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2024 | Book

Emerging Trends in Composite Structures

Select Proceedings of ICC-IDEA 2023

Editors: Md. Abdul Mannan, R. Sathyanathan, N. Umamaheswari, Hemant S. Chore

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of International Conference on Civil Engineering: Innovative Development in Engineering Advances (ICC IDEA 2023). This book covers the latest research in the areas of structural engineering and health monitoring, steel and composite structure, bridge and tunnel engineering, earthquake engineering, disaster management, and coastal and harbor engineering. The book is useful for researchers and professionals in related fields of civil engineering.

Table of Contents


Structural Engineering and Health Monitoring

Strength of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Aggregate with Granite

Concrete demand and consumption are increasing rapidly. On the other hand, the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of the environment is also major concern. The depletion of natural materials can be reduced with the help of recycling and the reuse of the structural members. This paper presents the feasibility of using granite powder (GP) as a partial replacement of the fine aggregate. In a concrete mix of M40 grade, the quality of fine aggregate is replaced by three different percentage (20%, 25%, and 30%) by weight of fine aggregate. The fresh concrete test showed similar results when compared to conventional mix farther cube of size 150 × 150 × 150 mm and cylinder of size 150 × 300 mm is casted for all proportion and cured at normal atmospheric temperature. The test results showed that the normalized compressive strength of cube with 25% replacement of granite powder showed significant increase in strength than the conventional concrete.

S. Suresh Babu, T. Abishek
State-of-the-Art Review on Synthesis and Utilization on Graphene Oxide in Concrete Under Elevated Temperature

Graphene oxide is one of the developing technologies in nanoparticles. Graphene oxide made up of material with single layered hydrogen, carbon, oxygen which are manufactured by the graphite crystal oxidation. Graphene nanoplates made up of graphene sheets with few layer. Graphene oxide is not only used in the civil engineering it is also used in chemical, biomedical field, medical field, etc. Graphene oxide used in concrete because of its unique characteristics. Graphene oxide is used to increase strength, durability when it mixes with concrete either in a powder form or liquid form. Graphene oxide is a crumbled version of graphene that has been secured with oxygen-containing groups. Graphene oxide examined to be a simple process because it dissolves in water and other products. Although graphene oxide is not a good conductor, processes exist to improve its characteristics. It is typically sold as a powder, spread like a coating on substrates. The fire safety capacity of structural concrete is quite challenging due to the wide range of concrete materials. In this study, constitutive models and comparison for fire-resistant concrete are created, with the goal of providing efficient modelling as well as particular Criteria for fire performance of the response of concrete structures to flames.

I. Ramana, N. Parthasarathi
Analyzing the Characteristics of Self-Compacting, Basalt Fiber, Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Using Nanowaste Product at Both High and Normal Temperature Changes

The ecology is significantly impacted when waste materials are used to produce sustainable concrete. From a different angle, knowing how high temperatures affect concrete can help to lessen the effects of fire on the environment and cut the cost of recovery. This research presents a methodical experimental inquiry using agricultural by-product materials, such as agricultural waste products, textile ash, and paddy husks ash as cementitious material, in order to build ecological ultra-high performance rebound fiber self-compacting concrete (UHPBF-SCC). The varied dosages of nanoparticles are mechanically created after heat treatment at 700 °C, the effectiveness of the concentrations was examined. This paper additionally investigates the behavior of UHPBF-SCC at higher temperatures of 300 °C and 600 °C. Investigations on the biological appearances, such as separation resistance, have been conducted, workability, and passing skills. Additionally examined were compressive strength, strength loss at high temperatures, mass loss, ultrasonic testing velocity, splitting, and flexural strength test. To reveal the microstructure of the mixtures, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) examination were carried out. Comparing the nanoparticle-containing samples to a controlled experiment, the mechanical and physical properties increase significantly by much more than 18% in strength properties, 32% in yield stress, and 28% in undergoing a transformation. During normal operating circumstances, SEM analysis revealed compacted sections with high bonded matrices and high ITZ, but at 300 °C and 600 °C, micro-crack development became apparent due to ettringite dissolution and the evaporation of capillaries and adsorbed moisture. With the use of nanomaterials, EDX analysis revealed significant Ca/Si.

M. K. Muniyasamy, M. Dinesh Kumar
Experimental Study on Nanomaterials in High-Performance Concrete

The aim of the research study, the efficacy of nanomaterials in improving the performance of high-performance concrete was investigated through controlled laboratory experiments. Various mechanical and durability tests were conducted on concrete specimens with varying concentrations and types of nanomaterials added. Mechanical properties evaluated included flexural strength, tensile strength, and compressive strength, while the durability properties assessed were resistance to cracking, corrosion, and freeze–thaw cycles. The results indicated that the incorporation of nanomaterials led to significant enhancements in the mechanical and durability properties of the concrete. Addition of nanomaterials and silica fumes increased the compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength by an average of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively, and 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively, for silica fume. Additionally, the concrete specimens with nanomaterials exhibited a significant decrease in cracking and corrosion, as well as improved resistance to freeze–thaw cycles. The implications of this study are significant, as it suggests that nanomaterials can potentially revolutionize the construction industry by enabling the development of stronger, more durable, and more sustainable structures. By reducing the amount of material needed to achieve a certain level of strength and durability, the use of nanomaterials in high-performance concrete can also help to reduce the carbon (C) footprint of the construction industry. However, further research is necessary to fully comprehend the potential of nanomaterials in concrete and to optimize their use in practical applications.

K. Sathishkumar, L. Krishnaraj
An Investigation on Behaviour of Non-metallic Areca Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Beam

Constructing shelters for residential, commercial, industrial activities with fine and coarse aggregates as reinforced concrete structures with steel is a challenging task to the world community without exploiting natural resources. It is essential to have natural materials instead of using conventional building materials for achieving sustainable development. It is also mandatory to reduce the carbon emission for protecting the planet from global warming. So, this research is focussing towards use of areca tree fibre as partial replacement to aggregate and reinforcement. An attempt was made to predict the properties of M30 areca fibre concrete with 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.0% of areca fibre and cube, cylinder and beam specimens were casted. The beams were casted with four steel rods of 12 mm diameter and areca fibre proportion of 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.0% by volume fraction. It was observed from the test results that the areca fibre concrete achieved its maximum compressive strength as 47.93 N/mm2 at 0.5% areca fibre. The maximum split tensile strength was 6.01 N/mm2 at 0.75% of areca fibre. The areca fibre beam with steel rods achieved its maximum flexural strength as 10.03 N/mm2 at 0.75% of areca fibre. It is concluded that the use of 0.75% of areca fibre may reduce the usage of aggregates and steel in the construction industry and pave the way to achieve sustainable construction technology.

S. Govindasami, K. Sathish
Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Copper Slag in Concrete: A State-of-the-Art Review

The copper manufacturing industry produces a significant amount of copper slag as a by-product, causing environmental problems while it is being managed and disposed of. Therefore, sustainable alternatives are required immediately. The purpose of this study is to create self-bonding concrete mixtures by substituting copper slag for the thin aggregate. The study’s objective is to evaluate the current advancements in the production of copper slag mortar and concrete, as well as their characteristics, with a specific focus on self-compaction in concrete. The review encompasses an overview of the design of copper slag mixes, a brief analysis of its utilisation in concrete, and an examination of the key factors that impact the effectiveness of copper slag-containing concrete.

V. K. Nithyashree, M. Surendar
Enhancement of Concrete Strength of Using PPF and Analysis by ANSYS for Strength Comparison

The primary objective of this investigation is to assess the mechanical properties of polymer waste materials and the impact of adding polypropylene artificial fibers on concrete’s strength. The construction industry has witnessed considerable growth in sustainable design methods, structural systems, and building materials, leading to a heightened emphasis on constructing sustainable structures. This study examines the effect of polypropylene fibers and polymer waste materials on concrete by casting specimens with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% polypropylene fibers, along with polymer waste materials, and subjecting them to tests for compressive, split tensile, flexural, and impact strength after 3, 14, and 28 days of curing. The inclusion of a superplasticizer with the fiber reduced water content and enhanced the fiber's water absorption capacity in high-strength concrete. The results demonstrated that the addition of 0.75% fiber yielded the highest compressive strength, making it the optimal proportion of polypropylene fiber and polymer waste materials. The addition of the superplasticizer was also evaluated for its potential to improve the fiber’s water absorption characteristics. The same optimal percentage was observed for split tensile, flexural, and impact strengths. The study also concluded that a polypropylene fiber blend with 1.5% waste polymer produced the highest compressive strength, making it the best fiber blend. A scanning electron microscopy and SCM diffraction analysis was also conducted in this study in order to determine the impact of the fiber on the structure and elemental composition of the high-strength concrete. To assess the structural and elemental composition of the high-strength concrete containing 1% polypropylene fiber and polymer waste materials, microstructure and diffraction analyses were also performed. The findings of this study provide valuable insight into the potential use of polypropylene fibers and polymer waste materials as reinforcement agents in concrete, thereby enhancing its strength and durability.

Pathapati Rohithkumar, Abishek Rauniyar, V. R. Prasath Kumar
Microstructural and Plastic Shrinkage Studies on M-Sand and Coconut Shell Used Self-Compacting Concrete

This study investigates the plastic shrinkage behavior of self-compacting concrete made from coconut shells (CS) and blended with manufactured sand (M-sand). The study used the crushed coconut shell as a coarse aggregate (CA) and M-sand as river sand. M-sand was replaced at 25, 50, 75 and 100% in place of river sand and studied the microstructural and plastic shrinkage characteristics of self-compacting coconut shell concrete (SCCSC). To confirm the SCCSC, slump flow, T500 flow time, V-funnel test, L-box and GTM screen stability experiments were conducted. Using M-sand with the combination of coconut shells decreased the formation of plastic shrinkage cracks. Microstructural studies such as SEM and XRD show that there was a decrease in the pore presence and anhydrous compounds and does not affect the formation of hydrated compounds. This study proved that using coconut shell and M-sand in the manufacturing of SCCSC to achieving sustainable development goals, such as “responsible consumption and production”.

S. Prasanth, S. Prakash Chandar, K. Gunasekaran
Hybrid Testing Approach for Thermo-Mechanical Testing of Structures Using Impedance Matching

Understanding the behavior of a structure at an elevated temperature is very important for the development of fire-resilient infrastructure. Current testing methods are based on element-level testing to obtain the standard heat resistance curve. The major drawback of element-level testing is that it does not consider the interaction of the test specimen with the surrounding structure and thus does not provide an accurate picture of the structural behavior. This paper proposes hybrid thermo-mechanical testing which promises more realistic response evaluation as opposed to current testing methods. Hybrid thermo-mechanical testing couples the test specimen subjected to elevated temperature (physical substructure, PS) with the computational model (virtual substructure, VS) of the surrounding structure. A transfer system (TS), in the form of an actuator, is used to realize the interaction between the two substructures. The controls for the TS are designed in such a way that it mimics the dynamic behavior of the surrounding structure. The controls for the TS are designed using impedance matching. The proposed methodology is applied to a case of coaxial bars fixed at both ends. It is found that the controller designed based on impedance matching results in a TS whose dynamics are close to that of the VS. This ensures that the interactions between the two substructures are captured accurately during the hybrid thermo-mechanical testing.

T. Jay Vishnu, E. Vinothini, M. S. Aditya, Mohit Verma
Study on the Effect of Marble Dust as Partial Replacement to Cement with Steel Fibre in Concrete

The most versatile and widely used construction material is concrete. The yearly production of around 4.4 billion tons at global level demonstrates growing demand for the material. One of the main components used in concrete as a binding agent is cement. It contributes to around 8% of the world's CO2 emissions, which significantly harm the environment in a number of ways. On the other hand, due to the country’s rapid urbanisation, cement consumption in India is expected to rise significantly. A powder called marble dust is produced as a by-product of the marble industry. About 25% of the marble's real mass is lost as dust throughout the fabrication process. It may be best to swap marble dust for other materials in cementitious binders. More than 50% of lime is present, which improves the reaction efficiency. In the current investigation, marble dust was employed as a partial substitute for the cement-based binder material in concrete at increasing weight percentages of 10, 20 and 30%. The ideal replacement for marble dust was discovered. Optimal marble dust concrete was mixed with steel fibre at various concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5%. At 7 and 28 days, the specimens' mechanical strength under compression, tension, and flexure was evaluated, with the outcomes being compared to the control concrete. According to this study, concrete produces superior outcomes when 10% marble dust is substituted for cement and 1.5% steel fibre is added.

M. S. Yuvaraj, Manoj Kumar Sah, Shaik Kutagal Md. Jabeer, Thallika Venu Kumar, Marumani Harish, Bibek Mishra
State of Art on Enhanced Energy-Efficient Building Through Various Materials and Construction Techniques

The goal of this article is to provide an overview of energy-efficient materials and building methods. Energy saving is an essential consideration in building construction. It is possible to increase interior comfort while lowering fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions by designing an energy-efficient building. The energy-efficient building is meant to provide a comfortable environment by ensuring that the temperature is evenly distributed throughout the structure. The approach that was chosen for the research consisted of conducting a systematic literature review, as well as exploring various literatures based on keywords and classifying different methodologies. This research analyses the most recent developments in natural waste, industrial waste, and building approaches to assure thermal comfort and improve energy efficiency. Building design should be developed in accordance with environmental considerations as a primary objective of this review. This study investigates the use of different materials and construction processes, as well as the orientation of buildings, in order to preserve thermal comfort under varying circumstances of temperature, ventilation, and humidity. It also involves the use of different materials and construction methods/building orientations to improve thermal comfort.

Thennarasan Latha Abinaya, Balasubramanian Murugesan

Steel and Composite Structure

Study on Self-Consolidating Hybrid Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Compaction generally becomes challenging, time-consuming, and requires more labour during casting, and this can be effectively handled using the self-consolidating concrete (SCC). In this study, fibre-reinforced self-consolidating concretes were developed with metallic fibres, polymeric synthetic fibres, or a combination of both for enhancing concrete's mechanical properties. However, the properties of concrete are only slightly enhanced by using a single type of fibre for reinforcement. On the contrary, hybrid fibre-reinforced concretes, which are strengthened with a number of distinct kinds of specifically selected fibres, offer superior characteristics. The incorporation of the hybrid fibres into brittle self-consolidating concrete (SCC) helps to strengthen the concrete and overcome this problem. For this purpose, hybrid fibre-reinforced self-consolidating concrete (HFSCC) specimens with 0.75%, 0.80%, 0.85%, and 0.90% steel and 0.15% polypropylene fibres were tested. The workability properties of the SCC as a result of the addition of hybrid fibres were also investigated by performing fresh concrete tests such as the slump flow, V-funnel, and the L-box test to assess compactibility such as filling ability and passing ability. Additionally, cylinders and cubes were casted to determine the splitting tensile strength and compressive strength. As a result, the hybrid fibres improved the compressive and split tensile strengths. Thus, incorporating hybrid fibres into the mix revealed that increasing the fibre content of the concretes reduced their workability slightly.

R. Sruthi, K. Suganya Devi
Effect of High Performance on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Beams

Concrete is one of the best building materials because it is cheap and easy to work with. It has some flaws, like being very brittle, having a high heat of hydration, having a low tensile strength, and being hard to crack. High-Performance Fibre-reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) is a relatively new building material that is made of a high-performance concrete matrix and fibre reinforcement. This experiment looks at how flexible HPFRC is when it has Silica Fume (SF) and Glass Fibres (GF) in the same matrix, which makes the concrete stronger and lasts longer. High-performance Concrete (HPC) needs fibres to improve its mechanical properties, especially its tensile and flexural strengths. The compressive strength and flexural strength tests were used to figure out what the mechanical properties were. In this particular experiment, HPC was produced using everyday components such as cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, and mineral admixtures such as Silica Fume (SF). As a high amount of cement replacement, approximately 10% of SF was also added. The compressive and flexural strengths both improved as a result of this.

R. Kamalesh, A. Leema Rose
Investigation on Innovative Cold-Formed Steel Built-Up Columns Using Lipped and Unlipped Channels

Cold-formed steel (CFS) columns are broadly used in the construction industry for low-rise buildings because of their lightweight, easy installation, and erection. Back-to-back built-up CFS lipped channel sections and box sections are adopted in CFS structures. In this research, an innovative built-up column consisting of a total of 4-individual CFS channels, in which two are CFS lipped channels, which are arranged back-to-back and connected with the help of screw fasteners, while another two individual channels without lips are placed around the boundary of the back-to-back channel and connected with screw fasteners where flanges of both the channels intersect at specified spacing along the length of the column. Finite element (FE) models are modelled, and buckling analysis is performed through Abaqus 6.14 software by varying the height of the column, while the thickness of the section is constant. The height of four columns adopted as 300, 500, 1000, and 1500 mm, respectively, by varying the slenderness ration. These built-up columns are fabricated and buckling test was conducted. The analytical and experimental results are compared to identify the best performing section.

V. A. Veera Vignaesh, S. T. Dhaarini, C. Manoj Kumaar
Strength Study on Engineered Cementitious Composites Using Hybrid Fibres

Concrete is the most consumed building material in the world. The drawback of traditional concrete is that it is not flexible and bendable by nature. To overcome this drawback, engineered cementitious composite is developed also known as bendable concrete. Bendable concrete is made up of different fibres to introduce ductility and flexibility. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the usage of paper, steel fibre, and polypropylene fibre in engineered cementitious composites. Six different composite mixes were developed and tested for their mechanical and durability properties. The findings show that the concrete achieved adequate mechanical and durability properties. It is concluded that steel fibre and polypropylene fibre are used to produce engineered cementitious composites. Mix F was found to have a density value that was superior to that of the other mixes when they were put through the test.

S. Samuel, N. Pannirselvam
Investigation of Bending Effect on Steel–Concrete–Steel (SCS) Sandwich Composite Sections Considering Width–Thickness Ratio and Global Provisional Codes Validation

Steel–concrete–steel (SCS) sandwich composite structure demonstrates significant stiffness, strength, and ductility characteristics with superior advantages compared to an ordinary reinforced concrete structure. SCS might be prepared of two external steel plates with a concrete core filled in between them. Mechanical connectors give rise to composite action in higher flexural resistance to effectively withstand accidental loads for massive projects. Many relevant investigations are currently being done, but factors like buckling of the compression flange are still less considered and need necessary evaluations for better SCS utilisation. Due to stability design, it is vital to study the contributions of composite mechanisms for the whole process of bending performance. In this research work, numerical evaluations on SCS composite structure have been carried out by creating a three-dimensional model using Abaqus (6.14) finite element software and elaborated to investigate the bending capacity of validation models with relevant experimental studies. The two groups of materials’ strength (Concrete–Steel) as per Indian standards have been utilised in comparison with initial investigations to illustrate the varying between SCS numerical beams in terms of force and displacement. A series of analyses have been performed to check the composite's performance. Exploring this SCS composite effect by varying the bottom and top flanges’ thickness is vital. Furthermore, the changes in thickness values of the SCS axial Web were studied for all the validation models in contrast to Indian materials of different strengths. The most significant effect of using the steel–concrete–steel (SCS) composite in different concrete grades is also considered. In conclusion, the buckling with varying width–thickness ratios for numerical specimens is compared to be validated with the ultimate loading of SCS beams with European code, Japanese standard, and the proposed method from the relevant studies.

Wesam Al Agha, Taha Ahmed Ghaleb Mohammed, Mohanad Ali Ishaq Najajra, Nambiappan Umamaheswari
Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Steel Fibre in M50 Grade Concrete

In the construction industry, concrete was the important one, and nowadays many researchers are involved to make concrete with different performances. In this research work, steel fibre was introduced in the manufacturing of concrete. The steel fibre was added in various proportions in M50 grade concrete from 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%. The steel-fibre-reinforced concrete was compared with the conventional concrete and found the optimum percentage. In this research work, the mechanical properties, microstructure analysis and failure analysis of the RCC beam were discussed. The maximum amount of steel fibre in concrete was 1%. The addition of steel fibre enhances the strength in concrete and reduces crack failure in concrete. Microstructure analysis like SEM, EDX, and XRD was examined and studied about the surface structure of the fibre-reinforced concrete.

S. Prakash Chandar, T. S. Lakshmi
Analytical Study on the Bending Behavior of the Composite Beam with T-shaped Shear Connector Under Partial Interaction

This paper presents a comprehensive study on the bending behavior of composite beams with T-shaped shear connectors under partial interaction. Numerical analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of various parameters, including stud spacing, stud diameter, concrete strength, and beam depth, on the behavior of composite beams. The findings showed that the behavior of these beams is highly dependent on the interaction between the steel and concrete, and the shear connectors play a critical role in ensuring the composite action. The study also highlighted the importance of using partial interaction in the design of composite beams, as it can lead to a better match of applied and opposing moments and provide some economy in the arrangement of connectors. The analytical results obtained shows that the C1 beam can carry maximum amount of load. The beam D1 with full interaction carries 9% lesser load as compared to C1 beam. The A1 beam and C1 beam almost shows similar behavior. Based upon analytical results the C1 beam, i.e., five connectors with 250 mm center to center spacing carry the maximum number of load.

Rakesh Bhatia, R. Ramasubramani
Planning and Analysis of G+2 Residential Building and Design of Slab and Beam with Sisal Fiber Polymer Reinforcement

The use of steel has been a vital factor in the construction industry since ages. But steel manufacturing has a variety of adverse environmental effects, including air pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2), wastewater contaminants, hazardous wastes, and solid wastes. Approximately, steel manufacturing releases 1.83 tons of carbon dioxide for every ton of metal produced, making it a major contributor to global warming, resulting for about 3.3 million tons of CO2 emissions yearly. Also, in concrete structures where the clear cover is small and subjected to external moisture and salt action, the reinforcement undergoes reaction and starts to corrode. The use of fiber as a reinforcement in concrete, mortar, and cement paste can improve several of the basic materials’ engineering properties, such as fracture toughness, flexural strength, and durability against fatigue, impact, thermal shock, and spalling. Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) used as replacement for the reinforcement in concrete structures have shown satisfactory results on the strength and durability. This invention deals with the planning, analysis, and design of a G + 2 residential building along with the design and analysis of slab and beam with sisal fiber polymer reinforcement (SiFRP) and glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP). As the presence of porous in sisal fiber works as traps and impeded the heat transfer to SiFRP, it slightly increases the performance than GFRP when replaced by steel in beams and slabs.

Phumen Teron, Ningthoujam Khelendra, Shanmuga Raj, Balasubramanian Murugesan
Nonlinear Static Analysis Study on Progressive Collapse Behaviour of 2D RC Frame with Different Grades of Steel

Progressive collapse is the failure of the structure, whereas the initial failure occurs in a beam and column of a structure that results in a total failure of an entire building; one of the major failures that should be considered in a high-rise building is progressive collapse, in which the minute damage occurs in an element like beam or column that a local failure of a structure results or develop in a global failure. And this present study deals with a two-dimensional two-bay 5-storey, 10-storey, and 15-storey RC bare frame, by providing lateral loads to it, and their results were compared with different grades of steel such as FE415, FE500, and FE550 under the corner and middle column removal condition, and for this study, the nonlinear static analysis is carried out using the finite element software (Abaqus). The determination of ductility behaviour, robustness index, and base shear versus displacement was checked under the analysis and by referring the General Services Administration (GSA 2003) guidelines. The result was compared with different steel grades under different storey levels by considering the removal of the corner and middle column. According to the comparative results, the FE415 grade of steel–concrete frame in the condition of corner column removal has a critical collapse mechanism compared to the middle corner and middle column of FE500 and FE550 grade of steel.

P. Jagatheswari, R. Ramasubramani
Behaviour of Steel–Concrete Composite Beams Provided with Headed Stud Shear Connectors

This paper presents the results obtained from finite element analysis using ANSYS, of a steel–concrete composite beam provided with headed stud shear connectors. The performance of shear connector has been analysed, and an optimum spacing for a particular beam with respect to static load has been identified. Numerical study was carried out to investigate the behaviour of steel–concrete composite beams of different span lengths prepared with headed shear studs of different dimensions at varied spacing of stud connectors. The load–deflection behaviour of steel–concrete composite beams provided with stud spacing of 150, 200 and 250 mm for beam span lengths of 1, 2 and 3.2 m was studied. From the results of numerical study conducted, it has been observed that the deflection increases with increase in span length and stud spacing, while it decreases with increase in stud dimension. Further, it is found that the beams provided with studs at 150 mm spacing possesses more strength compared to other types.

Ammu C. Bose, N. Umamaheswari

Bridge and Tunnel Engineering

Behavior of Double Layer Compound Cold-Formed Steel Columns

Cold-formed steel is widely used in the construction industry due to its lightweight properties, making it a cost-effective alternative to conventional construction methods. With a weight comparison, its lighter than regular steel, and a better weight-to-strength ratio (Senthilkumar et al. in Structures 44:487–502, 2022), and it is commonly used in load-bearing applications on prefabricated structures. Cold-formed steel is available in various thicknesses, ranging from 0.1 mm to 7.9 mm, allowing it to be selected according to specific structural requirements and aesthetic preferences. The material can be easily shaped either by cold rolling or press braking, to form unique shapes such as zeta, lipped z, and Sigma. In this study, a 2 mm thick cold-formed steel sheet was bent into a 100 mm × 50 mm × 8 mm c-lipped channel, which was then combined into a box column using welding face-to-face. The box column was then fitted with four different shapes, namely Zed section, rectangular, channel, and L angle, to form four different compound sections. The aim of the research was to determine the maximum load-carrying ability of these four compound steel columns (Babu and Selvan in Mater Today: Proc, pp 3069–3073, 2020) and their buckling behavior (Babu and Selvan in Mater Today: Proc, pp 3069–3073, 2020). This was achieved by designing and analyzing the different compound sections using ABAQUS finite element software(Kyprianou et al. in Proceedings of the 9th international conference on advances in steel structures, ICASS 2018. Hong Kong Institution of Steel Construction, 2020). The results were then compared with the findings from the experimental method conducted using a column axial load testing machine, where the buckling behavior was studied using LVDT. Through this study, the best compound section among the four different models was identified by comparing their buckling and axial load-carrying capacities(Liu et al. in J Constr Steel Res 191, 2022). Overall, cold-formed steel is an effective and versatile material for construction projects, offering a range of benefits, including lightweight properties, cost-effectiveness and ease of shaping (IS 801-1975 in Indian Standard code of practice for use of cold-formed light gauge steel structural members in general building construction, 1975).

V. Hari Krishnan, C. Manoj Kumaar
Flexural Behaviour of Cold-Formed Ferritic Stainless Steel Built-Up Joists

A number of reasons have led to the increased use of stainless steel in construction, because of its corrosion resistance, pleasing aesthetic appearance, and favourable material properties. In addition to its high nickel content of approximately 8–10%, these products have a higher initial cost but lesser maintenance cost. There are different grades of stainless steel depending up on the composition of chromium and nickel. These grades offer the advantages of stainless steel, such as functional qualities and design. It should therefore be noted that ferritic stainless steel may be an alternative material for structural purposes due to its good formability and ductility. The cold-formed ferritic stainless open web steel joist is investigated experimentally as well as analytically to examine their flexural behaviour. The section is fabricated using ferritic stainless steel grade-EN-1.4016/ASIS-430 in accordance with Eurocode standard codal provisions. Using ABAQUS, a final element software, was able to create and shortlist the stronger built-up sections under three-point loading. As part of validation process of finite element analysis using software, the failure pattern of local buckling, load carrying capacity, and deflection of two built-up sections are compared with experimental results.

C. Manoj Kumaar, Dinesh Kumar Marnadu, A. Harikaran, M. Saran Kumar, Venus David Rayan
Flexural Behaviour of Corrugated Web Beams Using Cold-Formed Steel Sections

Cold-formed steel (CFS) is one of the most used materials in light weight steel structures in the past decade. Often, the structural requirements of beams in terms of shear resistance are compromised and still research innovations are carried out for better configurations for beams. One of the innovative solutions for strengthening the shear carrying capacity, corrugated web beams is preferred. By using different shapes of corrugation, the strength of the beam can be increased, and the structural performance can also be enhanced. The research work deals with the comparison of flexural behaviour among beams with flat web, rectangular corrugated web, trapezoidal corrugated web and by conducting the numerical simulation using ABAQUS software. The performance of the corrugated web beam is done under bending test using four-point loads with simply supported ends.

C. Manoj Kumaar, S. T. Dhaarini, S. Rithish, A. Thirunavukarasu
Analytical Behavior of Optimum Position of Multi-level Outriggers in RCC Frames

This research aims to determine the optimum position of single-level, double-level, and multi-level outriggers for 10, 15, and 20 stories at 30, 45, and 60 m in height, respectively. A network of connected shear walls is often used to provide resistance against the lateral stresses that are caused by wind or earthquakes in tall structures. Nevertheless, as structures become higher, lateral stiffness becomes more of a worry; to address this issue, an outrigger may be added between the central core and the outside columns. When the structure is exposed to lateral forces, which would normally cause the core to rotate and result in excessive lateral deflection and the base moment, the outrigger helps to reduce the effects of both of these phenomena. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical outrigger provisions are taken into consideration while designing for the static and seismic stresses, respectively. The structural system is analyzed in 2 dimensions because, when bent in plane, it acts like a vertical cantilever. The values of lateral deflection, lateral drift, and base shear are measured in order to provide an evaluation of performance. The optimum position of a single-level outrigger is H/2, H/2.5, and H/2.85 from the top at 30, 45, and 60 m, respectively. For a two-level outrigger, the optimum position of the second outrigger is H/1, H/1.25, and H/1.4 at 30, 45, and 60 m, respectively (H-height of the building). Key findings from the research on the outrigger system's impact are tabulated and illustrated. The standardized software program ETABS 2019 was utilized for the analysis process.

S. Naveen Kumar, K. S. Satyanarayanan
Study on the Shear Behavior of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams

Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC), increases the stability and integrity of the construction, contains fibrous material. Fiber reinforcement in concrete can enhance a number of technical characteristics of the basic materials, including fracture toughness, deflection under lateral pressure, and durability. Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is a concrete that has been reinforced with a fibrous substance and it has higher structural stability. Hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete is the term used to describe the use of two or more fibers in the concrete (HFRC). Using fibers or other materials as reinforcement is not a new concept. Steel fiber-reinforced concrete has several uses, including floors, marine constructions, solid structure repair and retrofitting, etc. There are three different varieties of steel fibers: corrugated, hooked, and straight, with the hooked end having a higher flexural strength than the others. In this study, composite fibers made of steel and jute is employed in the concrete. Adding natural fibers to concrete is a sustainable way to enhance its mechanical properties and support ecologically friendly construction. This study aims to investigate the mechanical properties and sustainability of HFRC beams reinforced with composite fibers made of steel and jute. The experiment involved subjecting the beams to four-point loading and evaluating their tensile and shear properties. The results showed that the addition of hybrid fibers significantly increased the tensile strength of the concrete and improved its shear behavior. Moreover, load deflection analysis of the HFRC beams was compared to that of conventional beams using ABAQUS, and the results were validated. The study highlights the potential of HFRC as a sustainable and effective alternative to traditional-reinforced concrete in construction.

M. Bhuvaneshwari, Yaci Joshy
Plastic Shrinkage and Microstructural Analysis of Butyl Rubber in Light-Weight Concrete

Concrete, an important material in construction projects for developing the modern world. Many researchers are involved for finding alternative materials used in concrete to save natural resources. Medical waste is disposed to earth’s surface and it will available long time in the soil and leads to contamination. That medical wastes are generated in huge quantity every day, from that butyl rubber was collected. In this research, butyl rubber is used to replace the coarse aggregate in the manufacture of light-weight concrete. The butyl rubber was replaced partially as 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. The compressive strength results decrease in the replacement of butyl rubber increased. The optimum percentage replacement of butyl rubber is 10%. The formation of plastic shrinkage cracks are decreased when the percentage of butyl rubber was increased in the lightweight concrete. Compare to control concrete, butyl rubber concrete produce less plastic shrinkage cracks it shows the uses of butyl rubber reducing the formation of plastic shrinkage cracks. The microstructural analysis are Scanned Electron Microscopic image (SEM), X-ray Diffraction Image (XRD), and FTIR to find the surface structure of the concrete. In this research, the butyl rubber was utilized as a coarse aggregate in the light-weight concrete for reducing the exhaust of natural resources and solving environmental problems also.

S. Prakash Chandar, Vishnu, P. T. Ravichandran
Numerical Investigation of Encased Composite Beams with Reinforcements Passing Through the Web Openings

Due to the Vierendeel failure mechanism, steel sections with web openings will have a limited load carrying capacity. Encasing the steel section in a reinforced concrete element, will contribute to a higher load carrying capacity. In the current research, numerical analysis was carried out for three groups of beam models. Each group consists of two beam models, one provided with the reinforcements passing through the openings and the other without any reinforcement through the web openings. Composite beam considered without web openings was taken as a control beam. To select an optimum size of web opening, various dimensions of openings were modelled and analysed using Abaqus 6.14–5. The analysis of beam models which is consisting of two rectangular configuration of web openings, whose breadth (B) is equal to twice the Depth (D), i.e., B = 2D and depth equal to 3.2 times the breadth i.e., D = 3.2B respectively. Also, the square arrangement of web openings i.e., B = D was included in the present study. Through finite element analysis, it is made clear that encasing the steel sections in a reinforced concrete element showed increase in ultimate load carrying capacity. The above-mentioned web opening configurations showed almost similar behaviour under two-point loadings, where the distance between the loading points is 1000 mm contributing to a pure bending region and the shear span for the models is maintained as 900 mm.

L. Vaishnavi, N. Umamaheswari
Study on Behavior of Plastic Road—A Case Study

Plastic roads are laid across various parts of India due to their higher durability than bituminous roads. This case study primarily analyzes the plastic wastes in and near the selected study location; further, the design of plastic roads with modified bitumen is carried out, and the performance is compared with typical bitumen roads. The needs for designing plastic roads are to utilize plastic wastes from nearby locations without emission of toxic gases, increase the durability, minimize the maintenance cost of roads nearly to nil, and save the bitumen for laying the roads. This study includes procuring data regarding plastic waste, soil testing, traffic analysis, and pavement design. Pavement design includes the design of the base course, sub-base, and wearing course of the road. After designing, the deflection and stress pattern of plastic roads and normal bitumen roads is analyzed using KENPAVE software. Damage analysis is performed to find the lifespan of roads. A comparison of the behavior of plastic roads and the bituminous road is carried out based on the damage analysis.

K. Surya Prakash, T. M. Jeyashree, M. A. Venkiteswaran
Holonic Construction Scheduling System for Construction Projects Using Python Programming Language

Project Managers utilises a project schedule as a key for project control tools to properly manage construction projects. Diversification of construction projects has led to introduction of different types of scheduling methods for multiple activities involved in the project. The type of scheduling method used in a project depends on the nature of work, number of employees, productivity of employees, the availability of supplies, and the time duration to complete the various activities. All the scheduling methods majorly used in construction projects are either based on considering one or two constraints while scheduling renouncing others. With the Holonic Construction Scheduling System the prime focus is to involve all the constraints while scheduling for a project. All the existing scheduling methods - Critical Path Method (CPM), Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), Linear Scheduling Method (LSM), Line of Balance (LOB) and Critical Chain Method (CCM) were studied and their properties were analysed. Python Programming Language was used to develop HCSS to bring all scheduling methods on one platform, which can be easily accessed by all the stakeholders of the construction industry for any type of construction project. With the changing industry demand it is necessary to conduct and explore various options available to evolve the existing scheduling techniques so that different demerits at the construction scheduling can be improved.

S. Gopinath, Rukhsar
Study of Characteristics of Expansive Soil Stabilized with Tire Derived Aggregate and Fish Scale Powder

For better construction, the soil needs to have higher bearing capacity and stability, but the expansive soil is problematic in nature, and hence, it has less bearing strength for safe construction, which requires some form of soil stabilization to improve the soil properties. The infrastructure will suffer serious damage if it is not stabilised, resulting in poor performance. Numerous investigations have been performed throughout the years to assess the performance of soil stabilisation technology and construction methods. The engineering characteristics of expansive soil are improved by stabilising the soil, such as bearing capacity and strength, and compaction characteristics by the addition of conventional additives. For this study, Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA) and Fish Scale Powder (FSP) as solid waste have been used for soil modification. This work investigates the effects of TDA and FSP with various percentages on the compaction and strength characteristics of expansive soil. Experiments were conducted, such as Standard Proctor compaction and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS). Test results on soil with TDA (3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15%) showed there is an increase of 212% in UCS with the addition of 9% TDA as compared to untreated soil. To this optimum amount of 9% TDA mix, FSP (4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, 20%) is added for various cure duration and there is a 155% increase in UCS for 8% addition of FSP for 14 days and 8% addition of FSP for 7 days of curing as compared to untreated soil. The UCS is decreased with an increased curing period and FSP content. Thus, the optimum amount of FSP is found to be 8% from the UCS test results. Therefore, it shows that TDA is lightweight, which increases the strength due to higher toughness and better gradation of soil-TDA mixes. The expansive soil had shown improvement in strength, making it a cost-effective and sustainable practice.

D. Gokulkumar, P. T. Ravichandran, K. Divya Krishnan

Earthquake Engineering

Dynamic Response of Cable-Stayed Bridge Under Seismic Vulnerability Analysis: State of the Art

This research paper addresses significant gaps in the existing literature on cable-stayed bridges, focusing on the design and analysis of super-high cable-stayed bridges in higher elevation areas. While previous studies have primarily concentrated on super-span cable-stayed bridges under mild to moderate seismic conditions, this work delves into the dynamic response of super-high cable-stayed bridges, particularly in remote locations. Constructing cable-stayed bridges in higher elevation areas presents unique challenges, necessitating a comprehensive seismic analysis and fragility analysis to optimize seismic forces and assess the vulnerability of these structures. To overcome these challenges, the implementation of a damping system is crucial. This study proposes the integration of a damping system to enhance the seismic response of super-high steel cable-stayed bridges, reducing their vulnerability and enhancing their overall safety and stability. Moreover, the joint actions of various loads, such as stochastic traffic and wind, on cable-stayed bridges require comprehensive analysis. While previous research has considered traffic and wind load individually, there is a need to explore their combined effects, particularly as daily traffic volume increases. This study aims to investigate the cumulative fatigue loss and stress ranges under different load combinations to gain a better understanding of the bridge's behavior. Additionally, the durability, stability, and overall structural behavior of cable-stayed bridges after implementing structural modifications need to be comprehensively assessed. Previous research has proposed modifications to mitigate specific issues; however, the long-term effects and performance benefits of these modifications remain unexplored. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these modifications and ensure the structural integrity of the bridge systems. By addressing these gaps, this paper aims to contribute to the design and analysis of super-high cable-stayed bridges, enabling safer and more efficient transportation to remote higher elevation areas.

Inamdar Zakeer Ahamed Kadir Ahamed, Rajendra B. Magar
Complex and Lightweight Tensegrity Structure Under Dynamic and Impact Loads; State of the Art

Most of the structures we build nowadays are of RCC, pre-stress, steel, or composite materials. To rest these structures on soil with low bearing capacity, the self-weight of the structure has always been a challenge. As the self-weight of structure is directly impacted by its material density, engineers have traditionally struggled to design structures that are low in weight. A problem in engineering necessitates a solution, and a tensegrity structure, with its lightweight and high strength to self-weight ratio, provides the optimum solution. But their complicated geometry and shape make analysis extremely difficult, and it has always been a challenge for the researchers to analyze these structures with dynamic and impact loads. This research work aims to study the tensegrity structures and their response under dynamic and impact loads. For this, more than 50 research papers have been studied, and from the previous work, it has been found that there is very little or no work on complex tensegrities under the consideration of dynamic and impact loads and shape of optimization of complex tensegrities. It is also observed that, due to recent advances in civil engineering, there has been a surge in attention in active structures in the recent years, tensegrity structures being one, fulfill the demand. Further the work also states that when a natural or man-made disaster strikes, the need to quickly accommodate people arises. Such disasters also highlight the need for lightweight, transportable, and adaptable buildings that can be adapted to the environment and modified to support a variety of activities, and tensegrity structures can be one the solutions for this.

Shaikh Irfan Badiyoddin Shaikh, Rajendra B. Magar
Demountable Shear Connector in Steel–Concrete Composite Floors: A State-of-the-Art Review

The shift from linear business practices, which involve single-use production and disposal of components, to circular business practices, emphasizing component reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling, has gained traction. While circular practices align well with structural steel, they pose challenges in steel–concrete composite structures. Recycling becomes more complex, and reuse potential is compromised, leading to increased carbon emissions during the recycling process. In traditional steel–concrete composite structures, the deck sheet is connected to the beam using shear studs, and together with the concrete slab, they form an embedded system. This approach allows for partial component reuse, while major components are sent for recycling, resulting in higher carbon emissions. To address this issue, a solution involves connecting the deck sheet and beam with demountable shear connectors, enabling the removal of the deck slab without damage. This system facilitates easy dismantling and reassembly, adapting to different purposes and locations. Shear connectors with deconstruction capabilities are essential for sustainable steel–concrete composite constructions. Numerous researchers have explored beam-to-slab connectors, including bolted connections, dry board systems, and self-tapping screws. The composite action between the deck slab and beam in these monolithic shear connections relies on the shear capacity of the connectors, which can be determined through push-out tests based on their size and grade.

G. Suba Sreenidhi, G. Senthil Kumar
Effect of Steel Fibre and Plastering Sand on GGBS and Silica Fume Based Geo-Polymer Concrete

Due to environmental hazards including ozone layer depletion and difficulties with global warming, the globe is moving towards eco-friendly building materials. Since geopolymer is employed in this study as a new binder instead of regular Portland cement (OPC), the concrete produced must be both long-lasting and environmentally benign. It makes use of by-products from several industries, including silica fume and Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS). This approach produces a sustainable building material while also significantly reducing CO2 emissions. As the primary components of the geopolymer in this study, GGBS and alkaline liquid (a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate) were utilised. It is calculated that the sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide solution mix design ratio is 2.5:1. Cast samples of M60 geopolymer concrete with steel fibre and M60 geopolymer concrete with plastering sand are tested for compressive strength and split tensile strength. They underwent a room-temperature ambient cure. This finding indicates that plastering sand combined with fly ash greatly increases the strength of geopolymers, making them an environmentally benign and potential replacement for cement concrete.

C. Gowthamaraj, G. Vimalanandan
Shear Resistance Behavior of Partially Sandwich Composite Structures Considering Elements Varying Dimension and Comparison Using Global Provisional Codes

Sandwich Composite Structures (SCS) with steel webs outperform strength, ductility, and resistance. While several engineering practices were used, few studies might support the composite sandwich structure (SCS) design, particularly for shear force resistance. In contrast to reinforced concrete beams and steel elements, sandwich structures have exemplary behaviour to transfer shear force as the most effective mechanism due to the impacts of steel webs. Therefore, studying the composite action to investigate the various contributions is explicated. This study performed a numerical test of SCS composite structures with webs using Abaqus (Simulia’s Abaqus 6.14) finite-element software. Abaqus investigated the SCS shear resistance of bottom and top steel plate thickness, steel connector’s spacing, span-to-depth ratio, axial and transverse steel web thickness, and web shear studs. Furthermore, the changes in values of the SCS were studied for all the validation models in contrast to Indian materials of validation models with relevant experimental studies. The new strength group of materials (Concrete–Steel) as per Indian standards have been utilised compared with initial investigations to illustrate the varying between SCS numerical beams in terms of force and displacement. A series of analyses have been performed to check the composite’s performance. Exploring the shear resistance is denoted into mechanisms to be presented the interaction that reveals the anti-shear mechanism accurately using concrete and steel infill of different grades. The most significant effect of using the Steel–Concrete–Steel (SCS) composite in different concrete grades is also highlighted. In conclusion, the shear resistance for numerical specimens is compared to be validated the ultimate loading of SCS beams with Europen code, Japanese standard (JSCE), American provisional design (AISC) and the proposed method from the relevant research.

Wesam Al Agha, Mohanad Ali Ishaq Najajra, Taha Ahmed Ghaleb Mohammed, Nambiappan Umamaheswari
Effect of Bracing Structural System on the Seismic Response of High-Rise Reinforced Concrete Building for Strengthening with Soft Storey

Bracing is primarily exposed in structures subjected to wind and seismic loads effect—the objective of using bracing is to exhibit resistance to both compressive and tensile forces exerted by the bracing element. Moreover, the braces system indicates high efficiency in resisting horizontal loads. A braced frame enhances the system’s efficiency and provides lateral stiffness to the structure. In order to mitigate the effects of lateral loads and attain sufficient rigidity, structural engineers employed moment-resistant frames and cross-braces. Bracings are constructed to endure seismic loads and increase the ductility that edifices necessitate when exposed to such loads. Adding retrofitting elements to the structure creates a proficient system capable of achieving more significant elevations. The present investigation incorporates seismic parameters such as the effects of soft storeys and uses various bracing types throughout the vertical installation of the structure. It is imperative to ascertain the prerequisites for soft storeys and their requirements on the design. This study investigates a parametric analysis of bare frame systems to the effects of different bracing instalments in buildings with soft storeys. A 10-storey reinforced concrete structure with a regular shape plan was modelled for construction in Zone V. The structural analysis of the building incorporates the implementation of braces and the assessment of soft storey conditions at the ground level. The models offer diverse configurations of X- and V-type bracing systems in both the central and corner configuration throughout the vertical extent of the building. The study analysed structural models using ETABS 18.0.2 finite-element software in accordance with the Indian Standard 1893 (Part 1): 2016 code. The analysis includes the computation of parameters such as maximum storey displacement, drift, story stiffness, base shear value, and time period. The investigation is carried out using name-ly Linear dynamic (Response spectrum Method) and Non-linear static (Pushover analysis method). In conclusion, the provision of bracing systems for strengthening buildings with soft floors will positively impact the performance of buildings.

Taha Ahmed Ghaleb Mohammed, Mohanad Ali Ishaq Najajra, Wesam Al Agha
Experimental Studies on the Flexural Strength Using Bagasse Ash and M-Sand in Concrete

This research work studied on the investigations of flexural strength in concrete using pozzolanic materials and M-Sand. Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (BA), M-sand is partially replaced to cement and sand in concrete. Initially Concrete cubes were casted with 5, 10 and 15% of the Bagasse ash as cement replacement for M45 grade of concrete. In the initial study bagasse ash of 10% replacement to cement was found to show a higher compressive strength. Using 10% of Bagasse ash and varying the percentage of M-Sand with 10, 20 and 30% by weight, the flexural strength was determined. The ratio of 10% Bagasse ash and 20% M-Sand shown a higher flexural strength value of 58.6 kN and a minimum deflection of 6.2 mm compared to the aforementioned varying percentages.

S. Sundararaman, S. Azhagarsamy
Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of RC Multi-storey Framed Building Equipped with Dampers

Earthquake safety assessment of existing buildings is necessary to ascertain their seismic capacity to sustain medium to severe earthquakes because many of them are constructed by individuals without considering the standard design and construction guidelines. The increasing number of ground shakes in the country alarming us to safeguard the built environment from the adverse effects of earthquakes by evaluating and retrofitting the deficient buildings using suitable seismic control technologies. In this project seismic damage assessment of a multi-storey RC building is carried out using performance -based approach (non-linear time history analysis) and the seismic damage state of the buildings is determined based on the maximum inter-storey drift ratio. Four models of G + 14 storey RC building are used in the analysis, namely, bare frame, frame with friction damper and frame with slit damper. In order to perform the non-linear time history analysis, El-Centro earthquake data of maximum PGA of 0.3172 g is scaled to have the ground motions from 0.1 g to 1.0 g. On the basis of the outcome the performance of the building with slit damper works well than the frame with friction damper.

R. Arvind, M. Helen Santhi, G. Malathi, V. Vasugi
Numerical Studies on RC Beams Strengthened with an Externally Bonded Aramid FRP Sheets

One of the most commonly utilised reinforcing treatments for ‘reinforced concrete’ (RC) beams is ‘Fibre-Reinforced Polymer’ (FRP). In the current work, a finite-element analysis was done for a total of five beams, one is the conventional beam and the remaining are externally bonded with Aramid FRP (AFRP) laminates with different numbers of layers at their soffit. All beam elements were loaded under two-point loading and had identical rectangular cross-section shapes. Different material models were investigated for their capacity to represent the behaviour of the beams using the commercial numerical analysis tool Abaqus. A concrete damage plasticity model was made use of for the concrete. Results from the numerical simulation are given in the formation of load–deflection results and differentiation is done for strengthened beams and unstrengthened beams. Failure patterns of RC beams strengthened were shown. Results show that the beams buttressed with AFRP laminates have more load-bearing capacity and stiffness.

Gurram Kalyani, N. Pannirselvam
Analysis and Design of G+15 High-Rise Residential Structures with and Without Floating Column in Nepal

As large populations accommodate in the same building, the parking issue is common in many high-rise buildings. This study approach solves the same constraint by opting for floating columns on the ground floor to facilitate ample space between columns for parking. This project deals with planning, analyzing, and designing a high-rise residential building with and without floating columns. Detailed planning was done in AutoCAD software. On analysis under various load conditions in STAAD.Pro V8i software for both conditions one with a floating column and one without a floating column. A comparison is made on axial forces, shear forces, bending moment, and displacement in a selected few columns and beams in situ the structure. The study found a slight increment in axial force, shear force, bending moment, and displacement on opting floating column. Finally, critical structural elements—slab, beam, column, staircase, and foundation—are designed manually as per Indian Standard codes using maximum STAAD Output for both buildings. In manual designing, it is observed that a building with a floating column requires a slight increment of reinforcement to overcome safety constraints. Hence, this study concludes that floating columns can be opted for high-rise buildings by increasing the reinforcement percentage in structural elements.

Nisha Jha, Pratiksha Simkhada, R. Ramasubramani

Disaster Management

Inferences on Strength and Ductility of High Performance Concrete Mixed with Steel and Macro-synthetic Fibres

Concrete/shotcrete has been a versatile construction material since the nineteenth century. Day by day, the performance of concrete has been improving to meet the needs of various construction industries. In the above aspect, high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) plays a vital role in that short-fibres have been mixed randomly to improve the pre- and post-cracking behaviour of the concrete and hence toughness increases. To a greater extent, the above performance can achieve when combining two different types of fibres (i.e. hybrid fibre) rather than using any one fibre type. In general, rigid and flexible fibres have amalgamated into ‘hybrid fibres’. Many researchers have generally used steel fibres as ‘rigid fibre' and also widely used polypropylene fibres as ‘flexible fibre' on hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete (HFRC). However, there is the scope of using other types of fibres, especially polymeric/flexible-based fibres like polyolefin fibre which are merely equivalent to the characteristics of rigid fibre on the HFRC. The present study focuses strengths and ductility of the ‘hybrid effect based on the fibre constitutive response’ of the 3D hooked-end steel-cum-polyolefin HF–RC was evaluated experimentally. The variables include the total volume fraction (Vf) and proportions of hybrid fibres [namely, steel (S): polyolefin (P)]. The salient inferences in respect of the above were systematically evaluated and then highlighted the role and trend of the mixed fibres in the HFRC composites.

S. Syed Ibrahim, S. Kandasamy
Study the Interaction Behaviour of Integrated Infilled Frames with Interface Materials

High-rise or multi-storey buildings are more prevalent in urban regions because of industrialisation and population concentration. Multi-storey concrete buildings always have infill masonry walls in framed constructions, using masonry or concrete brickwork as infills, partition walls typically come with frames for practical reasons. Because they absorb and disperse greater seismic forces. Although a stiffer structure attracts greater seismic loads, the presence of infills has significantly contributed to building collapse brought on by intense ground shaking brought on by an earthquake. In earthquake-prone areas, infill walls have an impact on the ductility, stiffness, and strength of framed structures. In regions with greater seismic zones, infill frames perform better. Because of the composite action between the frame and the infill, infill frames are more resistant. In this study, the analysis is conducted using an RCC square frame model with a single bay and one storey, along with masonry infilling. In this model, the frame's opposing corners are used to apply the loading, in which the behaviours are similar to the RC structure prototype under lateral loading. In this infilled frame, brick masonry is used as infill materials and different interface materials are used (cement mortar, foam rubber, cork, bitumen, recycled plastic), and applying the cyclic loading on the frame. These are analysed by FEM software (Abaqus).

S. Jaya Harish, S. Muthu Kumar, K. S. Satyanarayanan
Experimental Investigation on Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) as a Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

Significant utilization of natural aggregates leads to the depletion of the naturally available resources and the degradation of the ecosystem. Hence, the construction industry needs advanced smart materials and an alternative approach to infrastructure development and it leads to the nation’s overall economic growth. Lightweight concrete (LWC) is special type of concrete with the advantage of reducing the self-weight of the building. In this LWC production, coarse aggregate is substitute with the lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA). When compared with natural coarse aggregate (NA), LECA is lightweight, porous material which helps in reduced density, internal curing, acoustic, and thermal insulation. In this experimental study, different replacement level of LECA such as 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% is used to find the effects of mechanical and its microstructural characteristics of LWC. The experimental results indicate that 20% replacement of LECA has good comparable strength. Microstructure analysis like SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR was examined and studied about the surface structure of the replaced concrete.

S. Prakashchandar, R. Senthamilselvi
Experimental Study on Strengthening of Damaged Steel Flexural Members Using CFRP Composite Wraps

Most of the structures constructed worldwide, after three or four decades of service, require strengthening for lack of stiffness, strength, durability or ductility for improved performance and better serviceability for the remaining period of their intended life span. Since fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are lighter in weight and easy to apply at critical locations of concrete/steel structures, they are preferable in restoring/rehabilitating of structures after undergoing damage/deterioration. The overall cost incurred on strengthening of members using FRP composites is found to be minimum compared to complete replacement of damaged structural components. This paper presents the experimental study on the use of FRP composites for strengthening of damaged steel flexural members. Some of the situations where strengthening of steel structural members is required are inadequate design, last minute changes in design, revised loading requirements, unexpected/accidental damages, deterioration due to change in environmental conditions, revised code requirements, etc. The test results obtained showed that the failed steel beam specimens wrapped with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and reinforced with CFRP strips tend to exhibit higher strength characteristics than the conventional steel beam specimens.

G. Arun Kumar, S. A. Vengadesh Subramanian, N. Umamaheswari
Strengthening of Structures Using FRP Composites Fibres

Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRP) plays a major role in increasing the strength of the structural components in which it is affixed to old and new structures. By attaching strips to the soffit of the beam and reinforcing structural members with FRP, the strength of the structure is increased. Because FRP is lightweight, it does not increase the structure’s dead load. FRP is used to retrofit an existing construction to give it its properties for the remainder of its useful life. The uses of FRP materials in RC structures are described. The externally bonded GFRP laminates on the concrete beam have a better load carrying capacity. With WR GFRP laminates, the deflections in concrete beams were minimized. The WRGFRP laminates of 5 mm thickness installed on concrete beams give them increased ductility.

D. Murugan, N. Pannirselvam
The Behavior of RC Beam with an Opening Filled with the Hollow Square Section Under Static Loading

Openings are often given in RC beam construction for accessibility and to permit vital utilities such as electricity, ventilation, and network system access. The existence of openings in beams, on the other hand, may create a variety of issues in the beam's behavior, including a loss in beam strength, excessive cracking, and deflection. As a result, this investigation was carried out to see how RC beams with and without openings filled with hollow sections at different locations behave. Finite element analysis using ABAQUS software was used to investigate the beams. The opening shape used for test criteria was a square filled with a square tube. The opening in this research used was 125 × 125 and 150 × 150 mm hollow square sections. The beam specimens were all 200 mm in width, 250 mm in depth, and 2500 mm in length. Four-point bending was used to test the beams until they reached the ultimate load-carrying capacity. The results obtained were used to compare against conventional RC beams without opening. The fracture patterns and load–deflection behavior were discussed as a consequence of the findings.

P. Gokul, L. Sabarigirivasan
Application of Data Mining Techniques and Hedonic Pricing Methods to Determine the Real Estate Land Prices in the Chengalpattu District

Real estate valuation is of considerable significance to the nation's economy. However, the lack of clarity on the variables affecting the price of land is a significant challenge in real estate valuation. This study used a data mining approach to determine variables that significantly influence pricing in the Chengalpattu district of Tamil Nadu using the CHAID and C&RT algorithms as a classification approach. Twenty-one parameters were initially considered based on the actual market prices, and data was collected for 992 residential land parcels. The decision tree algorithms revealed that nine of the twenty-one factors were significant. Utilization of these nine factors in predicting land prices using the hedonic pricing model (HPM) resulted in an 83% price prediction accuracy. The distance of the land parcel from the central business district, the universities, bus stops, highways, hospitals, mountains, industries, commercial amenities, and MRTS were the significant factors influencing the land price. In conclusion, combining the two decision tree methods, CHAID and C&RT, and utilizing the HPM as valuation techniques are better suited for property price prediction.

K. Mahima Christin, M. B. Sridhar, B. Divya, R. Sathyanathan
Optimization of Inventory Control Management to Impact on the Profitability of Construction Projects

Within the context of the construction sector, this research study aims to investigate the influence that inventory control has on profitability. This research paper aims to investigate the relationship that exists between inventory control and its influence on the construction industry's capacity to turn a profit. It will suggest the inventory management model to the construction sector for optimal performance, which will, in turn result in lower waste and improved profitability. The goal of this article is to undertake research in order to get a comprehensive grasp of inventory management in the construction industry, as well as to discuss inventory management methods for construction projects using a variety of methods in order to realize a radical understanding of the management of critical construction materials, the attitudes of people toward inventory management methods, and to debate inventory management techniques for construction projects using various techniques. Careful consideration of choices that minimize costs has to be given when determining the quantity of materials to be obtained for the project. The purpose of this SPSS study is to determine the most important aspects that influence inventory management so that the project's profits may be maximized.

S. Sarath Babu, A. Arokia Prakash
Developing Management Information System for Construction Equipment Maintenance

Sudden breakdown of equipment is one of the main factors impacting the delay of the infrastructure project. The key cause for the rapid breakdown of construction equipment is improper equipment maintenance. This essay aims at delivering a solution to monitor the regular maintenance of equipment and its replacement parts, by introducing a management information system. The data on maintenance schedule for different locally utilized equipment is acquired from dealers and construction equipment showroom. The data collection process is interrupted by the employment of a graphical user interface to frame the software architectural design. The proposed software architecture has the potential to be developed into an application in the future, allowing for the efficient maintenance of construction equipment as well as the mitigation of construction delays caused by an equipment failure on the construction site.

B. Indhu, J. Ajay
Research Advancements in the Study of Microbiology of Aerosols

Air pollution is the main cause of majority of respiratory diseases. In addition to the urban pollutants such as hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides, inhalable particulate matter is also present in the environment. The term “natural or anthropogenic aerosols” refer to a mixture of tiny solid particles or tiny liquid droplets suspended in air or another gas, either occurring naturally or resulting from human activities. Apart from the PM2.5, PM10 particles, the presence of biological constituents such as bacteria, virus, pollen grains, and fungal spores aggravate the situation leading to adverse effects in humans and animals. It is therefore important to distinguish the microbial characteristics of the ambient air so that it can be useful in the health assessment studies and to develop control measures against the diseases caused by the microbiological component of air. This paper comprises a systematic review which deals with the study of microbiology of aerosols and their characterization studies in air pollution research.

Rajitha J. Rajan, Sathyanathan Rangarajan

Coastal and Harbour Engineering

Behaviour of Quartz Powder-Based Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

This study presents the experimental investigation done on behaviour of quartz powder (QP) concrete containing Polyolefin fibre. Also discusses about the soaking of QP in water to activate the pozzolanic reaction. Three percentage of QP (10, 15, and 20%) by the weight of cement with a soaking time of 6 h and 0.15% of polyolefin fibre were used in this study. Concrete specimens made with different proportions of QP and polyolefin fibre were cured under normal moist curing. After 28 days, a 10% substitution of quartz powder (QP) in the concrete significantly increased the compressive strength. Soaking QP played a key role in this improvement by promoting the formation of calcium silicate hydrate and enhancing the filling effect. Furthermore, it was observed that the addition of 0.15% of polyolefin fibre enhanced the tensile strength of concrete. This is in agreement that replacing cement by quartz powder, there is an improvement in the workability and mechanical property of concrete, but increasing usage of quartz powder does not have an efficient positive effect on compressive strength.

P. Kaviya, A. Sattainathan Sharma
Investigations on Ambient Cured Alkali-Activated One-Part Geopolymer Concrete

The rapid infrastructure development in the world have constructed necessity for construction materials with sustainability and lesser carbon release. Currently, research people have investigated the suitability of GPC to be an alternative eco-friendly construction material, but the high curing temperature and need for addition of chemical activators have subdued the widespread application of the same. The techniques adopted for geopolymerization using chemical compounds are regularly implemented in which alkali activators to mix with the solid Al-Si-based materials and help in binder formation which are destructive in nature and often considered to be gelatinous solutions with non-user friendly. These would be problematic to use for huge production. One-part GP mixtures are a newly innovated material, developed to provide simplified solution in handling alkaline solution-activated GP. It is made by alumina silica-based industrial waste by-products that are combined with solid alkaline activators, whereas the silicate solutions are used as activators in typical GP binders. In one-part GP mixtures, solid activators will be in dry solid (powder) form. When the water is added, the reaction begins and becomes as paste same as Portland cement mix. Investigations are carried out on ambient curing property of the developed one-part GP mix. It could develop the marketable capability and wide range of GP applications in building sector. This paper presents about the manufacture, behaviour, performance, and the factors affecting the efficiency of one-part GPC.

F. Stellamary, T. Ch. Madhavi
Experimental Investigation on the Incorporation of Reed Plant Ash in Concrete

Reed plant (biological name: Desmostachya bipinnata) is an aggressive plant species with remarkable reproduction ability that allows it to grow more in less duration. High demand for natural resources, fast urbanization, and therefore, the disposal drawback developed opportunities to be used of this reed plant ash for construction. This study is about finding the new natural material to replace fine aggregate, as it is a chief material used for getting ready mortar, concrete and plays a significant role within the combine style. The concrete mix was modified by replacing a portion of the fine aggregate with reed plant ash at varying percentages of 0, 5, 10, and 15%. The mechanical properties, including compression and split tensile strength, were evaluated after curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 days. From this study, it is clear that utilization of reed plant ash in concrete mix offers a solution to the problem that arises from the accumulation of the excessive aggressive species in the site.

P. Eshanthini, K. Sarayu, K. Srishanth
Study on the Bonding Behavior of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using Ramie and Glass Fibers

This study compares the bonding behavior of hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete using glass and ramie fibers to that with conventional concrete. Cementitious composites were applied to both the control concrete and the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete in this investigation (HFRC). Following that, a comparison of the two forms of concrete—controlled concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete—wase performed. Ramie is a flowering plant in the Urticaceae family with the scientific name Boehmeria nivea. The primary focus of this research work is on composite materials comprised of ramie fibers and glass fibers, which have limited applicability in the building industry. This blend of ramie and glass fibers exhibits synergistic responses from each fiber. In this investigation, six different fiber percentages were used to make six distinct mixes (0.25% glass fiber alone, 0.5% ramie fiber + 0.25% glass fiber, 0.4% ramie fiber + 0.25% glass fiber, 0.3% ramie fiber + 0.25% glass fiber, 0.2% ramie fiber + 0.25% glass fiber, and 0.1% ramie fiber + 0.25% glass fiber). We took ramie fiber that was 10 mm long and glass fiber that were 6 to 8 mm long. The concrete grade M40 was used. Super plasticizer is added by weight of cement to improve the workability of the concrete. When the fiber content of concrete increases to a certain extent, its workability decreases, and its mechanical characteristics improve. Since hybrid fibers were added in concrete, bond stress was carried out with different diameters of bars, then compared that with CC. The OC produces better results when compared to CC.

S. Torhffi David, R. Ramasubramani, P. T. Ravichandran
Study on Effectiveness of Reinforced Concrete Beam Strengthening with Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer

Rehabilitation is a procedure to maintain the structure cracks in an earlier state of functionality with minimal expenses. Since RCC structures have a maintained lifespan, it is vulnerable to external influences capable of causing deterioration, ultimately contributing to a reduction in load-bearing capacity and the development of apparent cracks in the structure. Consequently, enhancing stability in reinforced concrete structures necessitates a sequence of repair and strengthening procedures. The most crucial goal of this investigation is to demonstrate the efficacy of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthening methods as an appropriate selection for structural reinforcement, given that retrofitting might serve as a practical approach to replacing RCC structural components. In this study, twelve reinforced concrete beams measuring 700 × 150 × 160 mm using M20 grade blind concrete have been developed and subjected to load testing to assess the flexural and shear failure modes. It was performed by a universal testing machine (UTM). The flexural failure mode was made through a one-point loading test, while the shear failure mode occurred through a two-point loading test. The present study determines the structural performance of reinforced concrete beams that have undergone structural strengthening through the use of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP). A comparison is made between CFRP beams and control beams. The load-carrying capacity of the concrete beams, both before and after the strengthening process, is predicted following the proposed approach in ACI-318 M-11, ACI-440-2R-08, and ACI 549. The strengthening process using carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) of flexural and shear strengthening has yielded an increase in beams’ load-carrying capacity at the process's final phase. A reduction was observed in the deformation and crack width. Furthermore, this provides evidence of the efficacy of CFRP in enhancing the structural performance of reinforced concrete beams. It has been validated with a numerical predicted approach using American provisional standards.

Taha Ahmed Ghaleb Mohammed, Mohanad Ali Ishaq Najajra, Wesam Al Agha
Comparative Study on Structural Performance Between Reinforced Concrete Beam and Ferro-Cement Laminate Strengthening

The significance of structural maintenance develops when faced with certain damage occurs. Nevertheless, the challenge in reinforcing concrete structures lies in determining a strengthening approach that enhances the structure's strength and serviceability and considers limitations such as constructability, construction operations, and budget. Rehabilitation is a procedure to maintain the structure cracks in an earlier state of functionality with minimal expenses. By utilising homogeneous methods, the main objective of studying ferro-cement experimental use is to strengthen reinforced concrete in certain stress-prone applications significantly. In this study, twelve reinforced concrete beams were cast and investigated for flexural and shear failure modes through load testing compared to control specimens in terms of varying the strength by exploring the load and deformation capacity. The beams were constructed using blinded M20 grade concrete. Beams were tested by a universal testing machine (UTM). The flexural failure mode was evaluated through a single-point loading test, while the shear failure mode was assessed through a two points loading test. This study examines the structural performance of reinforced concrete beams that have been strengthened with ferro-cement laminates. The results are compared to control beams and the load-carrying capacity of RCC beams before and after maintaining to evaluate using American standard ACI-318M-11, ACI-440-2R-08, and ACI 549 for both the control and ferro-cement reinforced beams. The findings indicate that the load-carrying capacity of beams reinforced with ferro-cement for flexural purposes increased by up to 11.43% at the ultimate stage compared to control beams. Additionally, a reduction was observed in deflection and crack width, respectively. In summary, the findings of this experimental study demonstrate that ferro-cement displays enhanced flexural and shear load-carrying capacities, reduced deflection, and decreased crack width, thereby enhancing the structural performance of reinforced concrete beams. Beams have been validated with a numerical predicted approach using American standards.

Mohanad Ali Ishaq Najajra, Taha Ahmed Ghaleb Mohammed, Wesam Al Agha
Experimental Investigation on Chemically Treated Hooked End Steel Fiber Embedded in Rubberized Concrete

The bond mechanism of hooked end fiber is investigated in the current research by means of single-fiber pull-out test conducted for normal and high strength concrete. The recycled devulcanized rubber is partially added to the concrete as an alternate to fine aggregate up to certain percentage. In the current research, hooked end steel fiber (untreated and treated) is embedded in four different concrete composites. The experimental results revealed that, out of all combinations, the treated hooked end fiber tested with half embedment length possesses maximum peak load caused by tension. The results also reveal that the increase in diameter and embedment length along with compressive strength directly enhances the maximum pull-out load.

K. Thiagarajan, N. Umamaheswari
Study on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Fiber-Reinforced Nano-Concrete Under Elevated Temperature

To increase the lifetime and the strength of the building, new technology or a new method is to be introduced in constructions. As concrete plays a major role in construction, nano-silica, a nano-particle has been added to normal concrete to make nano-concrete. The mechanical properties and applications of the nano-concrete were initiated and explained thoroughly. This research says that the nano-concrete increases the strength by 12% greater than the normal concrete. For further development, polymer fiber has been added. The polymer used in this experiment is polypropylene. Polypropylene is a thermoplastic polymer with lightweight, high strength, and high crack resistance of a concrete. Three different proportions were initiated. The proportions are without fiber and addition of 1 and 2% of polypropylene. Each proportion is tested for compression, split tensile, and flexural under room temperature and elevated temperatures of 50 and 100 °C. Each specimen was tested after 28 days of curing. The polymer fiber-reinforced nano-concrete beam is casted, and the maximum deflection of the beam is determined under elevated temperature. It shows that the nano-concrete with 1% polypropylene has more strength than the other two proportions.

S. Hariharan, S. Karthiga
Planning, Analysis and Design of Vented Drainage Canal Across River Ganga in Falta, West Bengal

Water is transported through vented drainage canals. The vents control the water to stop too much water from entering the fields. Ventilated drainage canal shapes influence the speed and amount of water flowing through the tunnel. By maintaining proper water velocity, the trapezoidal shape prevents silting and scouring. Due to the high erosion zone and low soil-bearing capacity, pile foundations are used here. The site chosen for this consideration is Falta, West Bengal, across the Ganga. A site plan for the vented drainage canal has been prepared using AutoCAD 2020. An analysis of the canal has been performed using STAAD.Pro software. To calculate the critical time for the work, a schedule was prepared. A detailed cost estimation was performed as well as a cost-benefit analysis. As part of the project, piles, pile caps, vented drainage canals and deck slabs were constructed, and a 3D model was created for the vented drainage canal.

Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Avinash Pandey, Siddharatha Sarkar, Balasubramanian Murugesan, Monisha Ravi
Study on the Improvement of Properties of Expansive Soil Using Seashell Powder

Due to rapid urbanization, it is necessary to utilize the site which is problematic in nature. One of the most problematic soils is expansive soil, and it possesses an excessive swelling and shrinking property on temperature variation which poses a significant danger to carrying out construction works. In order to make the soil suitable for construction, many ground improvement techniques are used. The most commonly used ground improvement technique is soil stabilization. Soil stabilization is the addition of admixture to the soil for improving its strength characteristics for which the admixtures generally used are lime, cement, fly ash etc. In this study, seashell powder is being used as an additive. Seashells are waste products produced from the fishery industry. It acts as a binding material for soil, thus stabilizing the soil. Added to it, it has a high calcium content. In this investigation, varied amounts of seashell powder (6, 8, 10, 12, and 15%) were mixed to untreated expansive soil. The compaction, strength, and swell characteristics of the soil were then determined for different curing periods (3, 7, 14, and 28 days). According to the IS standards, the standard Proctor compaction tests, unconfined compression tests, and free swell tests were used to determine the findings for the soil's compaction, strength, and swell properties. Based upon analyzing the results from the tests, it is found that the strength of the soil increases significantly compared to the untreated soil on increasing the percentage of seashell powder. The maximum strength of the soil is attained on adding 12% admixture under 28-day curing period. Compared to the initial strength of the untreated soil, the soil’s strength rose by 88.87%. Thus, seashell powder acts as a cost-effective admixture especially for expansive soil.

V. Janani, Jigisha Yadav, P. T. Ravichandran
Emerging Trends in Composite Structures
Md. Abdul Mannan
R. Sathyanathan
N. Umamaheswari
Hemant S. Chore
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN