This book analyses the evolution of the construction systems and the required materials in Ecuador from 1980 to 2020, from different perspectives including environmental, economic, thermal behaviour, modulation design, and integrity of construction. It focuses on the relationship between energy and the evolution of construction in the Andean region of Ecuador. The theoretical framework of the book shows the extent of quantitative data collected from several sources and experimental data from studies carried out in local buildings. It gives a heritage-environmental perspective of building materials from Cuenca city, which has received the nomination of Cultural Heritage of Humanity. This book will help construction industry professionals, architects, and designers to make sustainable decisions for future construction, focused on different components of a building. Readers can extract a set of guidelines aimed at solving thermal, environmental, aesthetic, and even heritage issues of the construction sector of this region, from the specific perspective of building materials.