objectives: (i) development of new active and inactive battery materials viable for water processes (green chemistry); (ii) development of innovative processes (coating from aqueous slurries) capable of reducing electrode production cost and avoid environmental pollution; (iii) development of new assembly procedures (including laser cutting and high temperature pre-treatment) capable of substantially reduce the time and the cost of cell fabrication; (iv) lighter battery modules with easier disassembly through eco-designed bonding techniques; (v) waste reduction, which, by making use of the water solubility of the binder, allows the extensive recovery of the active and inactive battery materials; and (vi) development of automated process and construction of fully integrated battery module for electric vehicle applications with optimized electrodes, cells, and other ancillaries. Achievements during the first 18 months of the project, especially on materials development and water-based electrode fabrication are reported herein.
Iratxe de Meatza, Oscar Miguel, Iosu Cendoya, Guk-Tae Kim, Nicholas Löffler, Nina Laszczynski, Stefano Passerini, Peter M. Schweizer, Franca Castiglione, Andrea Mele, Giovanni Battista Appetecchi, Margherita Moreno, Michael Brandon, Tadhg Kennedy, Emma Mullane, Kevin M. Ryan, Igor Cantero, Maxime Olive
Lightweight and Integrated Plastic Solutions for Power Battery Racks in Electric Vehicles
Abstract
The Operating Energy Racks for Full Electric Vehicles project (OPERA4FEV) is a European project under the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission. The project started in September 2011 for a total period of 54 months and aims to propose a cheap, light and versatile alternative solution to the present metal-based technology for power battery racks in electric vehicles. It also aims for a high level of function integration while taking crash and safety regulations into account in the mean time. It involves a consortium of 10 partners from 6 European countries and has a total budget of €7 millions.
Thierry Coosemans, Javier Sanfélix, Maarten Messagie, Joeri Van Mierlo, Anthony Alves, Gilles Waymel
EASYBAT—Innovative Removal Battery Interfaces for Electric Vehicles
Abstract
New battery packs can make the EV more capable. Their share in the price of the Fully Electric Vehicle (FEV) is set to become even more dominant. Factors driving this include the strident demand for better car range. In addition, new battery packs increasingly incorporate electronics for safety and power conversion. The integration of these new complex battery packs presents major challenges to the industry especially considering the current lack of standards. The EASYBAT project, funded through the European Seventh Framework Program (FP7), will make it easier for European automobile and battery manufacturers to build EV with switchable batteries. EASYBAT will provide interfaces for switching a battery in and out of an electric car quickly and safely; the connector interfaces between the car, the battery, the communications network, and the battery cooling system; and design specifications that meet European industry and safety standards. The EASYBAT solution will be integrated and tested on fully electric vehicles to ensure it meets production-grade manufacturing criteria and European safety standards.
Chanan Gabay, Jacques Poillot, Yoav Heichal
SuperLIB: Smart Battery Management of a Dual Cell Architecture for Electric Vehicles
Abstract
A dual-cell battery concept has been proposed to address electro-mobility challenges where the concept entails a combination of high energy and high power optimized cells combined with an advanced management system. This concept and its advanced management system are being investigated as part of a European Seventh Framework Programme research project with the name SuperLIB, where the target is to extend life time of the battery and utilize an advanced battery management system to increase overall performance. An overview is provided on the main areas of development including cell design, battery management system development with advanced algorithms and energy distribution and advanced temperature sensor development.
Can Kurtulus, Peter Krabb, Volker Hennige, Mika Räsänen, Justin Salminen, Matti Nuutinen, Joschua Grosch, Michael Jank, Erik Teuber, Vincent Lorentz, Martin Petit, Joseph Martin, Jean-Louis Silvi, Noshin Omar, Dhammika Widanage
SMART-LIC—Smart and Compact Battery Management System Module for Integration into Lithium-Ion Cell for Fully Electric Vehicles
Abstract
Current limitations of battery systems for fully electric vehicles (FEV) are mainly related to performance, driving range, battery life, re-charging time and price per unit. New cell chemistries are able to mitigate these drawbacks, but are more prone to catastrophic failures due to a thermal runaway. Therefore, new and more advanced management strategies are necessary to safely prevent the energy storage system from ever coming into this critical situation. In this paper, a novel battery management system (BMS) architecture is introduced, which will be able to meet these high requirements by introducing a network that has smart satellite systems in each macro-cell or directly in each individual cell. Particular attention will be put on safety and cost issues as well as on 48V application.
Jochen Langheim, Soufiane Carcaillet, Philippe Cavro, Martin Steinau, Olfa Kanoun, Thomas Günther, Thomas Mager, Alexander Otto, Claudio Lanciotti
Metadata
Title
Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation
Editors
Emma Briec
Beate Müller
Copyright Year
2015
Electronic ISBN
978-3-319-12706-4
Print ISBN
978-3-319-12705-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12706-4

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