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About this book

This book demonstrates that emotion is a highly influential component in creating a new society and new engineering, revealing the importance of emotion in various aspects of the Connected World. It addresses a wide variety of topics, but with this one underlying aim throughout. Further, it stands out for the approach it takes to the Internet of Things and the Connected Society.
The contributing authors illustrate that humans are essentially either playmakers or playing managers, with teamwork and play being crucial aspects of our lives. They argue that strategy is becoming increasingly important, and consider the most adaptable strategy, one that will allow us to respond to today’s quickly and radically changing situations. The book is particularly focused on the Connected Society as the point of departure, and explores what motivates humans, what decisions they should make, and what actions they should take.
With engineering quickly moving from product development to experience development, and the role of emotion in engineering becoming increasingly apparent, this book offers a timely and valuable resource for engineers and researchers alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. IoT Creates an Integrated World of Physical and Life Science

Until the end of the twentieth century, engineering has progressed with primary attention focused on individual products. And living humans operated nonliving machines from outside, on the basis of physical science. But as soon as we entered the twenty-first century, the environments and situations came to change so frequently and extensively. Therefore, to cope with this situation, humans started to work together as a team and later products also came to work together as a team. But these days, humans and machines are distinctly separated. IoT, however, has changed the scene. As it is based on Internet, machines and humans get rid of the traditional instruction–response interaction and they are now moving toward communicating with each other. To fully utilize these communication capabilities and to establish a true connected society, we need to break the wall between physical science and life science and integrate them. This integration and the addition of communication capabilities will bring us a completely new world we have never experienced in engineering history.
Shuichi Fukuda

Chapter 2. Increasing Importance of Tacit Value

As the world becomes open without any boundaries, diversification is progressing rapidly. To cope with this situation, engineering has changed from the traditional individual-based to team-based. This transition increased the degrees of freedom tremendously. We cannot apply mathematical analysis anymore. So, we need to introduce algebraic approach, i.e., discrete mathematics. In other words, our world is changing from explicit to tacit very rapidly. We cannot evaluate value explicitly as we did. Therefore, we need to establish a new approach to evaluate tacit value.
Shuichi Fukuda

Chapter 3. Power of Self-Touch: Its Neural Mechanism as a Coping Strategy

Self-touch is an act of coping with harmful or stressful situations based on suppression of somatosensory perception, somatosensory cortex activity, and sympathetic activity; however, the detailed neural mechanism remains unknown. Several studies have shown that the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS) plays critical roles in painful situations and that intrinsic functional connectivity in the DPMS is observed in even non-painful situations. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neural system consisting of the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) would play a basic role in self-touch. We thus investigated the interactive effects of these regions in a pain-free self-touch situation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain activity induced by mere self-touch (rubbing the left hand with the right), and the physio-physiological interaction analysis was performed to investigate the modulatory effects of brain activity. Physio-physiological interaction analysis showed that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex modulated neural activity in the RVM and left cerebellum (CB) via the right amygdala, and the modulation linearly suppressed the RVM and left CB activity. Furthermore, the left CB activity was positively correlated with the right primary somatosensory cortex activity. Moreover, our study showed that coherent activity in the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex modulated the activity of the left temporoparietal junction and RVM, and the RVM was suppressed in a linear manner. These results suggest that self-touch is a kind of passive avoidance automatically realized in the human brain to protect the self.
Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Madoka Noriuchi

Chapter 4. Cognitive Neuroscience of Creativity

As a result of the globalization and complication of social issues, there is increased awareness about the differentiation of products and services. Therefore, emphasis is placed on ideas from the concept stage. Problem-solving “how to make” thinking for implementing ideas is, of course, important, but above all, you cannot prevail in international competition without creating new value by using problem-discovering “what to do” thinking. Ways of thinking, such as “what to do” thinking, used for creating something original and valuable in concept design—an upstream process in product/service design—are called creative thinking. We all aspire to be creative but very few of us are able to assert ourselves as creative. It would be ideal if all of us could easily engage in creative thinking. However, a clear-cut methodology is not yet discovered. In this article, we look at creative thinking from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience.
Kazutaka Ueda

Chapter 5. Effective Communication Between Human and Dolphin Using Information Devices

The dolphin is an animal that we are interested in researching and have established various relationships with for a very long time. They are known as one of the smartest animals, and diverse research about their cognitive ability has been reported from many different viewpoints. In particular, their visual perception and characteristics of visibility of panels on which some figures are printed have been studied, but as yet their perception of information device screens has not. We attempted to reveal their ability to perceive information through pictures displayed on a screen in order to utilize information devices effectively for research and communication in the future. We displayed two kinds of target pictures on the screen to a female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and assigned a particular action of the subject to each picture. We switched the pictures in front of her and recorded her reactions as a success rate and how she would act in case of failure. Ultimately, she proved that she understands the concept of information devices, and it is expected to be further established that dolphins perceive dynamic information more easily than static information.
Aya Kurita, Tetsuro Ogi, Hiroaki Daigo, Yasue Odaka, Naoko Daigo, Isao Ooshita, Shuto Haneda

Chapter 6. Applying Emotion Recognition to Graphic Design Research

We derive useful information about the feelings and inner states of other human beings by looking at the expressions on their faces. In this study, we conducted an experiment on the identification of emotions based on facial expression recognition to assess the participants’ emotional responses to different types of graphics of Chinese dragons. We used a paired sample t-test to analyze valid data collected from 112 participants. The results of our analysis indicate that there were differences between the participants’ expressions for a neutral response, happiness, sadness, and disgust. The effects of generalizing the participants’ facial expressions and associated verbalizations indicated that personalized designs aroused positive emotions, while the participants had more ideas associated with Chinese dragons when presented with realistic drawings. Furthermore, we found that the participants’ facial expressions were consistent with their verbal responses. This research demonstrates the importance and practicality of using facial expression recognition to assess peoples’ emotional responses to different graphic styles. Our results will help designers to build emotional communication with consumers and link their designs to consumers’ interests when promoting marketing activities.
Chia-yin Yu, Chih-hsiang Ko

Chapter 7. Mining Facial Keypoint Data: The Quest Toward Personalized Engineering Applications

Personalized applications have the potential to enhance the performance and motivation of individuals in a wide range of engineering tasks. Current methods focus on predicting the affective state (i.e., emotion) of individuals in order to provide personalized intervention. However, these methods may struggle to predict the affective state of an individual that it has not been trained for. Furthermore, depending on the attributes of the tasks and individuals, the affective state that correlates to good performance could vary. In light of these limitations, in previous studies, the authors proposed a machine learning method to predict the performance of individuals based on their facial expressions captured while reading the instructions of a task. This chapter presents the different steps of the method and introduces a case study in an engineering laboratory environment. Furthermore, a benchmark analysis of multiple machine learning algorithms is presented. The findings support the use of neural networks and individual-specific models that consider task information and individuals’ facial expressions to predict their performance. This work could potentially advance personalized applications in engineering environments and help provide real-time feedback to individuals.
Christian Lopez, Conrad Tucker

Chapter 8. Emotional Motion Design Using Mimetic Words

The field of design has widened to include dynamic objects such as moving logos. Our aim is to develop a method for the design of creative and emotional motion using a designer’s vague images and ideas. In this study, we focus on mimetic (reality-symbolic) words. These words can be understood as potential representations of vague images and ideas that are difficult to verbally describe. People often incidentally coin new mimetic words (emotionally coined mimetic words) that extend from existing mimetic words. We believe that creative and emotional motions can be designed based on an emotionally coined mimetic word and used this approach to develop a method and tool for their design. First, an emotionally coined mimetic word is decomposed into stems. Second, known mimetic words that are similar to each stem are determined. Third, motions related to the known mimetic words are extracted from a database developed in our previous study. Finally, these motions are blended.
Kaori Yamada, Toshiharu Taura

Chapter 9. A Method for Designing Complicated Emotional Three-Dimensional Geometrical Shapes Through Mathematical Extrapolation

This article focuses on the role of technology for creative thinking in design. It can be stated that the human thinking space may be expanded by the help of technology. Humans can thus create ideas that they did not previously have, thereby improving their ability of imagination. We aim to create three-dimensional geometrical shapes using a computer. These shapes are so complicated that they cannot be easily visualized in the human mind but are still deemed interesting. Our research tries to develop a method for designing three-dimensional geometrical shapes whose parameters, recorded in a computer, are mathematically extrapolated to create more complicated shapes. In an experiment, subjects were asked to generate new shapes in accordance with this method. The results indicate that new geometrical shapes created by mathematical extrapolation, which cannot be visualized by the human mind alone, are considered by the subjects as interesting as those created by themselves.
Kaori Yamada, Shinjiro Ito, Toshiharu Taura

Chapter 10. How Do People Evaluate the Designed Artefacts?

Design artefacts can give us several impressions when we evaluate them. How do we evaluate and judge them? Research on artworks and design artefacts has been carried out to investigate the people’s feelings during an evaluation of objects for many centuries. Research on design artefacts is getting an increase in the aspect of design development process and the product evaluation. In this chapter, we present two studies related to the evaluation of the design artefacts: (1) a study on the evaluation of dot patterns compositions to investigate the people’s subtle feelings towards abstract stimuli by measuring physiological activities and (2) a framework of sense of visual dynamics towards structural designed artefacts to propose a concept and address the issues.
Emika Okumura, Toshimasa Yamanaka

Chapter 11. Visualization of “Skills for Living Smart” for Methodology Development to Improve Skills

Many people today have trouble socializing and feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with human relations. Additionally, people must accomplish their life goals within a limited time frame. Based on seminars held to improve skills for “living smart,” the authors felt that the social demands of living smart are increasing. This research attempts to visualize the skills for living smart in order to develop a methodology to improve these skills. An inductive approach clarified that “skills for living smart” comprise two factors: “entry into the environment” and “breakthrough strength.” We extracted seven components of “entry into the environment” (“participation ability,” “setup force,” “future force,” “antenna power,” “chameleon power,” “enchanting power,” and “cheerleading power”) and five components of “breakthrough strength” (“incredible ability,” “first impression ability,” “rising power,” “ability to grasp the heart,” and “boosting power”). We also demonstrated the continued effectiveness of the Seminar for Living Smart training. Visualizing skills for living smart are expected to facilitate future development of methodologies to improve these skills.
Masanori Kataoka, Iwane Maida, Tetsuya Toma

Chapter 12. Investigation Report of Communication at the First Meeting to Improve Working Environment for Japanese IT Employees with Overseas Assignment in the Philippines

Nowadays, the globalization is rapidly increasing and many Japanese employees are going overseas. The first author has experienced assignment in the Philippines for globalization, but the first author had a stumbling block in work-related communication with the local workers and felt difficulty to adopt globalization. Our interviews confirmed that most Japanese IT workers assigned to the Philippines had similar experiences that the problem was difficult to take measures in advance. A sense of unease was revealed in surveys conducted in 2002 by Nishida on intercultural communication frictions in Japanese companies in the Philippines entitled “Japanese Cultural Differences Felt by Filipinos” and “Roles Sought From Japanese Bosses and Leaders by Filipinos”. Although many studies have been done on communication and interpersonal relations and it is often stated that conscious communication from the initial stages is vital to building interpersonal relationships, there are still few practical studies on the matter. Instead of initial stage communication, we focused on the first meeting conversation, conducted questionnaires on topics selection among Japanese and Filipino IT workers, verified differences in topic selection mutually using quantitative evaluation, and reported investigative results on possible reason why smooth interpersonal relationships could not be built from the initial stages.
Hiroyuki Suzuki, Tsutomu Sato, Tetsuya Toma

Chapter 13. Improving Multisensory User Experience Through Olfactory Stimuli

More and more modern digital applications allow users to make experiences that elicit their senses. More traditional applications allow users to make visual and sound experiences. Recently, the sense of touch has been introduced to enrich the users’ experiences with digital worlds. The sense of smell is equally important for enriching and making the experiences engaging, but has been mostly neglected so far, mostly because of the limited knowledge about olfaction and of olfactory technologies. This chapter presents a methodology for the development of applications including multisensory user experiences based also on the sense of olfaction. The methodology has been used and tested for the development of applications in various sectors, which are reported in the chapter.
Monica Bordegoni, Marina Carulli, Francesco Ferrise
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