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About this book

For almost a decade the International Federation for Information Processing Working Group 8.5 (Information Systems in Public Administration), or IFIP WG 8.5, has organized the EGOV series of conferences, which has solidly - tablished itself as one of three core conferences in the research domain of e- Government, e-Governance, and e-Participation. Until last year, EGOV was hosted within the DEXA cluster of conferences. For the ?rst time in 2010, the IFIP WG 8.5 organized the conference on its own, which was also re?ected in the slight name change to IFIP EGOV 2010. Likeitspredecessors,theIFIPEGOV2010conferenceattractedscholarsfrom around the world as a venue of high reputation. In 2010, the conference brought together scholars and practitioners from four continents and 40 countries. Like in 2009, IFIP EGOV was co-located with ePart, the International C- ference on eParticipation. ePart aims at presenting advances in both social and technologicalscienti?c domains, seeking to demonstrate new concepts, methods, and styles of eParticipation. ePart is closely aligned with the IFIP EGOV c- ference. The chairs of both conferences maintain close links and are committed to co-locating the two events in the yearsto come, which intentionally allowsfor exchange and cross-fertilization between the two communities.

Table of Contents



Towards an Understanding of E-Government Induced Change – Drawing on Organization and Structuration Theories

E-government research deals with ‘wicked’ problems that require multidisciplinary approaches to gain a full understanding. One of the main challenges of e-government is to induce change in the structure of public organizations to realize its full potential. This paper investigates e-government induced change using two complementary theoretical lenses applied to an e-government case study. We use organization theories to explore aspects of organizational structure that may change when implementating e-government and structuration theory to investigate how these aspects are affected by human action within its social structure. This combination allows us to investigate the discrepancy between the ambitions of e-government induced change and the actual changes accomplished in practice. Our analysis shows that using these two frames gives us better insight into the thorny subject of e-government than using a single theory. Further research should look into how these theories can be used to deepen our knowledge of e-government.

Anne Fleur van Veenstra, Marijn Janssen, Yao-Hua Tan

Ten Years of E-Government: The ‘End of History’ and New Beginning

This paper argues that although there is no lack of eGovernment “frameworks”, both governments and research are both in need of better guiding models in order to address contemporary and future challenges. This argument is pursued by reviewing a decade of eGovernment development and research in terms of the guiding values as expressed by influential maturity models and relating them to the eGovernment domain, as defined by formal definitions and practice in combination. We find that development so far has overall been too narrowly guided by a technical focus and economic and administrative values and too little informed by public sector values. While there is no lack of broad frameworks there is scarcity as concerns structured research and evaluation models that encompass such values.

Åke Grönlund

Siblings of a Different Kind: E-Government and E-Commerce

This paper reports on the last phase of a longitudinal exploratory study, which aims to compare similarities and differences between e-Commerce and e-Government. In two stages, we collected rich data via focus groups of experts from both public and private sectors. This paper reports on our findings in the areas of Process Management, Information Management, and Stakeholder Relations. We found the trajectories of the two phenomena of e-Commerce and e-Government to be quite distinct such that one can hardly serve as a role model for the other. Yet, comparing the two phenomena still unveils a high potential for cross-pollination.

Karine Barzilai-Nahon, Hans Jochen Scholl

Inter-organizational Information Systems and Interaction in Public vs. Private Sector – Comparing Two Cases

This paper compares inter-organizational (IO) interaction and inter-organizational information systems (IOS) in public and private sector. The purpose of the paper is to explore differences and similarities between e-government and e-business focusing IOS and interaction. This is done in order to facilitate learning between the two fields. The point of departure is two case studies performed in private vs. public sectors. A comparative study is made using IO concepts from industrial markets that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties). The results from the comparative study show that there are several similarities concerning interaction in relations between organizations in the two sectors. There are also differences depending on the level of analysis (empirical level vs. analytical level). The study shows the need to be explicit regarding organizational value, end-customer or client/citizen value and the type of objects that are exchanged in the interaction.

Ulf Melin, Karin Axelsson

Information Strategies for Open Government: Challenges and Prospects for Deriving Public Value from Government Transparency

Information-based strategies to promote open government offer many opportunities to generate social and economic value through public use of government information. Public and political expectations for the success of these strategies are high but they confront the challenges of making government data “fit for use” by a variety of users outside the government. Research findings from a study of public use of land records demonstrates the inherent complexity of public use of government information, while research from information science, management information systems, and e-government offer perspectives on key factors associated with effective information use. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for information-based open government strategies as well as areas for future research.

Sharon S. Dawes, Natalie Helbig

Defining a Taxonomy for Research Areas on ICT for Governance and Policy Modelling

As governments across the world provide more and more support to open data initiatives and web 2.0 channels for engaging citizens, researchers orient themselves towards future internet, wisdom of crowds and virtual world experiments. In this context, the domain of ICT for Governance and Policy Modelling has recently emerged to achieve better, participative, evidence-based and timely governance. This paper presents a taxonomy classifying the research themes, the research areas and the research sub-areas that challenge this domain in order to deal with its diversity and complexity. Taking into account advancements in research, policy and practice, the taxonomy brings together the open, linked data and visual analytics philosophy; the social media buzz taming collective wisdom in decision-making; and the future internet approaches around cloud computing, internet of things and internet of services, while embracing the collaborative policy modelling aspects and the safeguarding against misuse implications.

Fenareti Lampathaki, Yannis Charalabidis, Spyros Passas, David Osimo, Melanie Bicking, Maria A. Wimmer, Dimitris Askounis

Analyzing the Structure of the EGOV Conference Community

The paper applies social network analysis techniques to the task of analysis the dynamics and structure of the e-government research community. From the bibliographic data about papers published in the proceedings of this conference (International Conference on e-Government), we build a co-authorship network representing collaboration patterns among community members in the period from 2005 to 2009. The co-authorship network analysis helps us identify the most productive and central authors in EGR community, as well as delineate the community structures through finding its sub-groups and core parts. In this way, several sub-communities are revealed in sense of the thematic topics, affiliations, and geographical origins of authors.

Nuša Erman, Ljupèo Todorovski


Drift or Shift? Propositions for Changing Roles of Administrations in E-Government

As transaction costs of web-based interaction in e-government continue to decrease, the actors involved are forced to reconsider their roles and value propositions. This paper builds on previous research on government transformation and introduces three propositions on how new opportunities opened up by emerging web technologies and methods lead to a paradigmatic change of the role of administrations in e-government. The propositions are developed in the areas of information management, creation of service value, and leadership in administration, based on identifying technology-induced challenges (“anomalies”) as well as new opportunities leading to new role conceptions in administrations.

Ralf Klischewski

An Institutional Perspective on the Challenges of Information Systems Innovation in Public Organisations

Public organisations are normally overwhelmed with socio-technical challenges of Information Systems (IS) innovation at both organisational and institutional levels. However, most studies of these challenges adopt an organisational perspective, leaving the institutional perspective largely unanalysed. In this paper, the IS innovation challenges faced by a British local authority are analysed to explain the institutional roles of public bureaucracy and information technology (IT). The analysis reveals the tensions between the low-entrepreneurial ethos of public organisations and the efficiency principle of IT. The paper argues that the primary principle of IS innovation should be institutional adjustments of public bureaucracy and information technology. Suggestions on how both institutions can be adjusted are provided.

Gamel O. Wiredu

Agriculture Market Information Services (AMIS) in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs): Nature, Scopes, and Challenges

Rural growth is seen as an engine to drive the economy of developing countries and the use of Agriculture Market Information Services (AMIS) is believed to enable this growth. This paper is based on a literature study and investigates the spread and use of AMIS in the least developed countries (n=49) in terms of users, management, funding, infrastructure, and data. We investigate success as well as failure aspects, and discuss the role of new technologies. Findings show that while new technologies can improve dissemination of information, collecting data economically and meeting high quality requirements remains major challenges. The study contributes by providing a comprehensive view of the challenges of AMIS in developing countries and an AMIS project evaluation matrix (IS-PEM) based on the findings, which together contribute to improving the design of future projects.

M. Sirajul Islam, Åke Grönlund

Community-Based E-Government: Libraries as E-Government Partners and Providers

In the United States, e-government is a complex mix of federal, state, and local governments; technologies; service paradigms; and policies. There is no single approach to e-government, with a range of e-government applications and set of e-government technologies in effect. Agencies and levels of government have different mandates and approaches regarding e-government, leaving users on their own to identify and resolve their e-government needs. Without a bridge between previously mediated interactions, users often make their way to libraries and rely on librarian expertise to fulfill their e-government needs. This paper explores the ability of libraries and government agencies to collaborate effectively in the provision of e-government to residents and communities in this country, presenting findings from a national survey of U.S. public libraries, and interviews and case sites conducted with 15 public libraries in four states.

John Carlo Bertot

Civil Servants’ Internet Skills: Are They Ready for E-Government?

In order to utilize the possibilities of information and communication technology within the public domain and thereby further develop the electronic government, it is necessary that civil servants possess sufficient levels of Internet skills. Higher levels of these skills among professionals in the public sphere might result in better Internet usage, thus improving both productivity and efficiency. Based on results of this research, we can conclude that the levels of operational and formal Internet skills are higher than the levels of information and strategic Internet skills. A main finding is that civil servants do not perform well on higher Internet skills involving information and strategic tasks. The implications of the results are discussed and several policy recommendations to improve digital skill levels of civil servants are given.

Alexander van Deursen, Jan van Dijk

Channel Choice and Source Choice of Entrepreneurs in a Public Organizational Context: The Dutch Case

Most e-Government research focuses on citizens, the use and effects of electronic channels and services. However, businesses are an important target group for governmental agencies as well. Governmental agencies have a duty to inform businesses and to make this information easy to access. In order to increase accessibility it is important to closely relate to the behavior of users. Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation is to gain insight about the channel and source choice of entrepreneurs in a public organizational context. According to 323 entrepreneurs, who filled out an electronic questionnaire, the internet is the most preferred channel and a search engine is the most preferred source for obtaining governmental information. Business-, entrepreneur- and situational characteristics have, although small, effect on these choices.

Jurjen Jansen, Lidwien van de Wijngaert, Willem Pieterson


Measuring and Benchmarking the Back-end of E-Government: A Participative Self-assessment Approach

Measuring e-government has traditionally been focused on measuring and benchmarking websites and their use. This provides useful information from a user-perspective, but does not provide any information how well the back-end of e-government is organized and what can be learnt from others. In this paper a self-assessment instrument for organizational and technology infrastructure aspects is developed and tested. This model has been used to benchmark 15 initiates in the Netherlands in a group session. This helped them to identify opportunities for improvement and to share their experiences and practices. The benchmark results shows that only a disappointingly few investigated back-ends (20%) fall in the highest quadrant. Measuring the back-end should capture both organizational and technical elements. A crucial element for gaining in-depth insight with limited resources is the utilizing of a participative, self-assessment approach. Such an approach ensures an emphasis on learning, avoids the adverse aspects of benchmarking and dispute over the outcomes.

Marijn Janssen

Assessing Emerging ICT-Enabled Governance Models in European Cities: Results from a Mapping Survey

The paper presents the preliminary results of an exploratory survey conducted by the Information Society Unit of the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission. The main goal of the research is to deepen the understanding of the interplay between ICTs and governance processes at city level in the EU by looking at what new ICT-enabled governance models are emerging in European cities and what are their key socio-economic implications. In this preliminary phase efforts have been directed towards addressing the following research question:

what key city governance policy areas ICTs impact most and what governance changes are driven by ICTs?

This questions have been investigated through a questionnaire based online survey. The evidence collected provided a comprehensive mapping of the use of ICTs in European cities as well as the views of policy makers, city government officials, practitioners and researchers, on the way ICTs are influencing governance processes. The evidence collected shows that new ICT-enabled governance models are emerging, and it allowed to identify the main dimensions of change, drivers, barriers, enablers and characteristics, as well as opportunities, risks and challenges associated with them.

Gianluca Misuraca, Enrico Ferro, Brunella Caroleo

Designing and Evaluating Dashboards for Multi-agency Crisis Preparation: A Living Lab

Public organizations show growing interest in the development of dashboards that aid relief agency managers in crisis preparation. Yet, there is a dearth of research on the development of such dashboards. This paper discusses the experiences gained from a pioneering Living Lab on the development and evaluation of dashboards for assessing crisis preparedness. In order to evaluate and further improve dashboards, a two-day user-centered gaming simulation was organized with forty relief agency managers. A survey distributed amongst the managers indicates that they were satisfied with the dashboards and intend to use these in practice. However, the managers suggested that the formulation and clustering of the performance indicators requires better alignment with the context of use. One of the main findings is that the high level of uncertainty regarding the final set of performance indicators and the corresponding norms demands flexibility in the dashboard architecture beyond the evaluation stage.

Nitesh Bharosa, Marijn Janssen, Sebastiaan Meijer, Fritjof Brave

Automatic Generation of Roadmap for E-Government Implementation

Evaluating readiness of individual public agencies to execute specific e-Government programs and directives is a key ingredient for wider e-Government deployment and success. This article describes how the e-Government Maturity Model (eGov-MM) identifies specific areas in which public agencies should focus improvement efforts. eGov-MM is a capability maturity model, that identifies capability levels for each critical variable and Key Domain Areas, proposes a synthetic maturity level for institutions, and automatically generates the roadmap for each evaluated public agency. In this article, the automatic generation of the proposed roadmap is detailed.

Mauricio Solar, Daniel Pantoja, Gonzalo Valdés

Adoption and Diffusion

Success of Government E-Service Delivery: Does Satisfaction Matter?

For measuring e-government success a well-founded theory is important which can help governments to improve their services and identify how effectively public money is spent. We propose using citizen satisfaction as a measure of e-government success, as well as explore its relationships with e-government service quality. Three hypotheses have been formulated to test the model. For empirical estimation, the data used in this study was collected form Sweden. An online survey was conducted using systematic sampling among the municipalities in Sweden, 425 valid responses were received. The measures of each variables selected in this article were mainly adapted from related previous studies. Efficiency, privacy, responsiveness and web assistance were selected as e-service quality dimensions. Actual usages were measured by three items- Frequency of usage, Diversity of usages and Dependency. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to confirm the factor structures. The analysis shows that 43% of the variance among the factors of e-service quality, and usage is explained by citizen satisfaction. We found e-service quality has a relation with citizen satisfaction considering four dimensions of service quality. Efficiency, responsiveness and web assistance were found to be of more importance compared to privacy in determining e-service quality. Use was found to be positively and significantly related to citizen satisfaction. The results should contribute towards understanding of the key issues that influence citizens’ needs and level of satisfaction with the tax services and help improve the service delivery process. Further research is suggested to explore other quality dimensions such as system and information quality.

Parmita Saha, Atanu Nath, Esmail Salehi-Sangari

Emerging Barriers in E-Government Implementation

This study presents the outcomes of a qualitative case study of implementing e-government Information Systems within the national digital strategy in a governmental organisation, following action research. The results show that although e-government is a socio-technical process and has to accommodate the views of all stakeholders, this is questioned in practice. No matter if e-government needs to be a tool for decentralisation and democratisation, this scope may be rendered futile due to the fundamental role of the political support required to secure future funds for implementation. While focusing on the changes in business processes that have to be considered by governmental institutions to successfully implement e-government, the need for a holistic model, which can embrace the back- and front- office, and be linked to the real citizens’ needs, arises.

Spyros Angelopoulos, Fotis Kitsios, Petros Kofakis, Thanos Papadopoulos

Rituals in E-Government Implementation: An Analysis of Failure

This paper presents a case analysis of a failed e-government implementation in a developing country context. The project involved constructing a large system for a central government department in India. After seven years and a few million rupees in costs, the project was terminated. Prior research in failed information systems implementations has highlighted many issues, most of which are now part of software project management literature. With e-government systems, though scientific project management is diligently applied, failure rates are very high, particularly in developing countries. The analysis in this paper suggests that though issues of lack of user involvement, inadequate delegation, and improper planning are responsible, the important causes are the rituals that management enacted, that had overt rationality but buried agendas.

Rahul De’, Sandeep Sarkar

E-Governance - A Challenge for the Regional Sustainable Development in Romania

The paper addresses specific issues of the local governance in its transition to the knowledge society and the web based processes. The innovative e-Governance approach creates a new regional framework for changing the process of the sustainable strategy design and implementation, from a system-oriented to an actor-driven one, focusing on the development of two ways online channels for supporting the pro-active citizens’ behavior and their involvement in the consultation and decisional processes. The solution, based on web 2.0 technologies, integrates e-Knowledge, e-Consultation and e-Voting tools in a regional portal, facilitating the bottom-up decision-making processes. The regional virtual portal provides simultaneously a quantitative approach represented by the information concerning the regional opportunities and possible evolution trends, based on advanced modeling tools and set of indicators, and, complementary, a qualitative approach using various tools for the direct expression of the specific actors’ opinions, creating a holistic image on the regional development.

Mihaela Mureşan

Citizen Perspective and Social Inclusion

Towards a Roadmap for User Involvement in E-Government Service Development

New technology means new ways of both developing, providing and consuming services. In the strive for government organizations to build and maintain relationships with its citizens, e-presence is highly important. E-services are one way to go, and it has been argued that user participation is an important part of developing said services. In this paper we analyze a selection of user participation approaches from a goal perspective to see how they fit in an e-government service development context., In doing so, we identify four challenges that need to be addressed when including users in the development: 1) Identifying the user target segment, 2) Identifying the individual user within each segment, 3) Getting users to participate, and 4) Lacking adequate skills.

Jesper Holgersson, Eva Söderström, Fredrik Karlsson, Karin Hedström

ICT Diffusion in an Aging Society: A Scenario Analysis

The relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is progressively increasing in every aspect of modern life. At the same time, the aging trend most European countries are experiencing, may significantly impact on their absorptive capacity of innovation, which is a key determinant of socioeconomic development, with deep policy implications for both the private and the public sector. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the relationship between age and technological diffusion. The analysis is performed using the Internet as a case study, combining agent-based simulation with classical statistical analysis. Three different demographic scenarios are considered, representing different geographical areas as well as possible alternative futures. The results obtained show that the age factor and the demographic trends exert a significant influence on both the dynamics and length of the diffusion process.

Enrico Ferro, Brunella Caroleo, Marco Cantamessa, Maurizio Leo

What Is the Issue with Internet Acceptance among Elderly Citizens? Theory Development and Policy Recommendations for Inclusive E-Government

Digital divide is still a big topic in information systems and e-government research. In the past, several tracks and workshops on this topic existed. As information technology and especially the internet become more and more important governments cannot ignore the fact that elderly citizens are excluded from the benefits related to internet usage. Although e-Inclusion programmes and initiatives changed over the years and, moreover, although the amount of e-Inclusion literature is constantly growing, there is still no thorough understanding of potential factors influencing private internet usage. Hence, in this study we identify important influencing factors based on the literature on technology acceptance and digital divide. We develop a model based on these factors and test it against comprehensive survey data (n=192). Our theoretical model is able to explain more than 70% of the variation in private internet usage. We derive policy recommendations based on the results and discuss implications for future research.

Bjoern Niehaves, Ralf Plattfaut

Design of an Open Social E-Service for Assisted Living

E-government has emerged as one of the most promising means to reform the public sector. E-government is now being used to improve services for assisted living. The purpose of assisted living services is to provide ways for elderly people to continue to live at home. However, these services require formal decisions by local government officials. Therefore Swedish municipalities aim to move control toward citizens to reduce authoritative barriers and to simplify administration. In this paper we report experiences from developing an open social e-service for assisted living. The major objectives are to relocate control to the citizen and to establish a highly integrated and efficient administrative process. It is designed to meet legal requirements of the Swedish Social Services Act. In order to achieve the objectives several process innovation techniques have been applied. During the design process we experienced several legal, organizational and technical challenges which we report in this paper.

Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Petia Wohed


How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector?

In line with a number of other countries, Norway has decided to base their ICT solutions in the public sector on a common ICT architecture. This article discusses some challenges related to this work. The theoretical basis for the discussions is our understanding of information infrastructures, which we claim offers a fruitful perspective to the building of ICT architectures. Of particular relevance is its installed base: the history of technical and non-technical components that determines its further development. We argue that an ICT architecture for the public sector should be seen as an important element of a government information infrastructure. However, it has to be adapted to other principles and fulfil a wider range of needs than traditional types of infrastructures, including the specific political, regulatory and organizational context that it targets

Erik Hornnes, Arild Jansen, Øivind Langeland

Interoperability in Public Sector: How Use of a Lightweight Approach Can Reduce the Gap between Plans and Reality

Better interoperability between systems, vocabularies, and organizations is considered necessary to most public organizations in order to better meet the demands from the users. The rapid growth of the Internet has been a driving force for both the user expectations and the enabling of such exchange. But succeeding with interoperability initiatives is hard, and the risks of failing are high, mostly because the expectations are too high and the inherent challenges are often underestimated. Many interoperability projects are over-specified and their findings are under-implemented.This paper discusses the challenges of interoperability in public sector and argues for a lightweight approach in order lower the gap between plans and reality. The Los system is illustrated as an example of this lightweight approach to interoperability.

Svein Ølnes

Dynamic Public Service Mediation

This paper presents an approach to dynamic public service mediation. It is based on a conceptual model and the use of search and ranking algorithms. The conceptual model is based on Abstract State Machine theory. Requirements for dynamic service mediation were derived from a real-world case. The conceptual model and the algorithms are developed and implemented by a proof of concept for this case. This model is build on existing means for sharing public services, which would enable migration of existing applications to our proposed approach. The conceptual model is compared to other models for service mediation to illustrate differences and identify similarities.

Wout Hofman, Mark van Staalduinen

Enabling Interoperability of Government Data Catalogues

Opening public sector information has recently become a trend in many countries around the world. Online government data catalogues with national, regional or local scope act as one-stop data portals providing descriptions of available government datasets. These catalogues though remain isolated. Potential benefits from federating geographically overlapping or thematically complementary catalogues are not realized. We propose an RDF Schema vocabulary as an interchange format among data catalogues and as a way of bringing them into the Web of Linked Data, where they can enjoy interoperability among themselves and with other deployed datasets. The vocabulary’s design was informed by a survey of seven data catalogues from five different countries, and has been verified by unifying four data catalogues to allow cross-catalogue queries and browsing.

Fadi Maali, Richard Cyganiak, Vassilios Peristeras

Knowledge Sharing in E-Collaboration

For eCollaboration to be effective, especially where it attempts to promote true collective decision-making, it is necessary to consider how knowledge is shared. The paper examines the knowledge sharing literature from the perspective of eCollaboration and discusses the critical challenges, principally the motivation of knowledge sources and maintenance of semantics, and describes how techniques and technologies can be employed to alleviate the difficulties. The paper concludes with an example of how such technologies are being applied for Emergency Response, to facilitate knowledge sharing both amongst the citizens and between the citizens and organisations.

Neil Ireson, Gregoire Burel

Digital Certificate Management for Document Workflows in E-Government Services

This paper presents a proper solution for a medium enterprise or public institution that enables easier management of the digital documents library and eases the common document workflows. The main problem addressed by the proposed project is the complexity of document workflows in public administration. Documents that need to be filled out and signed are always around us and often can cause problems and delays when poorly managed. With its characteristics, our solution eliminates all the inconvenient of the document workflows helped by the document library and workflows, while keeping the security part, now represented by hand signatures with the implementation of the digital signatures. The main benefit it brings to the client is that it automates the signing and approval process to any kind of document it uses inside or outside the company. The signature system allows signing on multiple levels (counter-signatures) and multiple signatures per level (co-signatures) for perfectly mimicking a plain document.

Florin Pop, Ciprian Dobre, Decebal Popescu, Vlad Ciobanu, Valentin Cristea

Software Reuse in Local Public Bodies: Lessons Learned in Tuscany

In the last years, in Italy,

software reuse

has become an e-government hot topic. In this context, reuse is intended as the large scale adoption of software applications developed by local and independent initiatives. Due to the large autonomy of Italian local public administrations, reuse is preferred to centralized development of applications. The paper presents the experience of a three years regional project to manage and enforce reuse in Tuscany. The main result of the project is a

model for reuse

that emphasizes freedom to develop and freedom to adopt. The implementation of the model is based on a

reusable application repository

that lists and certifies software products that are available for reuse.

Vincenzo Ambriola, Giovanni A. Cignoni

Business Process Modelling

From Bureaucratic to Quasi-market Environments: On the Co-evolution of Public Sector Business Process Management

Business Process Management (BPM) can be viewed as a set of techniques to integrate, build, and reconfigure an organization’s business processes for the purpose achieving a fit with the market environment. While business processes are rather stable in low-dynamic markets, the frequency, quality, and importance of process change amplifies with an increase in environmental dynamics. We show that existing designs of public sector BPM might not be able to cope with the mounting frequency and quality of business process change. Our qualitative in-depth case study of a local government suggests that a major cause for such misfit lies in ineffective organizational learning. We contribute to the literature by applying the Dynamic Capability framework to public sector BPM in order to better understand shifts in market dynamics and their consequences for BPM effectiveness. Practitioners find a proposal for identifying, understanding, and reacting to a BPM-misfit and for developing effective BPM strategies.

Bjoern Niehaves, Ralf Plattfaut

Process and Data-Oriented Approach for Bundling Corporate Reporting Duties to Public Authorities – A Case Study on the Example of Waste Management Reporting

Recent bureaucracy cost surveys identify the issue of high financial burdens on government authorities and businesses. These burdens are often caused by a large number of regulations. Therefore, the purpose of process bundling is to redesign Business-to-government processes in a way that eliminates redundant contacts, but still fulfils all reporting duties. The application of our bundling approach shows benefits by replacing similar reporting duties. One possibility to do so is to reuse available data on the business side for numerous duties. This research illustrates an approach for identifying opportunities for data reuse and thus to reduction of bureaucracy costs. The case study applies this approach for environmental reporting duties. After surveying reporting duties in Germany, similar reporting duties with overlaps concerning their content and process were selected. Finally, opportunities for data reuse were derived and implemented.

Armin Sharafi, Petra Wolf, Helmut Krcmar

Toward a Formal Approach to Process Bundling in Public Administrations

Excessive information and data exchanges between companies and public administrations create a need for the bundling of processes. Process bundles are created whenever cross-organizational processes are combined or interlinked. While a considerable amount of literature addressing the process of reorganizing, optimizing, or reengineering processes exists, much less is known about concrete approaches which facilitate the identification of suitable process bundles. This paper presents a review of identification criteria relevant for process bundling. Our literature review is deliberately broad, encompassing work in the fields of process management, reengineering, and E-Government. The analysis discloses that the plain focus on secondary process identification criteria (e.g., inefficiencies and redundancies) neglects to assess if the processes actually fit together. Premised on these results, we synthesize the insights from the cited literature into a methodological intermediary step to support the purposeful elicitation of bundling candidates.

Marlen Jurisch, Petra Wolf, Helmut Krcmar

Designing Quality Business Processes for E-Government Digital Services

Research works and surveys focusing on e-Government Digital Services availability and usage, reveal that often services are available but ignored by citizens. In our hypothesis this situation can be justified since defined service delivery processes do not sufficiently take into account social aspects and mainly focus just on technical aspects. Domain knowledge, related to how delivering high quality e-Government Digital Services, remains in most of the case in the mind of e-government stakeholders.

To address these issues we have developed a quality framework to assess delivery process strategies of services. Moreover we have introduced a user-friendly approach permitting to assess, using formal verification techniques, a delivery process with respect to the defined quality framework. The approach has been also implemented in a plug-in for the Eclipse platform and it has been applied to real case scenarios from the Public Administration domain.

In this paper we report and discuss the results we obtained from the conducted experiments. First of all the experiments provided encouraging results confirming that the approach we developed is applicable to the e-government domain. Moreover we discovered that delivery processes, defined for the services under study, reach low quality marks with respect to the framework.

Flavio Corradini, Damiano Falcioni, Andrea Polini, Alberto Polzonetti, Barbara Re


Erratum: Digital Certificate Management for Document Workflows in E-Government Services

Section 2 “Related Work” of the paper “Digital Certificate Management for Document Workflows in E-Government Services” starting on page 364 of this book not comprehensive and offers a general survey only. At the time of writing, the authors were unaware of the official support for EJBCA offered by PrimeKey Solutions AB. There are both free and professional PKI support for EJBCA and several government institutions in Europe and private companies around the world have bought professional support services provided by PrimeKey.

Florin Pop, Ciprian Dobre, Decebal Popescu, Vlad Ciobanu, Valentin Cristea


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