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About this book

This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy Systems (ICRES 2020). It focuses mainly on the concepts of electric vehicle, selection of batteries, selection of electric motors for specific capacity vehicles, design of controllers, battery chargers and development of testing facility. It presents the importance of energy storage system and modeling aspects of battery, super capacitor, flywheel energy storage and Superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. The book comprehensively presents the integration of renewable energy sources with smart grid, smart grid technologies and equipment, grid interconnection issues and design of intelligent controllers for grid connected system. The state-of-the-art technologies such as charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, robotic applications in energy, energy education and informatics are also covered in this book. This book will benefit the students and researchers in the field of electronics and electrical engineering, energy engineering, automotive engineering, e-mobility specialists and industrial experts.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Intelligent Stand-alone Solar PV-Enabled Rainwater Harvester and Power Generator

Abstract
According to UNESCO, with the existing climate change scenario, by 2030, water scarcity in some arid and semiarid places will displace between 24 million and 700 million people. In India, the paucity of water is increasing every year in a drastic way and so does the demand. This has occurred as a result of deficient planning and inappropriate management of water resources. Surface water and groundwater, which constitute approximately 40% of total precipitation, are two major sources of drinking water. It is evident that the collection of rainwater is very pivotal and beneficial. This paper illustrates the idea of conserving rainwater in an economic and renewable way by occupying free space and compact arrangement. This stand-alone system also focuses on automatic functioning of system using IoT.
R. S. Sibi, T. V. Sharath, A. Khaja Najumudeen, R. Rajeshkanna

Chapter 2. Speed Control of SEPIC Converter-Based Induction Motor Drive System

Abstract
This paper deals with speed control of single-ended primary inductance converter fed induction motor drives for water pumping application. A SEPIC converter with passive component is designed for PV system that provides regulated output voltage. In this, regulated voltage is used to drive induction motors in a wide range of speed. In closed loop, fuzzy logic control system is used to generate the switching pulse for SEPIC converter. Pulsating input current, high voltage stress of conventional method will make the unreliable for a wide range of speed. So, the SEPIC converter is used to for smooth speed control process. Simulation is down in MATLAB, Simulink. And then, implemented PV for induction motor drives is compared with theoretical values. SEPIC converter is well suitable for smooth speed control of induction motor. The SEPIC also has a simple controller that provides low noise operation.
R. Meena Devi, V. Geetha, V. Meenakshi

Chapter 3. The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)—An Overview

Abstract
The environmental impact created by automobiles is becoming a social issue day by day. To overcome these issues and save the future from worse alternative technologies like hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle (EV) are required and introduced in the automobile industry. EV helps us to attain a 100-percentage clean in service. But it has infrastructure limitations and short-driving-range problems. To overcome this, we are in need of a hybrid system. HEV is a beautiful substitute for the traditional internal combustion (IC) engine-based vehicle system and reduces the problems caused by emission. It provides a suitable solution in the aspect of infrastructural limitation and reduction in operating costs. As the name suggests, HEV is a combination of IC engine vehicle and electric vehicle. Whereas IC engine vehicle runs on gasoline product and electric vehicle runs by an electric motor. Also, In HEV, the electric motor is connected with a battery pack which is rechargeable for electric motorized driving. At the same time, HEV uses both engines to increase the power and torque or depending upon the driving type, rely on anyone. This paper discusses the recent advancement of HEV, various factors involving, the challenges and the state-of-the-art solutions by automobile industries and academicians in manufacturing.
E. Fantin Irudaya Raj, M. Appadurai

Chapter 4. Resilient Energy Storage-Based Microgrids

Abstract
Recent years, deploying of microgrids become key driver due to grid power un-reliability, reduction of environmental pollution (CO2 emission) by using the renewables, demands of loads beyond the installed capacity, grid rate structure, penalties imposed due to power quality issues, incentives, etc. However, renewable energy sources will not cooperate consistently throughout the year and seasons. Changes in their availability results voltage, frequency changes causing, active, reactive power oscillations and the operation of microgrid will become unreliable. As a result, the key performances of the microgrids such as steady state, dynamic, transient response and power quality are affected. Various technical and economic challenges are introduced while integrating renewable energy sources to the utility grid. Energy storage can be a reliable asset that can bring more benefits to the microgrid. Energy storage places a critical role during the power generation fluctuations in the microgrid system due to renewables power fluctuations. It aids the microgrid to have a smooth transition from ON-grid to OFF-grid (islanded) and vice versa. In the grid connected system, it can support the real and reactive demand of the grid which can yield to shifting the energy from one time to another time. In the islanded electric system, it has the ability to operate as virtual grid for maintaining the rated voltage and frequency. Also they provide significant role in providing the spinning reserve, un-interrupted islanding, etc. In this paper, the microgrid with energy storage and renewables is analyzed in different operating conditions.
Kalpana Shanmugam, Pradeep Gogineni

Chapter 5. Electric Traction Over Head Equipment Protection Using Intelligent Electronic Device

Abstract
Protection relays used in traction system application utilize impedance protection having parallelogram characteristics with three zones of protection comprising independent R, X values with forward, reverse and independent time settings. These relays are configured to protect the 25 kV single phase 50 Hz traction transmission line which is fed from traction substation with intermediate neutral sections and insulating overlap (IOL). IOL provides further complications when the locomotive moves in this section, where the pantograph located on top of the locomotive may connect the phases of two traction substations, resulting in a wrong phase coupling scenario. Such scenarios should be detected, and the circuit has to be isolated by distance protection relay which senses the fault in the second quadrant of the R-X plane. In addition to this scenario, when regenerative breaking is applied, the moment of inertia will result in the traction motors acting as generators which will result in pumping of current into the traction line resulting in the impedance measurement in second quadrant of the R-X plane. Moreover, the distance relay algorithm is challenged by overloading condition when a locomotive enters into a section. In addition, very high resistive fault would not have sufficient current to drive the impedance relay is the additional challenge. With the availability of latest relay testing equipment, testing of these characteristics has been automated, and the process of mimicking such characteristics and testing it with smart relay testing equipment is discussed in this paper.
K. N. Dinesh Babu, Salman Khan

Chapter 6. Differential Evolution Based Design Optimization of Flywheel with Different Materials

Abstract
A flywheel is one of the most important renewable sources of power transmission and storage. It has a wide range of applications such as light rail power, hybrid electric vehicles, industrial pulse power and is employed for power quality improvement. It is a rotating structure capable of transmitting power through the rotation of the shaft. A flywheel made from the filaments of composite material provides high specific energy. This paper discusses differential evolution-based optimization procedure to determine the parameters of the flywheel to produce the required energy storage with minimum mass. The procedure is carried out considering different materials to select the best material for the required energy storage. The results of the differential evolution algorithm are compared with particle swarm optimization, and the closeness of the result validates the proposed approach.
V. Ramya, R. Ramaprabha, M. Balaji

Chapter 7. Comparison of Radial Flux PMSM and Axial Flux PMSM for Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicles

Abstract
Permanent magnet synchronous motors are increasingly becoming predominant with the upscale competitiveness of high-power permanent magnets. Permanent magnets are comparatively more efficient because the field excitation losses are extinguished that leads to significant rotor loss minimization. Thus, the motor efficiency is greatly surpassed, and higher power density is achieved. In addition to this, they have better torque, lower acoustic noise and mechanical vibration. In this paper, a PMSM is proposed for an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor after emphasizing its advantages over the radial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor. The motor with the focus of being applied for an enormous 110 kW application is designed and compared with radial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor.
S. T. Vigneshwar, N. C. Lenin

Chapter 8. Super-Twisting Algorithm-Based Sliding Mode Control of SMES for Frequency Control in Wind Penetrated Power System

Abstract
In this paper, frequency control in the wind power penetrated power systems via active power control under varying load conditions is reported. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is interfaced with the system to exchange the power mismatch that occurs in generation and demand. To achieve the fast as well as effective exchange of power mismatch and improve the dynamic performance of the system, super-twisting algorithm-based sliding mode controller is proposed on SMES by controlling the firing angle of the converter. Simulation experiments were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment, and the results verify the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
Zahid Afzal Thoker, Shameem Ahmad Lone

Chapter 9. Evolution and Recent Advancements in Electric Vehicle (EV) Technology

Abstract
This paper presents the main components of electric vehicles (EV) and the evolution of technologies used in them. The electric vehicles are gaining importance globally as it is seen as a factor of reducing air pollution and smog. This paper focuses on advantages of EVs compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, different types of EVs and their greenhouse gas emissions, different types of EV motors and their developments, evolution of batteries and their advanced technologies, different types of battery management system (BMS), different types of powertrains and challenges encountered by different types of EVs. EVs are diversified and sophisticated, with different elegance options, but all with the reliability and power of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles. The main aim of this paper is to give a general image of the present EV innovation and the ways for further improvement to aid future researches in this area.
P. Aruna, V. Vasan Prabhu

Chapter 10. Design and Implementation of Boost-Buck DC–DC Converter for Battery Charging Application

Abstract
For an electric vehicle, battery plays a major role and needs frequent charging. For this, an efficient DC–DC converter is essential to provide ripple-free and steady output power so that the performance of the battery will not be deteriorated. This paper investigates a myriad of topologies of DC–DC converter and proposes a boost-buck converter for battery charging applications. The performance of the suggested boost-buck converter has been examined and compared with the existing non-isolated topologies. The criterion answered for comparative studies is output voltage and current ripple, input current ripple, and efficiency. From the analysis, it has been implied that the boost-buck configuration has reduced ripple and improved efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended for the battery charger. The simulation studies are executed in MATLAB software. To authenticate the simulation results, a laboratory prototype has been constructed.
Seyezhai Ramalingam, S. Harika, A. Sowmya, N. Ramakrishnan, S. Purushothaman

Chapter 11. Spoke-Type and Surface-Mounted BLDC Motor for Automotive Applications—A Brief Comparison

Abstract
Permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor has been promoted rapidly in automotive applications. Current automotive vehicle demands more than 40 different types of applications which require rotating motors. This paper compares the surface-mounted and spoke-type PMBLDC motor for the application such as anti-lock braking systems, pedal adjusters, and seat belt pretensioners. Technical specifications, electromagnetic analysis, magnet mass optimization, and cost are discussed in detail. Advantages of both the configurations are compared and concluded finally.
Kareti Aasritha, Aneesh Jategaonkar, R. Ruthra Prakashini, N. C. Lenin

Chapter 12. Electromagnetic Performance and Thermal Analysis of Reluctance Synchronous and Magnet-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Motors for Industrial Pump Application

Abstract
This work is intended to study and compare the performance of 15 kW three-phase reluctance synchronous motor, ferrite-assisted reluctance synchronous motor along with induction motor for centrifugal pump application used in fluid flow application of food and process industries in terms of torque density, efficiency, volume and thermal behavior. The electromagnetic and thermal behavior is predicted by MagNet and ThermNet FEA software. The work involves an initial prototyping and validation of predicted performance by means of a motor–pump system coupled to tank setup. Also, this procedure is initiated through establishment of operating points by matching the speed–torque characteristics of motors and pump system load.
V. S. Nagarajan, M. Balaji, V. Kamaraj, K. Subash, Rahul Tiwari

Chapter 13. A Focus on Power System Congestion Management—A Primitive Review of the Literature

Abstract
An increase in the involvement of distributed energy generation in the distributed systems may cause a high degree of participation of active distribution network management involving native network congestion and voltage problems. Deregulation of power system causes an increase in demand at the utility and hence results in overloading of transmission lines. To fulfill demand of power, generation companies manufacture additional output, but transmission lines are the typical ones and that they get congested as they carry additional power than its capacity. These problem areas are handled using various congestion management strategies, which play a principal role in current deregulated power systems. Hence, restructuring of power system is needed to create a shift over, where electricity is now made a artifact and has regenerated into deregulated one. In this paper, a review work is dispensed to gather related publications in congestion management. In order to reduce congestion in transmission lines, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices are used, which manage the power flow to curtail losses in power system. This paper discusses the summary of congestion management in the deregulated power systems and in addition highlights the various strategies concerned to get the better of congestion in power systems.
K. Aravindhan, M. Venmathi, N. Chidambararaj

Chapter 14. Battery Safety Enhancement in Electric Vehicles—A Review Paper

Abstract
In the present scenario, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles are fast replacing the combustion engine-type vehicles. Due to this sudden surge in growth of electric vehicles, there arises a major concern for the continuous overseeing and the need for safety enhancement features for battery, drivetrain and what should be done in case of emergencies. There are numerous ongoing works and efforts in the area of electric vehicles in order to make them cost effective and increase their efficiency. One of the main factors to be considered for the failure-free operation of vehicles is the batteries used. In this comprehensive literary review, the working and safety aspects of lithium-based battery used in electric vehicles are analysed. Safety goals for the safe operation of electric vehicles with respect to the batteries and battery management systems (BMS) involved are discussed. Various methods and technologies adopted and proposed to achieve these goals are analysed here.
R. J. Vijaya Saraswathi, V. Vasan Prabhu

Chapter 15. Performance Evaluation of Fast Charging DC–DC Converter for Electrical Vehicle with Root Locus-Based Digital Controller

Abstract
In recent times, because of range anxiety, charging time and charging infrastructure of electric vehicles (EVs) are the main subjects to wide gap in research and development. Charging station infrastructure plays a major role in easy transition from traditional IC engine-based vehicles to EVs. The implementation of off-board fast charging for EVs with proposed control strategy aimed to facilitate the improved performance of a DC–DC converter. However, there are many analog controllers proposed in controlling converters, which lack in optimum operation of high-frequency DC–DC converter. Digital controllers provide optimum control not only in case of static input voltage but also in case of change in input voltage. At first step, pole–zero mapping is used in designing the small signal-based discrete-time model of the desired DC–DC converter. Based on discrete-time modeling, digital controller is designed using root locus technique. Lastly, simulation results are acquired for a 400 V/120 A DC–DC converter, which is used in fast charging system of electric vehicle. The analysis of the proposed controller design is presented in detail.
Balakrishna Nallamothu, B. Santhana Krishnan, Ravindra Janga

Chapter 16. High-Voltage Electric Water Pump for the Application of Electric Vehicle—Modeling, Design and Analysis

Abstract
This paper presents the designing and electromagnetic analysis of permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor using finite element analysis software packages for high-voltage water pump application. The designed water pump motor is suitable for application in the battery pack cooling system used in electric vehicles (EVs). Two PMBLDC models based on 200 volt system and 300 volt system are proposed for the water pump application. Component-wise designing procedure is explained for the PMBLDC motor to obtain efficiency improvement and cost reduction compared to the prominently used models in the industry. Elaborate study on performance estimation is carried out for both the models using electromagnetic analysis.
Aneesh Jategaonkar, N. C. Lenin

Chapter 17. Charging and Discharging Characterization of a Community Electric Vehicle Batteries

Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) play a major role in the electrified world which needs the technological innovations. Many electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles are fortified with LIB that extenuates environmental pollution and reduces the usage of the conventional energy storage devices. This paper outlines the charging and discharging characteristics of a single LIB and multiple LIBs present in the EVs located in the community and also calculates the battery power. Mathematical equations are formed based on the chemical behaviour of LIB. The simulations are performed in MATLAB, and the results are discussed.
D. Suganthi, K. Jamuna

Chapter 18. PMBLDC Motor Design and Analysis for Automotive Applications

Abstract
Modeling of brushless direct current (BLDC) motor for the application of lumbar support, headrest and lift gate is carried out in this paper. Two separate models have been simulated using finite element software packages for the applications. One of the models is based on surface-mounted configuration of the BLDC motor, while the other is based on spoke-type configuration. The surface-type and spoke-type models procure their names based on the mounting of permanent magnets, which are an integral component of any BLDC machine. Extensive comparison has been carried out between the designed models. Critical parameters such as constituent weights, efficiency, output power, torque, speed, etc. are compared. Performances of the designed machines are depicted using graphical portrayal. Parameters such as locked rotor torque, no load speed, maximum efficiency, maximum output power, etc. are also compared.
R. Ruthra Prakashini, Aneesh Jategaonkar, Kareti Aasritha, N. C. Lenin

Backmatter

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