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2015 | Book

Electric Vehicle Systems Architecture and Standardization Needs

Reports of the PPP European Green Vehicles Initiative


About this book

This edited volume presents research results of the PPP European Green Vehicle Initiative (EGVI), focusing on Electric Vehicle Systems Architecture and Standardization Needs. The objectives of energy efficiency and zero emissions in road transportation imply a paradigm shift in the concept of the automobile regarding design, materials, and propulsion technology. A redesign of the electric and electronic architecture provides in many aspects additional potential for reaching these goals. At the same time, standardization within a broad range of features, components and systems is a key enabling factor for a successful market entry of the electric vehicle (EV). It would lower production cost, increase interoperability and compatibilities, and sustain market penetration. Hence, novel architectures and testing concepts and standardization approaches for the EV have been the topic of an expert workshop of the European Green Vehicles Initiative PPP. This book contains the contributions of current European research projects on EV architecture and an expert view on the status of EV standardization. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field.

Table of Contents


Invited Papers

Current Issues in EV Standardization
In urban traffic, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electrically propelled vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particularly for a healthier living environment. The operation of the electrically propelled vehicle is dependent on the availability of efficient electric energy storage devices: the traction batteries, which have to access suitable recharging infrastructures. For all these components, standards are essential for ensuring safety and compatibility. This article gives an overview of current developments in the field of international standardization of electrically propelled vehicles, focusing on two essential matters for electric vehicles: batteries and charging.
Peter Van den Bossche, Noshin Omar, Thierry Coosemans, Joeri Van Mierlo
Barriers and Opportunities for SMEs in EV Technologies: From Research to Innovations
This report has been produced as part of the FP7-funded research project INTRASME (Innovative Transport SME Support Action) which aims to improve the capacity and capability of European SMEs to develop and implement products more rapidly in the low carbon transportation sectors. This report presents results of work on how SMEs acquire new technologies and develop new products and services and the value SMEs get from participating in EU R&D Transport programmes, focusing on the barriers SMEs face in exploiting their innovations and how these can be overcome. The report identifies strategies associated with the successful commercialisation of technology, and produces recommendations for the European Commission on support for SMEs.
Neil Adams, Christopher Pickering, Richard Brooks, David Morris

Scientific Papers

OpEneR—Approaching an Optimal Energy Management for Fully Electric Vehicles
Today’s electric vehicles are facing the driver’s anxiety for reachability of a chosen destination. This is caused by a rather limited driving range resulting from a still open and sophisticated challenge, i.e. the development of batteries with sufficient high power and energy content, and with high lifetime expectancy. The European publicly funded project OpEneR was established to follow an alternative but somehow complementary way towards a better situation. Driving strategies and assistance systems are being developed to increase efficiency, driving range, and safety. All functions are handled by a novel overall energy management system merging data from multiple on- and off-board data sources. This article gives an outline of OpEneR and its working fields while the project is still ongoing.
Kosmas Knödler, Sylvain Laversanne
A Framework for Electric Vehicle Development: From Modelling to Engineering Through Real-World Data Analysis
The Project ASTERICS, an international EU-STREP Project with 10 partners from 7 countries, follows the target to increase the efficiency of fully electric vehicles (FEV) by means of improved virtual models and intelligent testing and verification methods. Better models in the early design- and development phases allow more realistic and improved concept studies and hence detailed optimization at component level as well as global optimization at system level. Through intelligent testing methods it will be possible to enhance the model quality on one hand and reduce the test time on the other hand. These testing methods shall also allow the assessment of durability and ageing effects for electrical components in the FEV-driveline. The combination of virtual simulation with realistic, for FEV relevant driving cycles leads to a very good possibility for optimization of predictable mileage. In this paper the results of the first phase of the ASTERICS project are presented. It describes the modelling approach and gives a good overview on virtual product development by means of model based system engineering (MBSE). Also described is the methodology to identify design goals based on real life data through assessment and definition of a representative driving cycle for FEV.
Horst Pfluegl, Claudio Ricci, Laura Borgarello, Pacôme Magnin, Frank Sellier, Lorenzo Berzi, Marco Pierini, Carolien Mazal, Hellal Benzaoui
HiWi Project: High Efficiency Electric Drives
Vehicles develop their highest efficiency of around 93–95 % within a speed range of usually 1/4 to 1/3 of the maximum, whereas in real-life driving cycles the motor operates at a wider range of speeds and at partial load, resulting in much lower efficiency. Hi-Wi addresses this mismatch by advancing the design and manufacture of drive trains through holistic design across magnetic, thermal, mechanical and control electronics/algorithms in line with real-life use rather than a single-point “rating”. In addition to the above efficiency gains, Hi-Wi addresses the issue of material supply through the development of nanostructured magnetic materials and the development of new driving cycles to more accurately represent in use conditions for electric vehicles.
Andrew Cockburn, Jenny Wang, David Hopkinson, Marco Ottella, Fabrice Marion, William O’Neill
eFuture—Safe and Efficient Electrical Vehicle
This paper presents the eFuture project that has been funded by the European Commission within the Framework 7—Green Cars Initiative. After a short presentation of the project and its objectives, the new vehicle concept will be presented and the physical integration as well. Later each function in the vehicle will be enlightened with its theory part and the corresponding results. Beside the virtual co-pilot and the driver coaching, the new electric driveline will be presented. The core idea of using a decision unit able to switch between driver and co-pilot, between energy saving and safety, and between most adequate actuators will be presented as well. Finally general results will be presented to light out the confirmation/information of the hypothesis for our new vehicle concept.
Frédéric Holzmann, Volker Scheuch, Pascal Dégardins
HEMIS Project (Electrical Powertrain HEalth Monitoring for Increased Safety of FEVs): Limitations of Electromagnetic Standards for Vehicles Equipped with Electrical Powertrain
The HEMIS project is concerned with health monitoring of electrical powertrain in order to enhance the maintainability and safety of electric vehicles. Electromagnetic emissions from electrical powertrain will change the electromagnetic environment in vehicles, which may have implications for electromagnetic compatibility and, because of the high electrical power levels, human exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper outlines some of the electromagnetic issues under investigation in the project, including limitations of existing test methods for electromagnetic compatibility, and a lack of test methods for the assessment of in-vehicle human exposure, as well as for both electromagnetic compatibility and human field exposure issues relating to wireless charging of traction batteries.
Alastair R. Ruddle, Rob Armstrong, Ainhoa Galarza
Advanced Electronic Architecture Design for Next Electric Vehicle Generation
Future generations of electric vehicles (EVs) require a scalable, layered architecture addressing different system aspects such as scalable modules, uniform communication, and hardware (HW) and software (SW) architectures. This will reduce the number of electronic control units as well as the variety of communication, sensor data fusion and charging infrastructure interfaces. The architecture is based on distributed processing with novel propulsion systems and electronic control units implemented as embedded systems containing HW and SW algorithms. Sensing, actuation, signal processing and computing devices are embedded in the electronic equipment, motors, batteries and the mechanical components. This paper presents the current advances in novel EV architectures based on embedded computing devices, communication systems and management algorithms.
Ovidiu Vermesan, Mariano Sans, Peter Hank, Glenn Farrall, Jamie Packer, Nicola Cesario, Harald Gall, Lars-Cyril Blystad, Michele Sciolla, Ahmed Harrar
End-to-End Integration of the V2G Interface with Smart Metering Systems (Results of the EU Co-funded FP7 Project “PowerUp”)
Standardization efforts are currently underway to realize the Europe-wide deployment of Smart-Grids. Numerous protocols have already been standardized; each tailored to a distinct application. Amongst these, Smart Metering and EV charging have only recently started to converge, and the goal of the PowerUp project has been to advance such convergence. This paper presents the major results from the project. After introducing the underlying system architecture for the end-to-end integration between the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) communications interface and Smart Metering systems, we describe critical Smart-Grid integration aspects for each protocol layer within the V2G communications protocol stack. Finally, prototype test observations are presented. The outlined end-to-end integration of the V2G interface demonstrates the technological solution for ensuring that even mass-deployment of EVs would not interfere with the stability of the electric grid.
Andras Kovacs, Robert Schmidt, Dave Marples, Raduz Morsztyn
Electric Vehicle Systems Architecture and Standardization Needs
Beate Müller
Gereon Meyer
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