Skip to main content

2023 | Book

Emerging Trends in Electric Aviation

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Electric Aviation and Autonomous Systems 2022

Editors: T. Hikmet Karakoc, Tomislav Letnik, Maršenka Marksel, Ismail Ekmekci, Alper Dalkiran, Ali Haydar Ercan

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : Sustainable Aviation


About this book

The International Symposium on Electric Aviation and Autonomous Systems is a multi-disciplinary conference that presents research in the fields of aerospace, autonomous, and piloted unmanned systems. The 2022 conference provided a platform offering insights on a broad range of current issues in aviation, including hybrid, electric, all-electric, and fuel cell aerial vehicles, electric generation, energy storage, propulsion technology, and new identification and detection systems that adapt to the latest technology standards. ISEAS allows researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners, policymakers, and students to exchange information, present new technologies and developments, and discuss future direction, strategies, and priorities in aviation and sustainability.

Table of Contents

Gas Turbine and Fuel Cell Hybrid Systems
In this study, a brief review of gas turbine and fuel cell hybrid systems has been investigated. It is mentioned that such hybrid systems are very important in accordance with today’s climate policies, which require the development of sustainable and environmentally friendly systems. In this review, the features of various gas turbine models (turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft) are mentioned in terms of advantages, disadvantages, and usage areas. As for fuel cells, it is emphasized that there are different types of fuel cells, which are becoming an important topic in the literature day by day and the opportunities that hybrid modeling of these fuel cells with various gas turbine types will provide. In addition, it is mentioned that such hybrid systems are used as auxiliary power systems in unmanned aerial vehicles or aircraft in the field of aviation. Moreover, the benefits of the fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid system in terms of efficiency and sustainability and the issues that should be considered according to the intended use when making this hybridization in the future are mentioned.
Enes Gunaltili, Selcuk Ekici, Mustafa Zeki Yilmazoglu, Tahir Hikmet Karakoc
Implementation of a Two-Seat Hybrid Electric Aircraft Demonstrator for Reducing Carbon Emissions
The goal of these studies should be to develop a two-seat aircraft, suitable for everyday use, that can considerably lower the fuel consumption and carbon emissions compared to state-of-the-art available aircraft of the same category. It should also reveal the engineering approach to design and build such an aircraft to support similar endeavors and help enable development of larger low emission aircraft for commercialization and therefore relevant environmental impact. The battery electric aircraft e-Genius was used as a basis for the serial hybrid-electric conversion described in the following work. A serial hybrid propulsion chain was added and battery capacity significantly reduced. For operation, an extensive control algorithm was implemented to enable optimized control and improved safety.
Flight testing is currently ongoing, but preliminary results show a fuel flow reduction of approx. 60% compared to best-in-class conventional aircraft.With the given reduced fuel requirements, the anticipated higher prices of renewable fuels can be offset to obtain a carbon neutral high-performance aircraft.
Jonas Lay, Andreas Strohmayer
Thermal Analysis of ASTINSAT-1
Today, cubesat applications are increasing with the developing technology. The use of cubesat has increased as the number of launch vehicles increases and the cost required decreases. In this study, the missions and design of the Astin Sat 1 cubesat, which is planned to be built in the near future, are stated; thermal analysis was carried out. Astin Sat 1 cubesat subsystems are exposed to high temperatures and cold during missions. High and instantaneous temperature changes affect the operating efficiency of the subsystems. The temperatures to which the subsystems will be exposed were determined by the thermal analyzes performed on the Astin Sat 1 cubesat. The suitability of the Astin Sat 1 cubesat, designed in the light of thermal analysis, was evaluated.
Alper Şanlı
Numerical Examination of Different Flow Channel Fractions Effects in a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field
The effects of channel fractions in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) are investigated for two-dimensional and steady-state. The numerical model is analyzed with conservation mass, charge, momentum, and species equations using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5. In numerical models, the channel height is kept constant for all channel fractions. For this purpose, the effects of channel fractions on electrode and electrolyte potential, velocity, and pressure distribution are investigated in the serpentine flow field. In the positive electrode, the highest electrode potential occurred in the high channel fractions, while in the negative electrode, the highest electrode potential occurred in the low channel fractions. The highest electrolyte potential occurred in the channel fractions of 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2 for both electrodes, respectively. In addition, in cases where the electrode mostly consists of ribs, the velocity values is decreased, while the pressure drop from the inlet channel to the outlet channel is increased.
Ilker Kayali
Flutter Analysis of a 3-D Box Wing with Distributed Electric Propulsion
Research into green aviation technology, including reduced noise and emissions, has grown quickly in recent years. In order to meet these goals, several new technology ideas are being investigated by aircraft designers, such as distributed electric propulsion (DEP) wings and box wing aircrafts (BWA). The present work evaluates the effects of electric engines arrangement on the box wing flutter boundary. Eight electric motors are placed on the front and rear wings. The governing equations are extracted using Hamilton’s Principle. The resulting partial integrodifferential governing equations are solved by semi-analytical methods. To apply the aerodynamic loading on the front and rear wings, Wagner unsteady model is used. Five different arrangements of electric motors are studied, and their effects on the flutter boundaries are presented. The analysis shows that for a pair of motors shut down, the maximum flutter speed occurs when motors No. 1, 2, and 3 are working. Also, for two and three pairs of motors shut down, the maximum flutter speed takes place when motors No. 1 and 3 and No. 2 are working, respectively.
S. Ahmad Fazelzadeh, Abbas Mazidi, Amirhossein Ghasemikaram
Force Attenuation Properties of Multilayer Polyurethane and 3D Fabric Composites
Developing Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) vehicles for the Urban Air Mobility (UAM) markets presents a need for lightweight vehicle structures with effective occupant and internal equipment protection capabilities. Force attenuation is one of the important properties in this type of application particularly for cabin interiors or seats. Polyurethane (PU) pads and warp-knitted spacer fabrics (WKSF) are promising lightweight materials for high-energy damping applications. In this study, we investigated the impact attenuation properties of polyurethane pads and WKSF for potential applications in some parts of the VTOL, UAM, or also automotive industry that damping force can be critical. Constant mass was established for the multilayer composite design configurations, and they were subjected to a drop hammer-based test system. The results of this study show that the combination of polyurethane pad and WKSF can reduce the reaction force by up to 35% compared to using them in complete WKSF or PU form.
Mohammad Rauf Sheikhi, Selim Gürgen
Transport Operators Total Load Comparison by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)
The duties of the transport operators have changed in the current transport environment from active engagement to information management and oversight and supervision. Transport operators should adapt to the revolutionary rapid technology development in the current transport systems, particularly when making judgments in both land and air transportation. Alongside these changes, the operator’s total load system (information, communication, mental, task, and workload) is also in noticeable dynamic alteration to fit with the developments in the highly automated systems. The aim of the research is to highlight the critical factors in the total operators loads model by comparing both air transport operators and land transport operators. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) survey was conducted for four categories of transport operators: (i) less skilled pilots, (ii) skilled pilots, (iii) less skilled vehicle drivers, and (iv) skilled vehicle drivers. To analyze and weigh the crucial elements of the operators’ total loads model, the AHP was implemented by developing a two-level hierarchy with five primary criteria and 19 sub-criteria.
Omar Alharasees, Utku Kale
Analysis of Safety Risks Related to Alternative Aviation Fuels
The transport industry is highly turbulent and dynamic and is considered one of the fastest growing. The aviation industry is one of the greatest contributors to the Greenhouse Gas emissions which are expected to grow significantly over the upcoming years. Over the past decades, aviation industry is searching for alternatives to the fossil-based fuels and thus reduces its emissions and environmental impact and thus move towards the fulfilment of its commitments in the fight of climate change. This paper provides introduction to the topic of alternative aviation fuels and overview of the potential sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels that are currently under development and their potential and limitations and analyze the risk that may arise and are related to use of alternative fuels in aviation.
Martina Koščáková, Samer Al-Rabeei, Peter Korba, Utku Kale
Adding Value to Aviation Through Additive Manufacturing
When we look at aircraft engineering and additive manufacturing (AM) technologies together, we can see that some of the most important requests for the properties of manufactured components in aircraft engineering match up well with the strengths of additive manufacturing. The abilities to create parts with new geometries, reduce their weight and increase their performance, and optimize and increase the flexibility of the supply chain are just a part of the type of advantages that AM brings to aircraft manufacturing.
This article is an introduction to many additive technologies and an overview of their possible use in aircraft construction.
This article is not an evaluation of available additive manufacturing technologies, but only a comparison of its main advantages and capabilities to the needs of the aircraft industry. The possibilities of implementing AM technology throughout the entire aerospace parts production chain, from design and creation to the supply chain of finished products, have been explored. In addition, an orientation scheme for the interconnection between the aircraft industry and AM was created.
Volodymyr Tymofiiv, Samer Al-Rabeei, Michal Hovanec, Peter Korba, Utku Kale
Comparison of the Speed Change and Vector Maneuver Techniques for the Conflict Resolution Problem: Fuel and Flight Time Analysis
Three different techniques are used to solve the conflicts between aircraft in the air traffic management system. These are speed change (SC), vector maneuvering (VM), and flight level change (FLC). The safe separation between aircraft is ensured using these techniques. Literature handles determining and applying the most efficient approach to the conflict resolution problem (CRP). Several optimization algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. While some studies handled the conflict resolution methods separately, some make comparisons or consider them together. This study enhances a mixed integer conflict resolution model previously presented in the literature to validate and improve these efforts. SC and VM techniques are handled separately and compared to each other regarding fuel and flight time efficiency. In addition, more advanced speed constraints, calculated based on aircraft types, were integrated into the model. Linear regression equations were also integrated into the model, and speed and flight level-dependent fuel calculations, were performed for each aircraft type. As a result, although average flight time increased by 4% in the SC method, it provided 1.84% average fuel savings compared to VM.
Kadir Dönmez, Ramazan Kursat Cecen
Assessing Battery Characteristics During a Full Discharge in an Electric Aircraft
As electric aircraft emerge as a sustainable solution in aviation, the understanding of both performance and battery state of health is critical to aeronautical decision making and safety. Battery performance is crucial for an electrically propelled flight. The energy required to propel an electric aircraft is predicated upon the performance of the battery pack that powers the drive systems. As a battery pack operates on the basis of an efficient conversion of the stored energy to power the engine, access to relevant information, including battery state of charge (SOC) and flight time remaining, is crucial for decision making. This study presents the findings of an initial test in which both battery packs of a single engine electric aeroplane were discharged to 0% using a minimum cruise power and periodically testing maximum engine power. The SOC and time remaining decreases as expected until approximately 30% charge. At low SOC, less power was produced than expected. This raises concerns for pilot decision making and range anxiety in electric aircraft as the discharge curve is not linear and may have unexpected characteristics at low charge levels.
Brooke E. Wheeler, Isaac M. Silver, Brian A. Kish, Markus Wilde, Gaspar Andre
The Autonomous Air-Sea-Interface-Vehicle: Is It the Key to Abundant Green Energy?
Attention is drawn to the fact that the winds over the oceans contain energy that exceeds the global energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Converting this wind energy into usable energy therefore offers the possibility to transition from fossil-based to renewable emission-free power generation. To accomplish this objective, it is proposed to abandon the widely accepted power generation concept of converting wind or water flows into electricity by means of stationary power plants. Instead, it is proposed to use the ocean wind power to propel an autonomous “air-sea-interface vehicle” that is equipped with hydrokinetic turbines. This concept offers several advantages, namely drastic reduction of the hydrokinetic turbine size compared to the wind turbine with equivalent power output, significantly increased capacity due to the ability to operate in ocean areas with persistent high winds, yet being able to avoid dangerous storms, and the ability to produce storable energy in the form of compressed or liquefied hydrogen. Most importantly, it provides every nation unlimited access to the ocean wind energy source, thus eliminating the problems caused by the unequal distribution of the fossil-based resources among the nations.
Max F. Platzer, Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn
Development of Viscous CFD Analysis Model Including Real Gas Effects for Nose Optimization at Hypersonic Speeds
This study aims to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis model to be used in the nose optimization at hypersonic speeds and to validate the model. While creating the analysis model, standard hyperballistic-1 (HB-1) geometry, whose tests were made in the wind tunnel, was used. Base equation used in the study is compressible real gas Navier-Stokes equations. Generated structured grids were analyzed in METACOMP CFD++. During the model validation, aerodynamic coefficients obtained from the CFD analysis were compared with the wind tunnel test results for HB-1. Comparing CFD results and wind tunnel data for axial force coefficient indicated that CFD analysis estimates this coefficient 5% lesser. Examining normal force coefficient and pitching moment coefficient showed that the results obtained from CFD analysis had a similar trend to the wind tunnel results.
Ali Alperen Özkan, Atilla Bıyıkoğlu
Real World Path Generation for Non-holonomic Systems with Obstacle Avoidance Using RRT* and Google Earth
In this paper, a new version of Rapidly Exploring Random Trees and Rapidly Exploring Random Trees Star (RRT & RRT*) with obstacle avoidance in 3D is shown in MATLAB. This algorithm combined with Google Earth generates a real-world path, avoiding obstacles. The algorithm uses a function called “No Collision” which is developed using the principle of “plane of intersection” which is defined as “if a line extended from the node hits the face of the obstacle that node is excluded from the tree and another random node is selected, this keeps running until no node in the tree hits the obstacles.” This new version considers any real-world obstacles, which are converted into cubes or cuboids. The path created by general RRT and RRT* cannot be used by non-holonomic systems because of the instantaneous turns present in the path so the new version generates a path for non-holonomic systems where the turns are not instantaneous. The simulation and experiment results are given to show the robustness of the improved RRT and RRT* compared to the regular algorithms.
S. Sapthagirivasan, M. Seshath, S. Srivarshan, T. V. K. Sushil Kumar
Structural Synthesis of Euclidean Parallel Robot Manipulators of Spacecraft Docking System
Octahedral and hexagonal interface spacecraft docking systems with new Euclidean support-guide legs which provide free relative motion of spacecraft and its docking unit are proposed. Structural syntheses of new Euclidean space manipulators are described.
Rasim Ismayil Alizade, Kanan Sabuhi Azimov, Javad Adalat Samadzade
Future Prospects for Fuel-Cell Aircraft: Challenges and Opportunities
To achieve the European Union’s goals of reducing CO2 and nitrogen oxide emissions on the one hand, and good connectivity and fast transportation methods on the other hand, a technological breakthrough in aircraft technology must be achieved. In the category of small regional aircraft, a fuel cell aircraft represents a possible solution. The first prototypes of fuel cell aircraft have already completed their maiden flights. Nevertheless, the road to commercialization of the fuel cell aircraft is still long. Although fuel cell aircraft can boast with advantages such as the high energy density of hydrogen fuel and no emissions except the water vapor, many challenges still need to be overcome, such as insufficient or non-existent ground infrastructure, technological readiness, safety issues, and economic viability. This talk will present the advantages and disadvantages of fuel cell aircraft compared to convection aircraft and other solutions and discuss the prospects for future commercialization of regional fuel cell aircraft.
Anita Prapotnik Brdnik, Maršenka Marksel
Emerging Trends in Electric Aviation
T. Hikmet Karakoc
Tomislav Letnik
Maršenka Marksel
Ismail Ekmekci
Alper Dalkiran
Ali Haydar Ercan
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

Premium Partner