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2023 | Book

Emerging Studies and Applications of Grey Systems

Editors: Yingjie Yang, Sifeng Liu

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Series on Grey System


About this book

This book aims to provide a practical guide by a set of real world applications of grey systems to social networks, energy management, transportation, natural disaster management, etc. As an emerging subject on data analysis and uncertainty modelling, the theory of grey systems and its applications have seen significant progress in recent years. However, researchers are still challenged with difficulties in differentiating grey systems from other similar models and a concise and practical guide for their real world applications. This is especially true for researchers in Europe and North American. This book may provide the answer for that. This book is a result of work within the Leverhulme Trust International Research Network on Grey Systems and its Applications. Readers may regard the book as valuable reference in the related fields.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Development of Grey System Research
The first chapter presents an introduction to grey system theory. We begin with some background information on the appearance and growth of grey system theory and founder “Professor Julong Deng”, who established the new branch of science. Then we examine the development history and current state, followed by a comparison of grey system theory with other uncertain systems theories such as probability and statistics, fuzzy mathematics, and rough set theory. Finally, the elementary concepts, the fundamental principles and the framework of grey system theory are presented. This introductory chapter vividly presents the reader with an overall picture of grey system theory and its frontier research.
Sifeng Liu, Yingjie Yang
Chapter 2. Basic Models in Grey System Theory
In 40 years since Deng’s seminal work on grey system theory, researches have consistently shown that grey system theory has developed as a scientific discipline which is consist of systems analysis, prediction, decision making, control, and optimization. In this section, framework and mechanism of grey system models will be further summarized. And detailed steps of grey forecasting models, grey relational analysis models, grey cluster models and grey target models will be further summarized.
Naiming Xie, Baolei Wei
Chapter 3. Grey Systems and Uncertainty Modelling
Information can, and often is, rather uncertain; with only partial information initially being made available, from which one would be able to hopefully provide for a solution. The information itself may contain conflicts that have arisen from the possible different sources used to acquire it. In addition, the information may be viewed and interpreted differently by different cohorts, this in itself can be the cause of extenuating circumstances. These are just some of the issues that one can face with uncertain information. These issues can understandably create problems when considering the deployment of applications. Being able to cater for the volatility that is inherently present in uncertainty, becomes an objective with high importance and precedence.
Y. Yang, A. S. Khuman, S. Liu
Chapter 4. Extending Neuro-fuzzy Techniques with Grey-Based Hybridisation
Real-world problems are commonly composed by interrelated components in many complex ways. They are usually dynamic, that is, they change with time through a series of interactions among related components. Classical decision-making techniques cannot support these kinds of challenges. For that reason, this paper focused on the extension of neuro-fuzzy techniques as Fuzzy Cognitive Maps with Grey Systems Theory.
Jose L. Salmeron
Chapter 5. The Grey Structure and Evolution of Knowledge Towards a Theory of Grey Knowledge Conception
For every real complex system, the grey knowledge represents a fundamental part of its organizational and structural life. Grey knowledge points out the daily reality of the organizational life and its environment, the background upon which main subsystems of the intelligent systems project the meaning of their actions and decisions. Grey knowledge also reveals new situations, which are still ambiguous, indistinct and fragmentary. More specifically, analysing grey knowledge means noting that the system of beliefs and assumptions that are put to the test in the theories of action. It means, in other words, investigating organizational memory and learning, building explanations in a partially enigmatic way. This is where the creative process can be seen. It is not limited to a reduction of the unknown to the known, but builds new paradigms, metaphors, interpretations, meanings and resolves paradoxes. The main objective of this paper is to discuss how is determine grey knowledge and how this is discovered through interactions within networks, forming the grey structures. The feedback processes and mechanisms between these grey structures determine the apparition of grey flows into a complex system. These grey flows assure the viability and effectiveness of the systems. From this perspective, we consider the grey knowledge intensity as a feasible measure deal with systems, models and projects characterized by poor data, information and knowledge.
Emil Scarlat
Chapter 6. Agent-Based Modelling in Grey Economic Systems
The economic systems are basically grey systems due to their components and to their interactions which enable the occurrence of uncertainty. First, the human component plays an important role as a consequence of its usually unpredictable and sometimes irrational behavior, a situation strictly related to the way the humans are thinking and acting. From here, it can easily be demonstrated that when analyzing a system, we are facing grey knowledge. This kind of knowledge exists and it represents that small piece of puzzle needed to successfully fill the gap separating the explicit knowledge form the tacit one, also conducting to uncertainty.
Camelia Delcea, Yingjie Yang, Sifeng Liu, Liviu-Adrian Cotfas
Chapter 7. Forecasting and Optimization of Short-Term Traffic Flow Dynamics Modeling Based on Grey System Theory
With the tremendous development of the economy and the acceleration of urbanization, traffic congestion has become an inevitable problem for all countries in the world. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) is deemed to be one of the effective methods to solve urban traffic problems, while short-term traffic flow analysis of road is the core of ITS. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the effective modeling theory and method of short-term traffic flow. Using mathematics and mechanics theory, the traffic flow theory is to research the law of road traffic. Short-term traffic flow system is similar to hydrodynamics systems to a large extend, and has the basic characteristics of dynamics system. This system has high uncertainty, and it is difficult for people to grasp the influence range and action mechanism of various factors in the system.
Xinping Xiao, Huan Guo, Jinwei Yang
Chapter 8. Yellow River Ice Disaster Risk Management Based on Grey Prediction and Decision Method
The Yellow River rises in Jogu basin, below Bayan Kara Mountain. It flows through Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Shandong from west to east, and is injected into the Bohai Sea in Kenli County, Shandong Province. The total length of the river is 5464 km, and the basin area is 795,000 km2. The Yellow River Basin to the west belongs to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, north adjoins to Gobi desert, south nears the Yangtze River, and the whole river passes through the Huanghuaihai Plain. With the Yellow River being influenced by river, terrain, climate, man-made and other factors, it is easy for ice floods to form, threatening the reach of both sides of the river. All along the two reaches Yellow River ice flood disasters occur frequently and are serious. The two reaches are respectively the upper Ningxia–Inner Mongolia reach from Heshan Gorge to Hekouzhen, and the downstream reach from Huayuankuo to the Yellow River Estuary.
Dang Luo
Chapter 9. Millennial Generation: Enthusiastic Versus Stressed Consumers. How Different Is Their Behaviour and Their Opinion on Companies’ Image in Online Social Networks?
Recent studies have shown that based on informal communication, made from one user to another, certain opinions regarding the activity of a company can be formed, with long-term influence on consumers, perception on its image. By focusing on the Millennial generation, this research presents its main characteristics and examines the consumer’s behaviour in online social networks, with an accent on how his perception towards certain companies may change due to communications on these networks with other users. Based on the latest studies in the literature, a questionnaire has been created, containing most of the issues identified in the publications related directly to consumer behaviour and company’s image. Additionally, a PANAS analysis has been conducted in order to see whether there are any behaviour or opinion differences between the two identified categories of Millennial online social networks’ users: “Enthusiastic” and “Stressed”. In the end, a grey incidence analysis has been applied to the considered variables.
Camelia Delcea, Ioana-Alexandra Bradea
Chapter 10. Grey Models and Its Application in Energy-Economy System
Many things about the macroeconomic principles, such as Business Cycle (Cooley et al., 1998; Stock et al., 2005), the stages of economic development (Panayotou, 1983), will change the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth.
Chaoqing Yuan
Chapter 11. Selection of the Company’s Strategy Using Grey Stratified Decisions Model
Strategic management is a complex information and decision-making process which aims at adjusting the organization to changing market conditions. On the one hand, this adjustment must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment in which the organization functions, on the other hand, its own potential and ability to act. The central element of this approach to management is the category of strategy. The concept of strategy was originally related to military and political action. Not until later did it began to be associated with business as a result of social and economic changes.
Rafał Mierzwiak
Chapter 12. A Cost Level Analysis for the Components of the Smartphones Using Greyness Based Quality Function Deployment
In this study, the cost difference and/or surplus between the target cost levels achieved by assessing customer expectations based on 12 different criteria with the current cost levels of the manufacturers to the smartphone components were analyzed using quality function deployment and Grey System Theory. At first, the expectations of the consumers from a smartphone were determined with the help of a survey and the degrees of greyness levels are presented in order to reflect the uncertainties of the customer expectations. Two different degrees of greyness values are proposed using the degree of greyness level. One is calculated by using the degree of greyness level for each customer requirement indicator. Also, another white number is calculated by using the mean total of the degree of greyness levels for each customer requirement as a whole system degree of greyness. Then, the relation between technical measurements and the customer requirements are given by determining the intensity of importance levels for the house of quality matrix. The degree of greyness values based model and the technical measurements related to the customer requirement are summarized in the house of quality matrix. Later, in order to analyze these features, quality function deployment model that is based on the degree of greyness values is proposed to determine customer needs.
Erdal Aydemir, Yusuf Sahin, Kenan Karagul
Emerging Studies and Applications of Grey Systems
Yingjie Yang
Sifeng Liu
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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