Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th Conference on AElectronic Governance and Open Society: Challenges in Eurasia, EGOSE 2018, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in November 2018. The 36 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 98 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on smart city infrastructure, policy; digital privacy, rights,security;data science, machine learning, algorithms, computational linguistics; digital public administration, economy, policy; digital services, values, inclusion; digital democracy, participation, security, communities, social media, activism; social media discourse analysis; digital data, policy modeling; digital government, administration, communication.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Smart City Infrastructure, Policy

Frontmatter

Agent Based Modeling of Smart Grids in Smart Cities

The goal of the study is to explore Smart Grids with a system of multi-agents and aspects related to the Internet. Smart cities are created at a high level of information and communication technologies (ICT) structures capable of transmitting energy, information flows multidirectional and linking another sector that includes mobility, energy, social and economic. Smart cities concern the connection of subsystems, the exchange and evaluation of data, as well as ensuring the quality of life and meeting the needs of citizens. We have different models of transport systems, energy optimization, street lighting systems, building management systems, urban transport optimization, but these models are currently being considered separately. In this article, we present an overview of the concept of an intelligent city and discuss why multi-agent systems are the right tool for modeling intelligent cities. This article represents simulation results with a Smart Grid as a case study of Smart City.

Bauyrzhan Omarov, Aigerim Altayeva, Alma Turganbayeva, Glyussya Abdulkarimova, Farida Gusmanova, Alua Sarbasova, Batyrkhan Omarov, Yergali Dauletbek, Aizhan Altayeva, Nurzhan Omarov

Smart City Implementation and Aspects: The Case of St. Petersburg

Cities in the world face the problem of combining competitiveness and sustainable development at the same time. Urban space forms a much more subtle matter in terms of the simultaneous scale and point of processes spectrum. Certainly, the city is the primary source of generation fundamental anthropogenic factors within the framework of human activity (ecology, transport, society and security). However, on the other hand, in the current realities, it also becomes a structural tools mechanism for creating qualitatively new drivers of development (for example, intelligent infrastructure networks for urban mobility or closed-loop water supply).The city as a dynamic system has a certain set of patterns. The basic ones regulate the system development, complexity of mechanisms and diversification of modules designed. The critical ones regulate system stability and the preservation of existing stable state. Providing modularity of urban management architecture will allow scaling the interaction chain within the socio-technical system (i.e. the city), which make it possible to minimize the risk of destructive strategic decisions.Smart city as a platform provides transparency of the urban space processes and forms a two-level management (citizen-government). An effect indicator of high technology implementation is not so much a formal achievement of indicators values, but as the parameter of the complex infrastructure regime of a certain urban area in a given chronological period.When we have such projects of this level, the citizens themselves act as the center of aggregation of new meanings, values, and needs. On the basis of their everyday life situations, a framework of knowledge is designed for further strategic urban space planning.The authors of this article propose to revise the traditional understanding of the concept of “smart city” and consider the case of development of St. Petersburg as a “smart city”, based on the value-oriented approach.

Sergey I. Drozhzhin, Artem V. Shiyan, Sergey A. Mityagin

Risk Factors in Smart City Development in Russia: A Survey

Public managers and academics continue to express interest in smart cities. In contrast with flagrant enthusiasm with regards to technology applications towards achieving such goal, threats to local governments continue to grow across the globe, while risks and concerns remain underexplored in research. By examining a survey where experts rate factors and risks in smart city development, this paper sheds light to an array of vulnerabilities that may be overlooked by public managers and executives and may compromise their smart cities goals. Expanding on literature, findings suggest the most critical smart city development factors are technological (infrastructure development, open data services, availability of information resources), organizational (clear KPIs, coordination procedures, strategic planning, creating business environment, transparency in decision-making) and social ones (preferences in getting e-services, human capital growth). Markedly, experts understood the most serious risks involve technological and social adaption. The results achieved could be of interest for counting risk factors in the emerging smart cities.

Lyudmila Vidiasova, Felippe Cronemberger, Evgenii Vidiasov

A Multi-criteria GIS Based Methodology for Smart Cities Site Selection

Building a Smart City (SC) is a practically irreversible decision that needs large investments. The success of a smart city in realizing its objectives of economic prosperity largely depends on its ability to reach its full potential; which in turn depends on its location. This research contributes a site selection method for SCs that satisfies the decision maker’s criteria. Through the analysis of relevant literature, the main criteria to be considered when locating a SC were identified. Interviews with subject matter experts enabled retaining the most relevant criteria to the Egyptian reality. Layers corresponding to these criteria were built in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The Intersect process was then applied to perform site selection and identify the region respecting the decision maker’s criteria. The developed GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methodology was tested on a study area that spans Alexandria, El Beheira and Matrouh governorates in Egypt. The prototype developed is a very beneficial instrument that enables facts based decision making as opposed to the current subjective practices used in selecting a SC location.

Nada A. Fashal, Ghada A. El Khayat, Boshra B. Salem, Saleh M. El Kaffas

Development of Decision Support Systems for Smart Cities

Modern decision support systems (DSS) for a rapidly developing sector of smart cities significantly reduce decision-making time and improve their quality. However, a huge amount of time, material and intellectual resources, spent on the development of such systems, in conditions of transition to a digital economy, makes it necessary to unify the elements and methods of synthesis of the working environment. The aim of the work is to develop a technology for the synthesis of a unified virtual work environment for heterogeneous territorially distributed teams (HTDT) that arise in the ecosystems of smart cities. The authors offer a model of a unified virtual working environment and a method for its synthesis, which allows to significantly reduce the costs of developing and implementing DSS in a specific subject area and management level. The technology of synthesis of the virtual working environment for HTDT was tested in the creation of a line of software complexes that implements various components of the smart city management system: “Tourism Industry”, “Electronic Budget”, network interactive NBICS.Net laboratory, open interactive 3D laboratory. Using this technology has significantly reduced the amount spent on the development and deployment of resources.

Fedor Georgievich Maitakov, Alexander Alekseevich Merkulov, Evgeny Vladimirovich Petrenko, Abdurashid Yarullaevich Yafasov

Digital Privacy, Rights, Security

Frontmatter

Risks and Societal Implications of Identity Theft

Transactions that involved identity theft are becoming increasingly popular in today’s society. Identity theft causes not only a violation of privacy for the victim, but also raises the possibility of increased stress for the victim and potential financial and/or legal consequences. Due to this, it is important to understand the nature and extent of the problem in detail so that novel identity management systems may be developed and eventually accepted. The focus of current exploratory research is to understand the spread and consequences of identity theft and fraud in Europe. A census representative on-line survey was carried out in Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and, for comparative purposes, in the United States of America. The research found that 25–30% of the adult population in the surveys countries experienced some form of misuse or attempted misuse of their personal information within the past three years. Extrapolating from the initial results, it is expected that around 100 million European citizens have dealt or experienced misuse of their personal information within the last 3 years and close to 40 million EU citizens had, because of the misuse of their personal information, incurred significant personal consequences ranging from debt collection to legal problems. Government issued electronic identity cards for on-line transactions are needed for electronic authentication and signatures, and their use in the private and public sector should become more widespread. Mobile ID can also service as a convenient and secure alternative to more traditional electronic identity cards.

Tarmo Kalvet, Marek Tiits, Pille Ubakivi-Hadachi

Personal Data and Privacy Barriers to E-Government Adoption, Implementation and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Personal data and privacy confidentiality play a highly important role in ensuring user trust in any given Information Communication Technology (ICT) system. In the last decade Electronic Government (e-Government) initiatives have transformed the public sector of many nations and most importantly improved upon the quality of public service delivery to citizens. The issue of privacy and security impedes the progress of any e-government system and potentially causes citizens to lose trust in public e-services. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a continent has been on the verge of gradual e-government development; though many factors are attributed to its average underperformance according to the 2016 United Nations’ (UN) e-Government Survey. Based on a review of relevant literature, a binomial (exact) test was performed to determine the general perception of personal data and whether Sub-Saharan Africans are ready to give it to their governments. Drawing on analysis results, the study offers policy implementation recommendations for the sub-region so as to realize a citizen-centric e-government.

Ebenezer Agbozo, Daniel Alhassan, Kamen Spassov

A Cybersecurity Model for Electronic Governance and Open Society

This paper starts by presenting the research landscape of the vulnerabilities of cyberspace; afterwards, it classifies the cyber vulnerabilities identified in the literature; finally, it proposes a cybersecurity model to tackle the cyberspace vulnerabilities found. The proposed model is grounded in three main pillars: a cybersecurity governance approach, cybersecurity capabilities, and cybersecurity best practices. The research methodology used to conduct this study is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the literature on the field. The paper concludes that the model can be a useful tool for preventing and mitigating cyberattacks in public and private organizations.

Nuno Lopes, José Faria

Data Science, Machine Learning, Algorithms, Computational Linguistics

Frontmatter

Person, Organization, or Personage: Towards User Account Type Prediction in Microblogs

During the past decade, microblog services have been extensively utilized by millions of business and private users as one of the most powerful information broadcasting tools. For example, Twitter attracted many social science researchers due to its high popularity, constrained format of thought expression, and the ability to react actual trends. However, unstructured data from microblogs often suffer from the lack of representativeness due to the tremendous amount of noise. Such noise is often introduced by the activity of organizational and fake user ac-counts that may not be useful in many application domains. Aiming to tackle the information filtering problem, in this paper, we classify Twitter accounts into three categories: “Personal”, “Organization”, and “Personage”. Specifically, we utilize various text-based data representation approaches to extract features for our proposed microblog account type prediction framework “POP-MAP”. To study the problem at a cross-language level, we harvested and learned from a multi-lingual Twitter dataset, which allows us to achieve better classification performance, as compared to various state-of-the-art baselines.

Ivan Samborskii, Andrey Filchenkov, Georgiy Korneev, Alex Farseev

Mining and Indexing of Legal Natural Language Texts with Domain and Task Ontology

Today’s legislation lags behind the needs and practices of the Internet, electronic governance and digital economy in general. It is widely believed that enhancement of the legal system with IT to facilitate law-making and law enforcement can contribute to improvement of business and social environment, as well as people’s quality of life. Our paper is a study of foundations and means for building Legal Knowledge-Based Systems and transition to the so-called computational law. Particularly, we outline the application of legal and regulatory documents indexing technologies for legal language processing (LLP) and construct domain ontology for real estate legislation. The implementation of the approach may decrease the number of errors, over-complexities and ambiguities in legal texts, allow automated search for relevant documents, and categorize complicated legal relations. These should save the practitioners from spending too much time on routine tasks, simplify decision-making in law enforcement and reduce the subjectivity, and ultimately contribute to creating uniform and consistent legislation.

Galina Kurcheeva, Marina Rakhvalova, Daria Rakhvalova, Maxim Bakaev

Intellectualization of Knowledge Acquisition of Academic Texts as an Answer to Challenges of Modern Information Society

Extracting knowledge from an increasing information flow is one of the main challenges of modern information society. The paper considers the possibilities and means for intellectualization of this process concerning such an important information source as the academic texts. In this case the user is faced with the task of finding fragments relevant to the subject of interest, within the vast textual documents often written in a foreign language. We experimentally investigated the comparative effectiveness of TS algorithms for extended coherent academic texts. The procedure of instrumental effectiveness evaluation was substantiated. The influence of the most significant characteristics of the text, including original language, structural organization (levels of heading), subjects of research (technique, information technologies and medicine) was considered. We have shown that for the intellectualization of knowledge acquisition from academic texts it is necessary to present to the reader the results of the TS fulfilled by different algorithms, in a complex. A system of complex visualization of TS results is proposed, and an appropriate software solution is developed. The visualization system for extended coherent texts explicitly demonstrates the semantic structure of the text, which allows the user to detect and analyze not the whole text, but only fragments corresponding to his current information needs and thus getting a complete idea of the subject of interest.

Aleksandra Vatian, Sergey Dudorov, Natalia Dobrenko, Andrey Mairovich, Mikhail Osipov, Artem Lobantsev, Anatoly Shalyto, Natalia Gusarova

Mining of Relevant and Informative Posts from Text Forums

In the modern world, the competitive advantage for every person is the possibility to obtain the information in a fast and comfortable way. Web forums occupy a significant place among the sources of information. It is a good place to gain professionally significant knowledge on different topics. However, sometimes it is not easy to identify the places on the forum, which contains useful information corresponding user demands. In this paper we consider the problem of automatic forum text summarization and describe the methods, which can help to solve it. We study the difference between relevance-oriented and useful-oriented query types. We will describe our dataset, that contains over 4000 of marked posts from web forums about various subject domains. The posts were marked by experts, by estimating them on a scale from 0 to 5 for selected query types. The results of our study can provide background for creation informational retrieval applications that will decrease the time of user’s searching and increase the quality of search results.

Kseniya Buraya, Vladislav Grozin, Vladislav Trofimov, Pavel Vinogradov, Natalia Gusarova

Text and Data Mining Techniques in Judgment Open Data Analysis for Administrative Practice Control

This paper represents the study results of machine learning methods application for the analysis of judgment open data. The study is dedicated to develop empirical ways to identify the relationships and the structure of administrative law enforcement process based on semi-structured data analysis and give recommendations for improving the administrative regulation. The results of the research can be us ed for legislative, analytical and law enforcement activities in the field of governmental regulation. In the course of data analysis, the models based on decision trees and other machine learning methods is developed. In addition, the models for extracting information from semi-structured texts of court decisions is developed. Moreover, a predictive model of appeal outcome is developed. The effectiveness of the established methods are demonstrated in the recommendation cases for improving the current legislation by the example of administrative law for reducing the burden on public administration.

Oleg Metsker, Egor Trofimov, Sergey Sikorsky, Sergey Kovalchuk

Digital Public Administration, Economy, Policy

Frontmatter

Analysing Strategic Misalignment in Public Administration

Problems concerning strategic alignment can manifest in several aspects and perspectives of an organisation. This paper presents public administration-specific organisational misalignment problems and propose a method for detecting the symptoms of the misaligned state in enterprise architecture models. The analysis follows the concept of strategic alignment perspectives, collecting typical misalignment symptoms and detection prospects along the four traditional strategic alignment perspectives. A case study in a public organisation demonstrates the usability of the proposed EAM-based misalignment assessment framework.

Dóra Őri, Zoltán Szabó

Digital Law for Russia. Nearest Future or Only a Science Fiction?

Continuous debates on the future of digital economy in the world has generated many issues connected not only with the creation of its infrastructure, but also on the creation of an adequate regulatory framework for its functioning and onward development. Modern researches rightly criticize the existing traditional legal constructs that are not suitable for the existing realities in the economy and require significant adaptation or creation of new legal concepts that are capable to meet the challenges of the new coming digital environment. Russia along with other countries have approached the issue of creating a special regulation for digital economy – a “digital law”, which would become the backbone document containing the most important regulative principles for the whole digital sector. The adoption in 2017 of a number of digital policy documents and especially the Governmental Program “Digital economy” has given a new impulse and made a start to an open discussion on the perspective of recent adoption of a digital code. The authors seek to review existing regulation and doctrine in Russia to make suggestions on the content and structure of such a document.

Mikhail Bundin, Aleksei Martynov, Nadezhda Biyushkina, Pavel Kononov

The Level of Readiness for Electronic Governance: Comparative Analysis of Armenian and Russian Societies

The development of electronic governance in any country is determined by cultural features, the level of education and information-communication infrastructure. The article comprehensively researches the readiness potential of Armenian and Russian societies for electronic governance. This choice is reasoned by the fact that, first of all, Russia and Armenia are members of the Eurasian Economic Union, which currently harmonizes digital transformation policies of the member-states. In this context the application of Hofstede’s model and Inglehart-Welzel’s cultural map allows to reveal that both Armenians and Russians are oriented towards struggle for survival at the expense of self-expression and strive to stability. The complex evaluation demonstrates low level for Power distance and Uncertainty. For Armenia it is 0.19 and for Russia - 0.06. This means that the level of technological conditions in a country does not necessarily lead to comprehensive technological penetration into a society. For instance, both Armenian and Russian societies have serious cultural barriers which impede the development of network interactions. The authors have calculated the readiness potential of the societies for electronic governance according to ICT access, ICT use, Government’s online service, E-participation, grand coefficient of the coverage of population with higher education, Power distance and Uncertainty avoidance for the above mentioned period. Their values are fluctuating in the range of 36.40–38.57% for Russia and 22.39–27.71% for Armenia. Thus the readiness potential of the societies for electronic governance has serious potential to develop in the future.

Anna Aletdinova, Ruben Elamiryan

Digital Services, Values, Inclusion

Frontmatter

Exploring e-Services Development in Local Government Authorities by Means of Electronic Document Management Systems

Estonia is a well-known example of a tech-savvy nation, especially when it comes to e-governance. Here, the government provides its citizens with public services online. Within a decade, the level of pervasiveness and technology acceptance reached a point where interaction between government and citizens is perceived to be a given. An integral part of the e-state is the digitalization of the public sector and, in particular, its basic routines that involve processing of documentation with an enormous amount of data. In this paper, we examine aspects, activities and outcomes of the development of e-services in local governments based on the use of electronic document and records management systems and their further co-existence. We provide an example of one of the Estonian local governments where the implemented conceptual interoperable framework has been validated. Moreover, we elaborate on interoperability solutions.

Ingrid Pappel, Valentyna Tsap, Ingmar Pappel, Dirk Draheim

Areas of Habitation in the City: Improving Urban Management Based on Check-in Data and Mental Mapping

In this paper we present a study on areas of habitation in St. Petersburg, Russia, which are actively used and perceived by city dwellers as coherent units. The motivation behind the study is to define generic urban areas formed by actual user experience and different from administrative division to improve urban management of the city territory. We employ mixed methods approach to account both for users’ practices in urban space, based on analysis of check-in data, and users’ perception of urban space, based on analysis of mental maps. The clustering algorithm is based on spatial and social proximity indexes and has been validated through the results of the mental mapping survey. The dataset of check-ins is retrieved from VKontakte social network, the most popular one for St. Petersburg and for Russia, and comprises 6128 venues with 763079 check-ins collected for December 2017–February 2018 time period. The mental mapping has been conducted within 39 users of different age and gender, representing different areas of the city under study. We compare the borders of the areas of habitation with the map of administrative division, consider functional load of the areas in different areas of the city, define environmental factors which form the borders, give suggestions on how knowledge on areas of habitation could inform and improve urban management practice.

Aleksandra Nenko, Artem Koniukhov, Marina Petrova

Creating Public Value Through Public e-Services Development: The Case of Landscaping and Public Amenities in St. Petersburg

Development of public e-services as part of the e-government strategy is a trend in recent decades. Public e-services (from informational to transactional ones) transfer and develop in various spheres of citizens’ interaction with authorities (from obtaining information to participation in voting). This provides broad advantages for government authorities, individual users, and society as a whole - from reducing transaction costs to increasing public trust in the government. Benefits from public e-services implementation have been widely discussed in scientific literature. However, in recent years, integrated solutions for benefits assessment have become increasingly important, allowing to cover systematically various possible effects from public e-services introduction. One of these approaches is the concept of public value, which was formulated in the 1990s, and has been widely applied in public sector only from the beginning of 2000. Public value describes the value that the government makes to the society. In this research, the possibility of applying of the public value concept to assessment of potential benefits from public e-services implementation is illustrated by the example of citizens’ claims on landscaping and public amenities, which are provided by local authorities.

Anastasia A. Golubeva, Evgenii V. Gilenko

Potential for Improving Public Services by Exploring Citizens’ Communication to Public Organizations

While the purpose of public organizations is to serve citizens, the citizens themselves are not always consulted in order to develop better public services. We argue that the direct communication from citizens to public organizations contains a wealth of information on how the organizations could improve their services, and this information is worth exploring. In order to prove our argument, we have interviewed 19 public organizations in Rwanda and Sri Lanka, identified 26 issues raised by the citizens, and mapped these issues into four solution domains: availability and timeliness of information, policy development, business process development, availability and design of e-services.

Eriks Sneiders, Lasith Gunawardena, Said Rutabayiro Ngoga, Rasika Darayathna, Jean Claude Byungura

Accessibility of Italian E-Government Services: The Perspective of Users with Disabilities

The advent of the Internet has shaped our life in every field including study, work, social interaction, free time, and politics. In the sector of Public Administration (PA) and services delivered to citizens, benefits include better access to a vast amount of information, saving time, simplified services, and increased transparency. However, PA services should also be easy to use for people with disabilities, including those who interact through assistive technology. This paper offers the results of an online survey of people with disabilities accessing Italian PA services. Results from the sample highlight the need to improve service accessibility and usability, and the request for increasing their number and set of functions.

Maria Claudia Buzzi, Marina Buzzi, Fiorella Ragni

Digital Democracy, Participation, Security, Communities, Social Media, Activism

Frontmatter

Evaluation of an eParticipation Project Against eParticipation Success Factors

(e)Participation, as a characteristic of open government, is gaining more and more public attention recently. Therefore, it is important to be able to evaluate eParticipation projects against a sound framework to look into the projects’ impact on society. As several evaluation frameworks focus on quantitative measures only, such as cost-benefit analyses, only a very few provide qualitative measurements. In this paper, we evaluate a concrete eParticipation project from Switzerland, which has not been systematically evaluated before. As an evaluation framework, a list of 23 success factors, which has been developed based on extensive research, has been applied. The results are twofold: first, the evaluation process triggered a systematic ex-post reflection of the project; second, it was discerned that the used framework is highly useful and applicable for the evaluation of eParticipation projects; some suggestions for the further development of the framework are being discussed as well. Both results contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of eParticipation in general.

Hans-Dieter Zimmermann

E-Participation Social Effectiveness: Case of “Our Petersburg” Portal

The issues of involving citizens in political management are becoming more and more relevant all over the world. Many different platforms are being created, where residents can express their ideas, proposals, complaints and leave their voices. From a scientific point of view, the issue of estimating the effects that these platforms result in remains unresolved. The paper presents the results of developing a methodology for assessing the social effectiveness of e-participation portals. In the paper results of its’ approbation for social effectiveness estimation of a portal for urban problems in Petersburg (Russia) are demonstrated. According to collected data, the portal “Our Petersburg” referred to the medium level of social effectiveness development. The portal has demonstrated a great progress in organizational dimension indicators and less success in technical and socio-economic ones.

Lyudmila Vidiasova, Iaroslava Tensina

Challenges of E-Participation: Can the Opinions of Netizens Represent and Affect Mass Opinions?

This paper aims to understand the representativeness of online public opinion and the influence of online public-issue discussions on mass opinion. By analyzing three survey datasets from Taiwan, the findings show that online civic participants are not representative of the general population; moreover, online discussions of public issues do not directly affect general public opinion. According to these findings, this paper recommends that online public opinions are used with caution as they are not necessarily representative of general public opinion.

Chungpin Lee

Exploring the Connection Between the Existence of Local Web Communities and Civic Activity: St. Petersburg Case Study

Active development of information and communication technologies in recent decades has significantly affected modern life in cities. Civil society has obtained e-participation tools, such as tools for sending electronic appeals on problems of the urban environment to the authorities to initiate their solving. At the same time, local web communities have emerged and are now widely spread due to social media. Within the framework of the research, it was suggested that the number and concentration of appeals on problems of the urban environment in individual local areas could be directly related to the existence of active web communities of residents in these territories. To test this hypothesis, appeals sent by residents of St. Petersburg for 2 years were analyzed. As a result, zones of high and low civic activity were identified, and local communities existing within the boundaries of these zones were studied. The hypothesis regarding the connection between the existence of local web communities in a certain urban area and civic activity was confirmed. At the same time, no clear correlation was identified between the headcount of local web communities and the number of appeals sent by residents of the territories to which these local communities belong. Further studies using alternative sources of appeals and new territories as examples will make it possible to supplement the existing data and to obtain a more accurate assessment of the relationship of the described factors.

Sergei Kudinov, Ekaterina Ilina, Ekaterina Grekhneva

Online Activity of Deputies and Public Policy Effectiveness: Moscow Local Authorities’ Case

The paper discusses the growing potential of the social networks to get transparency of the political process which is enhanced through the trans-formation of one-way broadcasting into the interactive communication and involvement of the citizens to the policy making, and then assess the practice of this communication and involvement based on the mapping of the usage of the social networks for the communication of the deputies of the local authorities of the sixteen districts of the largest Moscow okrug with the local citizens. The methodology of the study comprises the assessment of the political communication of the deputies in social networks based on three factors: coverage, activeness and involvement. In view of the worldwide practice, theoretical premises and the up to date Russian legislation we qualify the online professional behavior of the local authorities representatives as violation of the regulation and the effective public policy. Finally, recommendations how to deal with the low level of the online activity of the politicians in view of the effective public policy making are offered.

Galina Nikiporets-Takigawa, Olga Popova, Victor Kazanin

Social Media Discourse Analysis

Frontmatter

Information Streams for Inter-ethnic Relations in Crimea and Sevastopol: SMA and Discourse Analysis of Posts in Social Networks of Runet

The article is devoted to the results of the Social Media Analytics study of dynamic, technological and substantial markers of social media Russian-writing flows on interethnic and inter-religious relations in Crimea and Sevastopol. The study assessed the extent of the social media Russian-writing messages representing the forming of negative interethnic and inter-religious attitudes among Crimean and Sevastopol inhabitants. The logic of study leads from the development of social and cultural contexts to shaping of digital patterns of interethnic and inter-religious relations and from accumulating of relevant social media streams to the analysis of metrics of information flows. The authors consider Russian state policy on inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations and publication activity of social media leaders of mass opinion the main factors of changes in the proportion of social media documents concerning on the interactions between ethnic Russians and Ukrainians, and between ethnic Russians and Crimean Tatars. The main prospect of the study is the development of digital markers for the automatic uploading Ukrainian-writing and Crimean Tatar-writing streams to compare their characteristics, reflecting the inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in Crimea and Sevastopol.

Elena Brodovskaya, Anna Dombrovskaya, Irina Batanina

Battle in Twitter: Comparative Analysis of Online Political Discourse (Cases of Macron, Trump, Putin, and Medvedev)

This case study is an example of interdisciplinary research, which couples the linguistic aspects with the study of public political discourse in social media. The purpose of the study is to identify how “realism” terms and national/global agenda are represented in Twitter discourse of leaders of countries which claim to be global powers today. Obviously, it is impossible to claim a high status in the modern world without participation in global discussions (including the level of influence on public opinion in Twitter). We collect data from official accounts of the U.S. President Donald Trump, France’s President Emmanuel Macron, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin, and Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Then we propose a research method developed by us which contains 5 stages. The main method of research is traditional content analysis, not only selective (under this or that theory), but also “front-line” one. We are interested in the subject matter (key, most frequent vocabulary) that dominates the considered texts. We separate the same amounts of text (approximately 33 000 words) in the content of the Twitter pages of Trump, Macron, Putin and Medvedev. Then we quantify the words and identify the key concepts which are specific for political realism and political idealism. We perform a “frontal” general analysis of all the most frequently used concepts. We make a quantitative assessment of the nature of the use of political leaders’ key concepts (this stage of analysis is divided on several sub-stages). Finally we compare the frequency of concepts’ use by leaders of the West and Russia.Putin-Medvedev pair has obvious coincidences with Trump at the external level, but a significant divergence in the base level, i.e. this is another picture of the world, another choice of subjects, in contrast to Trump-Macron pair. Russian leaders are focused on domestic problems of the country. Global agenda is not sufficiently represented in Twitter accounts of Russian leaders. Trump and Macron discuss common (global) themes herewith they have different ideological preferences.

Radomir Bolgov, Igor Chernov, Igor Ivannikov, Dmitry Katsy

Social Media as a Display of Students’ Communication Culture: Case of Educational, Professional and Labor Verbal Markers Analysis

Social media are the source reflecting the linguistic situation and modern trends that have emerged in the language of a virtual society with incredible precision. Texts of students’ messages allow us to analyze vocabulary in the linguistic and cultural aspect, model a linguistic and cultural field and create a linguacultural commentary on those lexical units that represent the dominating story of youth culture at the current stage of language and society development.The article presents the results of the research of student youth verbal markers in relation to professional and labor intentions, the methodology of their linguacultural study, comparative analysis and classification of lexical units. Tag names have been revealed based on expert analysis of the messages of the “VKontakte” social media in accordance to the frequency of the selected tags occurrence record. Words-markers are being highlighted in the context of students’ professional and labor intentions as well as bigrams/triplets with words-markers. The article reveals the peculiarities of linguistic and social situation in the linguacultural and social aspects. It stresses the lexemes that form the core of the linguacultural field as well as the features of the linguistic and social situation in the linguacultural and social aspects. In the paper the role of researching the features of virtual communication in the aspect of language and culture interaction on the example of labor and professional intentions has also been stated.

Natalia E. Shilkina, Anna V. Maltseva, Olesya V. Makhnytkina, Marina V. Titova, Elina V. Gubernatorova, Igor A. Katsko, Farida I. Mirzabalaeva, Svetlana V. Shusharina

Digital Data, Policy Modeling

Frontmatter

Using Open Data for Information Support of Simulation Model of the Russian Federation Spatial Development

In this paper we present a model of spatial development of the Russian Federation and principles of integrating open data into it. Our study is interdisciplinary and combines methods of computer modeling, artificial intelligence, demographic, financial and economic analysis. The proposed approach has significant differences from currently used mathematical and computer models of the economy, as it allows to reflect the spatial aspect of economic dynamics, integrate large arrays of accumulated data, take into account structural interrelationships of economic agents, influence of administrative mechanisms and institutional environment. The model is agent-based and consists of several modules, representing demographic, economic, financial processes, employment and consumption, educational and administrative institutions. Acting subjects in the model are artificial agents capable of interaction with each other and social environment. For the information support of the model large amounts of data on economic interrelations and spatial structure of the Russian economy are formed, including Federal State Statistics Service yearbooks and official information on the websites of the ministries.

Aleksandra L. Mashkova, Olga A. Savina, Yuriy A. Banchuk, Evgeniy A. Mashkov

A Universal Model of a Subject Area for Situational Centers

Situational centers are becoming a key element of digital economy, facilitating decision-making for managers of different levels (country, constituent region, municipality, etc.). In order to accelerate decision-making, improve their quality, and also to communicate the decisions made to executors, it is necessary to unite separate situational centers into a single system – a system of distributed situational centers. Since each particular situational center is built on the basis of the model of its subject area, and, accordingly, its database structure, there arises a problem of information interaction of situational centers among themselves. The purpose of the work is to create a universal model of the subject area and to implement it in a relational database, independent of the scope of activity, level and complexity of the organization. The model has been tested when creating software products line “Open Budget” situational center, “Electronic Budget” situational center, “Municipality” universal virtual situation center, etc. and has showed significant acceleration of database design and resource saving.

Fedor Georgievich Maitakov, Alexander Alekseevich Merkulov, Evgeny Vladimirovich Petrenko, Abdurashid Yarullaevich Yafasov

Exploring Influence of State Economic Policy on Political Preferences of Population Using Agent Modeling

In this paper we present a model of dynamics of political preferences considering current economic situation and expected changes. The model is agent-based and represents demographic structure and economy of the Russian Federation. Political system in the model is democratic, consisting of Legislative and Executive. Legislative is multiparty; each party proposes a pre-election program to attract voters. Agents are grouped into clusters that are homogeneous in political preferences. Belonging to the cluster determines issues of pre-election programs that are important for the agent. Agents implement concept of retrospective economic voting, for this they keep a record of their subjective estimates of living standards in previous periods. After elections Legislative and Executive are formed. Legislative proposes laws and approves structure of the state budget. Executive implements measures of state social, monetary and economic policy that affect organizations and population.

Aleksandra L. Mashkova, Ekaterina V. Novikova, Olga A. Savina

Digital Government, Administration, Communication

Frontmatter

Data-Centricity as the Key Enabler of Digital Government: Is Russia Ready for Digital Transformation of Public Sector

The leaders of digitalization are developing digital government as a platform that stimulates public-private partnerships in the creation of innovative applications and services. The primary and permanent core of this platform is data, and it is the data ready for the information sharing and the provision of seamless public services. Growing digital world has formed the culture of interaction between government and society based on Open Data. The great importance has the ability of consumers to understand the meaning (semantics) determined by the provider, which is essential for the publication of Linked Open Data. The application and dissemination of data models serve for adequate semantic interpretation during information sharing and aim to achieve semantic interoperability. Both data-centric and model-oriented approaches are fundamental for the digital transformation of public administration. In this paper, we give a brief review of the leading countries digitalization experience and use it to outline the criteria characterizing the implementation of a data-centric paradigm. We have conducted the study showing if Russian e-government is ready for the digitalization in terms of the following areas: (1) the practice of information sharing; (2) the preconditions for the shift to a data-centric and model-oriented paradigm; (3) the regulatory barriers of digital transformation. We believe that the lack of data-centricity can become a serious obstacle to fulfill the plans of the “Digital Economy of Russian Federation” program. Therefore, we give some recommendations to introduce the data-centric approach that would enable the use of disruptive digital technologies and support the development of digital government in Russia.

Yury Akatkin, Elena Yasinovskaya

Micro-level Assessment of Health of e-Governance Projects Using Kite Model

The success/failure of e-governance projects is normally assessed by their outcome and impact on efficiency of government working. The e-governance project which is successful is known to have a significant impact in government working, transformation of its processes and improving its reliability, accountability and transparency. Several models exist today for assessing e-governance projects. The methodologies adopted in these models vary depending on the objective of assessment and likely availability of quantitative and qualitative data. It has been observed that the general objective of e-governance assessment studies is to assess the impact of the project and realization of project objectives viz., cost-saving, process cycle time etc. While the existing models of assessment provide insights on project outcome, it may be necessary to adopt models which can assess the inherent strength of the entire eco-system of e-governance project. The Kite Model is one such model which considers various intrinsic and extrinsic factors for diagnosing the health of e-governance projects. The assessment of various components assigned to each factor provides a basis for a macro-level analysis. In order to carry out micro-level assessment of e-governance projects, an attempt has been made to derive various sub-components within each component and evaluate them based on assessment points applicable for each component. This paper provides insights on micro-level assessment of each component and proactively identify areas which can be prioritized for ensuring the health of e-governance projects.

Ajay Adala

The Development of Digital Economy and Public Administration Education

The article analyzes the extent of conformity of actual Russian regulation in public service and federal education standards in public administration to the goals of the development of digital economy. For this purpose the authors analyze the following topics. First - the actual strategic documents in the field of the digital economy, including the main risks of the development of information technologies on the public service. Second, the present situation with higher and postgraduate education of public servants, regulation of public service and requirements for some positions connected with the information technologies. Third, the digital competences of the graduates of the public administration education programs from the federal education standards of bachelor and master level. The authors come to the conclusion that education standards in public administration pay little attention to the skills in information technologies, as well as the actual regulation of public service and public administration education needs in the digital economy. As possible ways of adaptation the authors suggest integration of competences for digital economy in education standards and creation of courses and education programs of bachelor, master and postgraduate levels corresponding to the goals of the development of digital economy.

Sergey Semenov, Olga Filatova

Mending Government-to-Business Communication Disruptions in Russia: Language Perspective

Relations between government and various social entities often present serious challenges in many respects, among which communication is one of the most widespread and frequently neglected, especially when it comes to the sphere of government-to-business (G2B) communication. This paper addresses the issues in G2B interaction that pertain to the sphere of language and appear to be most vulnerable and fraught with possible communication failures. Though business and government discourse domains are regarded as separate, often unparalleled manifestations of language registers with their own established and long-standing traditions of specific usage of syntax, vocabulary, style etc, we argue that it is governmental communicators who are responsible for alleviating communication problems and taking additional language effort to adjust their messages to the rules of clear, concise and coherent business communication. Building on responses of surveyed employees from several firms, we devise a technique which shows in which cases governmental agents should abandon rigidity of communication behavior and succumb to changes in various language aspects. In particular, we propose to identify the so-called perception consistency which works as a benchmark in detecting which genre or/and which language aspect (style, grammar, vocabulary etc.) of governmental messages needs reformulation and readjustment. The paper contributes to a better understanding of multifaceted governmental transformations, an integral part of which is represented by a necessity of change in communication styles in the process of adaptation to constantly changing needs of society.

Ekaterina Baeva, Vladimir Bondar

Backmatter

Additional information

Premium Partner

image credits