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2024 | Book

Energy and Environmental Aspects of Emerging Technologies for Smart Grid

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About this book

This book presents mathematical models of various renewable energy sources (RESs) such as wind energy systems, solar PV systems, battery energy storage systems, pumped-storage hydropower, biomass, and electric vehicles (EVs). It also discusses the challenging task of the integration of high penetration of renewable energies and EVs within existing power systems. The uncertainty related to RESs, electric vehicle charging, and load demands is also modelled.

The book provides illustrative and comprehensive practical case studies to enable a complete understanding of the proposed methodologies. This book will consider the nuances of all these new paradigms, smart grid components, technology, and the impact of energy storage, EVs, and distributed energy resources, in the power networks.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Energy Management in Microgrid with Battery Storage System

A microgrid (MG) systemEnergy management isBattery storage system an innovative approach to integrating different types of energyEnergy resources and managing the whole system optimally. Considered microgrid systems knit together diesel generatorsDiesel generator, wind turbinesWind turbine, fuel cellsFuel cells, and battery storage systemsBattery storage system. Two optimizationOptimization problems are formulated; the first one is the single objective problem that aims to minimize the total operationOperation cost. The second problem is multi-objectiveMulti-objective containing cost and emission both in the objective functionObjective function. A population-basedPopulation based Jaya algorithmJaya algorithm embedded with a chaoticChaotic map is employed to manage the two MG problems optimally. For a single objective microgrid system obtained results by chaoticChaotic Jaya (Ch-JAYA) are validated by comparison with reported results using another algorithmAlgorithms such as the Cuckoo Search AlgorithmAlgorithms (CSA), Spotted hyena and Emperor penguin optimizer (SHEPO), and Manta ray foraging optimizationOptimization (MRFO). As the results of the multi-objectiveMulti-objective microgrid (MOMG) system considered for analysisAnalysis are not reported yet, therefore for validation purposes this system is implemented and analyzed one by one using Ch-JAYA, JAYA, Particles swarm optimizationOptimization (PSO), and Differential Evolution (DE). The impact of battery storage systemsBattery storage system on operational costs and emitted emissions are also analyzed over 24 h a day. By comparison of results with and without integration of a battery storage systemBattery storage system, it is observed that the total operational cost is reduced in both single and MOMG systems, and pollutant emissions are decreased significantly due to the integration of a wind turbineWind turbine and a battery storage systemBattery storage system in MOMG system.

Vishal Chaudhary, Hari Mohan Dubey, Manjaree Pandit, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Wind Energy Conversion Systems: A Review on Aerodynamic, Electrical and Control Aspects, Recent Trends, Comparisons and Insights

Due to the emergence of environmental attitudes, particularly in relation to global warming and energy-saving techniques of non-renewable sources, the usage of wind energyEnergy as a type of renewable energy sourceRenewable Energy Sources is rising throughout the world. A wind energy conversion systemWind energy conversion system (WECS), converts theKinetic energy kinetic energyEnergy of the wind into mechanical powerMechanical Power. In the next step, mechanical power is used to rotate generators in order to produce electrical energyElectrical Energy. Wind turbinesWind Turbine, electric generators, control systemsControl system, and power electronic interfaceElectronic interface devices are the four main components of the WECS. This chapter makes an effort to provide a comprehensive insight into each part and shows the WECS aerodynamics and mechanical and electrical aspects. Wind turbineWind Turbine models and classifications, applications of various types of wind generatorsWind Generator, requirements and demands of power electronicsElectronic technologies on WECS and common topologies and configurations of power convertersConverter, various control strategies in WECS, important findings, currentCurrent research, and future possible developments for the WECS are discussed. A simulation of theGrid connected grid-connected WECS is conducted and its dynamic performance is analyzed in order for a better understanding of the aerodynamic and electric aspects of the WECS. The main aim of this chapter is to provide a suitable reference and accurateAccurate background to be used as a starting point for future studies and research in the field of wind energyWind Energy.

Mohammad Yousefzadeh, Mehrdad Ahmadi Kamarposhti
Buck-Boost Converter-Based Sliding Mode Maximum Power Point Tracking System for Photovoltaic Systems

TheBoost converter utilizationSliding mode ofBuck-boost photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) power systemsPower systems isMaximum Power Point Tracking rapidlyPhotovoltaic system expanding within the electrical sector. The intermittentIntermittent nature of a PV system inherently hinders its performance. Maximum power point trackingMaximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is a well-established methodology that effectively improves the powerPower delivery capacity of PV systems. This technique optimizes the operationOperation of the PV system by ensuring that it operates at its maximum powerMaximum Power output, taking into account the prevailing temperature and irradianceIrradiance conditions. This study presents a novel sliding modeSliding mode approach for accurately tracking the peak output of a PV system in the presence of variationsVariation in irradianceIrradiance and temperature. The utilization of a robustRobust controllerController enables the implementation of a sliding technique for effectively tracking the dynamic and stable maximum power pointMaximum Power Point. The proposed technique exhibits a distinct advantage over the usual Perturb & ObservePerturb & observe (P&O) MPPT technique in terms of both accuracy and responseResponse. The adaptability of the technique is validated through the MATLABMATLAB simulation, which incorporatesBuck-boost a buck-boost converterBuck-Boost converter supported by sliding mode controlSliding mode control (SMC).

Pradeep Vishnuram, Mohit Bajaj, Rangu Seshu Kumar, Arvind R. Singh
Optimized Control of an Isolated Wind Energy Conversion System

The proposed system utilizes anIsolated wind energy conversion system admittanceAdmittance-based algorithmAlgorithms to estimate reference currentReference current values for an off-gridGrid wind energy conversion systemWind energy conversion system (WECS). This system’s controllerController is designed to manage voltageVoltage and maintain frequencyFrequency levels within specified limits when dealing with both linearLinear and nonlinearNonlinear loadsLoad, accommodating varying wind speedsSpeed effectively. The simplicity and ease of implementation of the admittanceAdmittance algorithmAlgorithms make it efficient in generating triggering signals for the controllerController used in the WECS. The wind powerPower harnessingHarnessing unit comprises several key components: a squirrel cageCage induction generatorInduction generators, a star-delta transformerTransformer, a battery storage systemBattery storage system, and a control unit. These components are modeled using the MATLABMATLAB/Simulink. An isolated transformerTransformer, configured in a star-delta arrangement, connects the loadLoad and the generator circuit to the controllerController. This setup reduces the DC bus voltageVoltage and mitigates currentCurrent in the neutralNeutral line. The dynamic responseDynamic response of the system under varying loadsLoad depends on finding the optimalOptimal proportional-integral (PI) gains for compensators. To achieve this, the antlion optimizationAntlion optimization technique (ALO) is employed. This algorithmAlgorithms has been empirically demonstrated to offer rapid responseResponse timeTime, the ability to maintain the required frequencyFrequency, suppression of current harmonicsCurrent harmonics, voltageVoltage regulation, loadLoad balancingBalancing, and compensation for neutralNeutral currentsCurrent.

Amritha Kodakkal, Rajagopal Veramalla, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Emerging Technologies for the Integration of Renewable Energy, Energy Storage and Electric Vehicles

Renewable energyRenewable energy playsEnergy storage an important roleElectric vehicle in powerPower generation, and its penetration level is growing rapidly. The evolution of distribution systemsDistribution system towards a smarter system allows the use of distributed energy resourcesDistributed energy resources (DERs). Electric vehiclesElectric vehicle (EVs) are gaining popularity as they are beneficial from an ecological/sustainability point of view for transportation. This chapter discusses the need and status of electric vehiclesElectric vehicle (EVs) around the world. This chapter also presents the modeling issues of renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources (RESs), energy storageEnergy storage, and EVs. The unpredictable powerPower generation from RESs could expose adverse effects on the optimalOptimal operationOperation of power systemsPower systems. Therefore, the work presented in this chapter considers the temporal and spatial variationsVariation linked with RESs and load demandLoad demand. The techno-economic aspects of RESs, battery storageBattery storage, and EVs are also presented. This chapter could find suitable solutions to increase the interoperability of the gridGrid under high penetration of renewable energyRenewable energy, storage systems, and electric transport.

Chan-Mook Jung, Sravanthi Pagidipala, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Coordinated Control Strategy for LFC in an Islanded Microgrid: A JAYA Algorithm Based Cascade PD-PI Approach

Frequency controlFrequency control in aJaya algorithm Microgrid (MG) has become a major research concern. A significant coordinated control strategy between diesel engine generators (DEG) and energy storage systemsEnergy storage systems (ESSs) for different operating scenarios is needed. This chapter proposes such an intelligent coordinated control strategy based on JAYA optimizationOptimization for fine-tuning cascade proportional derivative—proportional integralProportional integral (PD-PI) controllerController gains. A single-area MG Simulink model is used to validate the proposed control approach. MG dynamic responsesDynamic response to specific loadLoad and renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources (RESs) variationsVariation are observed. The proposed approach was analyzed with PD-PI controllerPI controller and a comparative investigation was carried out on cascade PD-PI controllerPI controller with JAYA algorithmJaya algorithm optimizationOptimization. Significant improvement in frequencyFrequency dynamics of MG is seen from simulation results by employing proposed controllersController. In comparison to the PID controllerPID controller optimized with the JAYA controllerController, it is observed that the proposed cascade PD-PI technique is more resistant to parametric uncertainties in MG and ESSs.

P. Vijay Babu, Sheba Rani Repalle, C. Srinivasarathnam, P. Laxman Naik, Surender Reddy Salkuti, Anil Annamraju
Simulation and Analysis of Solar-Wind System for EV Charging

Everyday, there is a greater need for transportation. The electric vehicleElectric vehicle (EV) is one such kind of transportation that has been around for a century. It utilizes fewer resources, which means that its effects on pollution, climate change, and resource depletion are less severe. Many people find it difficult to charge their electric vehiclesElectric vehicle in off-gridGrid locations, which reduce EV adoption. In this situation, a charging station run by locally available renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources like solarSolar, wind, biogas, and tidal energyEnergy would be a better option. In this chapter, a particular charging station design with wind and solar energySolar energy is discussed. The solarSolar-wind energyWind energy-based charging system significantly reduces the amount of fossil fuels utilized to produce electricity, which also reduces CO2 emissions and other pollutants associated with carbon. In this chapter, wind and sun energyEnergy are combined and found to be mutually beneficial. It uses a charging controllerController that considers the state of charge (SOC) of the batteryBattery and governs powerPower transfer. The charging station is modeled as accurately as possible by carefully taking into account each level, including the solarSolar plant, wind plant, batteryBattery loadLoad, and regulating converterConverter topologiesTopology. This charging approach can be applied in off-gridGrid situations by recognizing the charging need and matching it with the suitable energy storage systemEnergy storage systems and auxiliary devices.

Birudala Venkatesh Reddy, Ch. Chengaiah, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Performance of Grid-Connected Shunt Active Filter Equipped PV System

The control and co-simulation of a gridGrid-integrated photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) system with a shunt active filterActive filter are the major topics of this work. Under distorted gridGrid voltageVoltage settings, the proposed system's control performance and gridGrid interface behavior are examined, and harmonicsHarmonics and reactive currentsCurrent brought on by nonlinearNonlinear loadsLoad are made up for. In MATLABMATLAB/Simulink, the simplified circuit of a PV arrayPhotovoltaic Array with MPPT is modeled. The power systemPower systems blocks of MATLABMATLAB/Simulink are compatible with the created PV arrayPhotovoltaic Array model. In addition to injecting active powerActive power at the PCC, the voltage source inverterVoltage source inverter utilized in gridGrid-interactive PV systems also compensates for loadLoad-reactive powerReactive power and maintains a sinusoidal currentCurrent from/to the gridGrid. Under shifting solarSolar insolation and temperature circumstances, the injected active and reactive powersReactive power are controlled by altering the phasePhase and amplitudeAmplitude, respectively, of the inverterInverter output voltageOutput voltage. The signals for pulse width modulationPulse Width Modulation (PWM) employed to toggle the elements within the inverterInverter circuit are generated by hysteresis currentCurrent controllersController. To validate the efficiencyEfficiency and robustness of the suggested system, a simulation model was developed within the MATLABMATLAB/Simulink platform and co-simulated on the DSP TMS320F2812 processor.

Ramdayal Patidar, Sushree Diptimayee Swain, Sandeep Biswal, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Smart Energy Management Model for Electric Vehicles

Electric car adoption and the development of fast-charging technologies have increased the demand for dependable and safe charging infrastructure. Since linked automobiles and actual charging equipment both have vital electrical components, they both need to be secured against overvoltages. On the networkNetwork side, it is essential to safeguard the equipment against the impacts of lightning strikes and powerPower fluctuations. Direct lightning strikes are disastrous and challenging to avoid, but the real threat to all kinds of electronicElectronic equipment is the electrical surge that follows. Also, all gridGrid-side powerPower-switchingSwitching processes that are linked to the gridGrid could pose an electrical threat to electric vehiclesElectric vehicle (EVs) and charging infrastructure. Earth faultsFault and short circuitsShort circuit are two potential causes of damage to these devices. It is crucial to implement the proper safety precautions in order to be ready for these electrical threats. It is essential to protect expensive investments, and the relevant electrical standards provide acceptable methods and means of protection. There are plenty of factors to take into account because there is no one-size-fits-all approach to dealing with the many risk sources. The risk scenarios on the AC and DC sides are identified, along with the related safety measures.

J. Vijaya Kumar, Harish Sesham, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Improved Linear Sinusoidal Tracer Based Control for Three-Phase VSC in Photovoltaics

In thisPhase chapterPhotovoltaic, aImproved linear sinusoidal tracer three-phasePhase photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) system is introduced which is designed for gridGrid connection that serves two purposes: feeding extracted solar energySolar energy into the gridGrid and improving power qualityPower quality within the distribution systemDistribution system. The system achieves tracking of the maximum power pointMaximum Power Point by using a variable DC link voltageVariable DC link voltage and an instantaneousInstantaneous compensation technique to ensure a fast dynamic responseDynamic response to changes in PV powerPower. Additionally, the system featuresFeatures a three-phasePhase voltage source converterVoltage source converter (VSC) that performs the functions of inputting energyEnergy from photovoltaicsPhotovoltaic that further goes to the main gridGrid, mitigating harmonicsHarmonics from loadsLoad connected at the point of common couplingPoint of common coupling (PCC), and balancingBalancing the grid currentsGrid currents. To control the VSC, this study proposes an improved linear sinusoidal tracerImproved linear sinusoidal tracer (ILST)-based algorithmAlgorithms. Simulation is used to test the result of both the system as well as the algorithmAlgorithms being used. Results confirm the efficacy of the system and its control algorithmAlgorithms in achieving efficient and effective maximum power point trackingMaximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), feeding SPV energyEnergy into the gridGrid, mitigating harmonicsHarmonics, and balancingBalancing grid currentsGrid currents. Subsequently, the proposed solarSolar photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (SPV) system and control algorithmAlgorithms are implemented in a three-phasePhase distribution systemDistribution system. The outputs indicate a highly effective system in feeding the energyEnergy from the system into the main gridGrid while keeping the harmonicsHarmonics in control and balancingBalancing grid currentsGrid currents, thereby improving power qualityPower quality. The VSC continuously tracks the maximum power pointMaximum Power Point of the PV panels, operates efficiently, and maximizes the utilization of the VSC. In summary, this study presents a novel three-phasePhase SPV system that provides an efficient solution for integrating SPV systems into the gridGrid while maintaining high power qualityPower quality. The system achieves MPPT by utilizing a variable DC link voltageVariable DC link voltage and instantaneousInstantaneous compensation technique, while the three-phasePhase VSC performs multiple functions, including feeding SPV energyEnergy into the gridGrid, mitigating harmonicsHarmonics, and balancingBalancing grid currentsGrid currents. The ILST algorithmAlgorithms designed for the control of the system ensures that the VSC operates efficiently and effectively. The system's efficacy is validated using MATLABMATLAB and Simulink simulations and by implementing it in a three-phasePhase distribution systemDistribution system.

Kunal Shankar, M. A. Hasan, Surender Reddy Salkuti, Seong-Cheol Kim
Analysis, Modeling and Implementation of Electric Vehicle Converter Configurations

Petroleum resources are currently less readily available, and there are greater opportunities for automotive uses, particularly in hybrid electric cars. A new technology called electric vehiclesElectric vehicle (EVs) is improving environmental awareness and ecology worldwide. To improve driving range and engine powerPower in vehiclesVehicle, a variety ofDc-Dc Converters DC–DC convertersBi-directional AC/DC Converter are employed in automotive applications. The effectiveness of batteriesBattery and power convertersPower converter is a major factor in EVs and their analysisAnalysis. The convertersConverter and controllersController used in electric vehiclesElectric vehicle have a variety of disadvantages, including significant switchingSwitching loss, a lack of dynamic responsiveness, greater currentCurrent stress, and a higher component count. To get dependable output powerPower from the storage systems, controllersController, convertersConverter, and motorMotor efficiencyEfficiency should be required. To provide an effective output, it is mainly required to select the proper motorMotor, converterConverter, and controllerController. This chapter examines the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of powerPower controllersController, convertersConverter, and charging stations. In addition to serving as the foundation for controllersController such as PI controllersPI controller and fuzzy controllersController, basic converterConverter design also plays a significant role. The performance of the various convertersConverter such as CUK, fly back, push–pull, Z-source, and proposed updated converterConverter is compared to the present boost converterBoost converter in this study using the PI controllerPI controller in the closed loop. Thus, the simulations have been compared and the results were analyzed. At last, this chapter discusses the difficulties and makes recommendations for the distant future deployment of EVs.

S. Usha, P. Geetha, A. Geetha, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Integration of Electric Vehicles with Smart Grid

The integration of electric vehiclesElectric vehicle (EVs) with the gridGrid has garnered significant attention due to its potential to revolutionize the transportation sector. With advancements in technology and increasing concerns about climate change, EVs have emerged as a viable alternative to internal combustion engineInternal Combusion Engine vehiclesVehicle. EVs offer numerous advantages, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved energyEnergy efficiencyEfficiency, and decreased dependency on fossil fuels. This chapter delves into various types of charging infrastructure, such as level 1, level 2, DC fast charging, and wireless powerPower charging, which further enhances the convenience and accessibility of EV charging. Additionally, the establishment of charging infrastructure can occur in a variety of locations, ranging from residential areas to public spaces and commercial buildings. Furthermore, the integration of EVs with the gridGrid has also paved the way for novel approaches in voltageVoltage regulation, such as the distributive model of predictive control, within vehicleVehicle-to-gridGrid (V2G) systems. Overall, the integration of EVs with the gridGrid not only facilitates the transition to a more sustainableSustainable transportation system but also unlocks opportunities for technological advancements and innovative solutions to address the challenges associated with EV adoption. This chapter reviews the use of distributed model predictive control (DMPC) for voltageVoltage regulation within V2G. All the reviews are from journals, e-books, or conference papers from 2000 to 2023.

Debani Prasad Mishra, Arul Kumar Dash, K. Ayushman Patro, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Installation of UPQC in Radial Distribution System for Enhancement of Voltage Profile

Most of the loadLoad in electrical distribution systemsElectrical distribution system is of inductive type, which leads to various issues like reduction in load end voltage profileVoltage profile, increase in line losses, etc. Reactive power compensationReactive power compensation can be used to overcome these problems. There are various reactive power compensationReactive power compensation devices and several techniques too are available in literature. Few of the devices include capacitorCapacitor banks, on-load tap changing transformersOn-load tap changing transformers and distributed generators. The latest trend is the usage of distribution flexible alternating currentAlternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. Distribution flexible alternating currentAlternating current transmission system (DFACTS) devices are also used to improve the power qualityPower Quality. Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is a one of the prominent DFACTS device. UPQC basically aims on mitigating the power qualityPower quality problems. The work proposed in this chapter focuses on suitable location and sizing of UPQC for reactive power compensationReactive power compensation in a radial distribution systemRadial distribution system to ultimately improve the voltage profileVoltage profile. The approach is applied to 15, 33 and 69-bus radial distribution systemsDistribution system and the results have been analyszed.

Neelakanteshwar Rao Battu, Ganjikunta Siva Kumar, Surender Reddy Salkuti, Kuntla Veeresham, Lade Abhinandh
Infinite Impulse Response Peak Filter with Salp Swarm Optimization Technique for Improvement of DVR Reliability

This chapter discusses theReliability reliabilityReliability aspects ofOptimization a dynamic voltageVoltage restorer (DVR) using an infinite impulse responseResponse (IIR) peak filter with linearLinear/nonlinearNonlinear loadsLoad to control voltageVoltage sagSag/swellSwell, voltageVoltage sagSag unbalance, and voltageVoltage harmonicsHarmonics. The proposed IIR filter control algorithmAlgorithms is used to estimate the fundamental active and reactive powerReactive power components of source voltagesVoltage and estimate the reference load voltagesLoad voltage. This chapter uses the Salp Swarm optimizationOptimization (SS) technique for determining optimized Kp and Ki gains of proposed control for the generation of reference load voltagesLoad voltage. This proposed SS optimizationOptimization technique-based DVR is modeled and simulated using MATLABMATLAB R2020a and DVR reliabilityReliability analysisAnalysis is performed using Plexim software. The results demonstrate satisfactory performance of the DVR under varying loadsLoad and also show improvement in the lifetime of the DVR.

Bangarraju Jampana, Rajagopal Veramalla, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Design of Fuzzy Logic Controller Based BLDC Motor

Brushless Direct CurrentDirect current (BLDC) motorMotor is more popular today than traditional DC motorsDC motor due to its variable loadLoad speedSpeed range and excellent torqueTorque range. Brushless motorsMotor are widely used in commercial and industrial applications because of their ability to deliver high-speedSpeed performance and operate efficiently. The speedSpeed of the BLDC motorBLDC motor is controlled using conventionalConventional controllersController and fuzzy logicFuzzy logic controllersLogic controller. Since fuzzy logicFuzzy logic provides more precise or exact results than other controllersController, it was also developed as a more efficient and reliableReliable controllerController. Here in this article, the speedSpeed of a BLDC motorBLDC motor is administered using PI, PID, and fuzzy logicFuzzy logic controllersLogic controller. The role of this controllerController is to stabilize the motorMotor during loadLoad changes while monitoring the speedSpeed changes. Fuzzy logicFuzzy logic seems to be the most accurateAccurate method for reasoning about uncertain concepts. Simulation models are created in MATLABMATLAB Simulink software with an extensive rule base. The simulation results of the fuzzy logicFuzzy logic-controlled BLDC motorBLDC motor are verified and compared with PI and PID controllersPID controller, showing optimalOptimal performance in terms of steady-state responseResponse and rise timeRise time.

Ajay Kumar Moodadla, K. Revathi, M. A. Farhan Bano, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Impact of Discrete-Time Modeling on Dual Input Modified SEPIC Converter

This chapter addresses aspects of the two-input modifiedModified Buck-SEPIC DC–DCTI-MBS (TI-MBS) converterConverter. This integrated converterConverter is processing powerPower from two sources, two switches, and four energy storageEnergy storage elements. The designed converterConverter is processing 48 V from two sources 36 and 60V. TheTransfer Function Model transfer function modeling of this converterConverter plays an important role in addressing crucial aspects like controllerController design, stabilityStability, and robustness issues. Here, two different types of transfer function modeling aspects are considered, continuous and discrete-timeTime. TheDiscrete-Time discrete-timeTime transfer function is derived by considering trailing-edgeTrailing-Edge and leading-edge digital pulse width modulationDigital pulse width modulation schemes. The converter parametersConverter parameters are designed based on the design equationsEquations. The transfer functions are obtained for the TI-MBSTI-MBS converterConverter in the MATLABMATLAB environment. The experimental validation of the TI-MBS converterConverter is performed through Hardware in LoopHardWare in Loop using the real-timeReal-Time environment of the OPAL-RT. For TI-MBSTI-MBS converterConverter pole-zero configurations and frequency responseFrequency response characteristicsCharacteristics are plotted. Using these plots important characteristicsCharacteristics related to the deviation in phasePhase angle of frequency responseFrequency response at higher frequenciesHigher frequency due to RHP zeros are observed. The simulation studies are performed considering a 36/60–48 V, 500 W, prototype, DC powerPower distribution systemDistribution system.

Venkatesh Allam, Amarendra Reddy Bhimavarapu, T. R. Jyothsna, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Directional Relaying Issues in Power Transmission Networks

Due to the increasing demand for electrical energyElectrical energy, the limitation of conventionalConventional fossil fuels, and various environmental issues renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources are attracting more and more attention. Further, concerning the system stabilityStability and enhancement of the powerPower transmission capacity flexible alternating currentAlternating current transmission systemTransmission system (FACTS) devices are playing a vital role. However, the incorporation of such power electronicsPower electronics-based devices causes variationVariation in power systemPower systems dynamics and demands up-gradation of existing protection schemes. The objective of this chapter includes directional relaying issues in the transmission networkNetwork in the presence of various FACTS controllersController and a photovoltaicPhotovoltaic solarSolar plant. This chapter begins with the issues arising due to the presence of aforesaid devices. Next, new directional relaying techniques are presented to counter their effect. Various test cases are modeled using EMTDC/PSCAD. The proposed methods are analyzed using MATLABMATLAB. Numerous scenarios are taken in each case and few of them are discussed. The results obtained in all the cases show the efficacy of the proposed methods.

Samima Akter, Sandeep Biswal, Waldemar Rebizant
Passivity Based Modeling of a Two-Input DC–DC Power Converter with Constant Power and Constant Voltage Load

DC-microgrids (DC-MGs) arePower converter becomingPower a more viableConstant voltage loads alternative to AC microgrids (MGs) owing to their benefits in terms of simpler stages for the power convertersPower converter, more adaptable control algorithmsAlgorithms, and the absence of synchronizationSynchronization and reactive powerReactive power. However, nonlinearNonlinear loadsLoad like constant power loadsConstant power loads (CPL) could trigger instabilityInstability challenges for DC-MGs. These CPLs are characterized by incremental negative impedanceIncremental negative impedance (INI), which can cause voltageVoltage downfall on the main DC bus. The INI characteristicsCharacteristics are studied on a two-input fourth-order switched DC–DC converterBi-directional AC/DC Converter (TIFOSDDC). Here, a mathematical model based on energyEnergy concepts (Eular-LagrangeLagrange method) has been developed for TIFOSDDC. This energyEnergy-based model is very popular for nonlinearNonlinear circuits. Using this model state-space averaged model is developed for this system. For this converterConverter system, CPL is designed. This chapter outlines the behavioral characteristicsCharacteristics of CPL and its modeling, pertaining to a two-input integrated converterConverter. Here, a 48 V, 200 W TIFOSDDC is designed, and characteristicsCharacteristics are obtained in the MATLABMATLAB environment and validated in Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) with OPAL-RT4510.

Ch. Nayak Bhukya, Amarendra Reddy Bhimavarapu, Venkatesh Allam, Surender Reddy Salkuti
SVPWM Based Transformerless Z-Source Five Level Cascaded Inverter with Grid Connected PV System

Multilevel invertersInverter convertGrid connected DC powerPower to AC powerPower at theGrid-Connected PV System proper output voltageOutput voltage and frequencyFrequency stage, making them a highly desirable choice for high-powerPower medium voltageVoltage switchingSwitching applications right now. Multilevel inverterInverter design involves the development of specific structures. A novel solarSolar input-dependent space vector pulse width modulationSpace vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithmAlgorithms is presented for the single-phasePhase five-level inverterInverter, and the root cause of the DC-side condenser voltageVoltage imbalance is investigated. The method of adjusting the voltageVoltage change coefficient is recommended to modify the effective timeTime of the positive and negative small vectorsSmall vectors to control the possible neutralNeutral point equilibrium, which is focused on detecting the position of the loadLoad currentCurrent and the capacitor voltageCapacitor voltage. Utilizing simulation, the newest SVPWM approach's validity is examined. It is verified to compare different PWMSPulse Width Modulation (PWM) and stage invertersInverter using all relevant parameters, including voltagesVoltage, currentsCurrent, and total harmonic distortionTotal harmonic distortion (THD). Fewer switches, carrier signals, and THD were needed for the suggested topologyTopology compared to conventionalConventional topologiesTopology.

R. Palanisamy, S. Usha, D. Selvabharathi, K. Selvakumar, Surender Reddy Salkuti
An Empirical Analysis of Campus Energy Monitoring Systems Using Cloud-Based Storage

A high-performance cloud-based campus energy monitoring systemCampus energy monitoring system (CEMS) is proposedAnalysis inCampus energy monitoring system this chapter. The energy monitoringEnergy monitoring system is very important to easily visualize the consumed energyEnergy or powerPower in loadLoad centers. It’s easy to create awareness among electricity consumersConsumer to control the powerPower consumption, cost slab change monitoring based on a number of units, loadLoad shift based on loadLoad portents in photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) connected loadLoad centers, etc. Cloud-based campus energy monitoring systemsCampus energy monitoring system are also helpful to industrial and commercial loadLoad operatorsOperator to avoid maximum demand penaltiesMaximum demand penalties (MDP). MDP is paid by the consumerConsumer whenever the connected loadLoad exceeds the pre-contracted powerPower. The proposed CEMS project is implemented in BVRIT Narsapur college campus for analyzing the total powerPower and energyEnergy consumption, currentCurrent, voltageVoltage, and powerPower factor, maximum demand crossed timeTime, and comparative analysisAnalysis between different energy monitoringEnergy monitoring systems.

P. Chandra Babu, R. Pavankumar, M. Prameela, Muneeshwar Ramavath, Pandla Chinna Dastagiri Goud, Chamakura Ramsai Reddy, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Development of Power Quality Disturbances Dataset for Classification Using Deep Learning

Power quality (PQ) disturbanceDisturbances identificationIdentification is an essential and critical task for both utility and industry. Deep learning based approaches are using for automatic PQ disturbanceDisturbances that requires huge amount of data. In this chapter, the detailed procedure to develop the PQ disturbanceDisturbances dataset is discussed. Total 13 PQ disturbancesDisturbances considered while developing the dataset. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with daubechies wavelet is used to extract the featuresFeatures from PQ disturbance signal. MATLABMATLAB software is used to generate the PQ disturbance signals and to extract the detailed and approximated DWT coefficients. In this chapter, Multi-Resolution AnalysisMulti-Resolution Analysis (MRA) algorithm is used to decomposition and reconstruction the signal at resolution level of 8.

Venkataramana Veeramsetty, Aitha Dhanush, Gundapu Rama Krishna, Aluri Nagapradyullatha, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Short Circuit Analysis and Relay Coordination of Power System Network

Power systemPower systems analysisAnalysis isShort circuit aAnalysis veryRelay essentialPower systems componentNetwork of power systemPower systems engineering. Basically in a power systemPower systems, the major duty of the utility system is to supply powerPower continuously without any break. However, it is often found that most of the faultFault cases occur in the system due to failure of the circuit breakerCircuit breaker and relayRelay which reduces the efficiencyEfficiency of the system. Out of different faultFault analysesAnalysis, the short circuitShort circuit (SC) faultFault analysisAnalysis is the most vital and complex job in electrical powerPower engineering. To ensure the system is reliableReliable and stable, SC analysisAnalysis is required. Therefore, from the analytical point of view, in this work, SC analysisAnalysis and relay coordinationRelay coordination are analyzed in an IEEEIEEE 14-bus power systemPower systems networkNetwork. The experiment is conducted using Mi-powerPower software.

Soumya Ranjan Das, Tapas Kumar Panigrahi, Durgamadhab Sahu, Bikash Kumar Rout, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Power Quality Disturbances Data Dimensionality Reduction Using Autoencoder

Dimensionality reduction is an important techniques to reduce the size of the data in terms of number of input features so that light weight models can be developed. In this paper, power quality disturbances dataset consists of 750 rows and 72 columns is reduced using autoencoderAutoencoder without loss of much information. Lower dimensional data consists of total 750 rows and 21 columns. It means that any machine learning model can be designed with 21 input features instead of 72 input features that leads reduction in complexity of model in terms model parameters. AutoencoderAutoencoder model is developed using python, from the results, it is observed that the autoencoderAutoencoder is compressing the original data with less validation loss and without much variance deviation from the original data.

Venkataramana Veeramsetty, Aitha Dhanush, Gundapu Rama Krishna, Aluri Nagapradyullatha, Surender Reddy Salkuti, Kiran Teeparthi
The Metamorphic Influence of Nascent Technologies on Intelligent Grid Networks

The rapid evolution and widespread integration of emerging technologies within the energyEnergy sector haveAnalysis ushered in a profound transformation in the realm of powerPower gridsGrid, catalyzing a seismic shift towards smarter, more sustainableSustainable systems. This abstract embarks on a comprehensive exploration, peering into the intricate dynamics of these technological strides and illuminating their profound implications for energyEnergy efficiencyEfficiency and environmental considerations. At the heart of this study lies the pivotal facet of renewable energyRenewable energy integration. This facet represents a pivotal linchpin in the transition towards a more sustainableSustainable energyEnergy paradigm. As society grapples with the imperative of reducing its carbon footprint, the infusion of renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources such as solarSolar and wind powerPower into the gridGrid becomes not just a technological feat but a moral and ecological imperative. These sources, harnessed through innovative technologies, offer a potent antidote to the environmental challenges posed by fossil fuels. This abstract seeks to underscore the transformative prowess inherent in these innovations. Its aspirations reach far beyond theoretical conjecture, offering a grounded, real-world perspective on their implications. The potential harbored within these emerging technologies is profound, promising to augment endeavors in energy conservationEnergy conservation, combat the deleterious effects of greenhouse gas emissions, and chart a course toward a future where energyEnergy distribution and consumption coalesce harmoniously with ecological imperatives. In sum, this study unveils the multifaceted tapestry of smart gridGrid technologies, elevating their significance as architects of a more sustainableSustainable and environmentally attuned energyEnergy landscape.

Debani Prasad Mishra, Anubhav Prakash Gaur, Yash Rai, Surender Reddy Salkuti
A Novel FSD Reconfiguration Technique for Dynamic Shading in Photovoltaic Systems

Among theDynamic shading highest importantPhotovoltaic system factors that can affect the powerPower generation and energyEnergy efficiencyEfficiency of a photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) system is the condition of partial shading condition (PSC). Under these conditions, PV system panels receive different radiation levels that affect the solarSolar photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (SPV) system’s output powerPower in terms of mismatch and cable losses, while also reducing the system's efficiencyEfficiency. Different topologiesTopology and methods of conventionalConventional and hybrid PV panels are proposed in the literature to tackle this problem. This chapter discusses three such static reconfiguration techniques (SRT) which are analyzed for dynamic shadingDynamic shading by considering the dynamic movement of the shade in horizontal and vertical directions and are compared with the proposed Futo-Sumdoku (FSD) reconfiguration technique. In this chapter, a 5 × 5 PV arrayPhotovoltaic Array is simulated in a MATLABMATLAB/Simulink environment to evaluate their metrics such as global maximum power pointGlobal maximum power point (GMPP), mismatch lossesMismatch losses (ML), and fill factorFill factor (FF).

K. Jagadeesh, Ch. Chengaiah, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Wavelet-ANN Based Detection of Fault Location of Renewable Energy Sources Integrated Power Transmission System

TheWavelet interconnectionInterconnection ofRenewable energy sources non-conventionalNon-Conventional energyFault location sourcesEnergy source necessitatesPower supplyingTransmission system uninterruptedUninterrupted and high power qualityPower quality to consumersConsumer located in a vast geothermalGeothermal area to meet the increased demand. Because of these aspects, the study of powerPower flows, faultFault calculations, and protection aspects in the presence of renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources assumes a vital role. The complexity of the power systemPower systems increases with an increase in penetration of conventionalConventional and non-conventionalNon-Conventional energy sourcesEnergy source to meet the increasing load demandLoad demand over hundreds of kilometers long. There will be protection challenges due to different powerPower ratings and fault current levelsFault current levels of both types of sources. Thus, it is necessary to develop a suitable algorithmAlgorithms to identify the location of the faultFault accurately in the presence of conventionalConventional and renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources integrated powerPower transmission systemsTransmission system for long and short distances. In this chapter, a novel WaveletWavelet-Artificial Neural NetworkArtificial Neural Network (ANN) based method is developed where the waveletWavelet multi-resolution analysisMulti-Resolution Analysis is used to obtainDetailed Coefficients Detailed (D1) coefficients from the faultFault current signalsCurrent signals and this data is used for training and testing ANN. The fault locationFault location is carried out in the presence of conventionalConventional and renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources on a 4-bus connected transmission systemTransmission system. A 4-bus transmission systemTransmission system is simulated using simulation softwareSimulation software and the analysisAnalysis of faultFault is done by using current signalsCurrent signals of various faultsFault. This analysisAnalysis is worked out almost within half a cycle of current signalsCurrent signals. The proposed waveletWavelet-ANN-based algorithmAlgorithms is tested for all faultFault conditions with different powerPower ratings of conventionalConventional and renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources at various distances. The proposed method provided the best results for the fault locationFault location at different fault impedancesFault impedances, generator capacities, and fault inception anglesFault inception angles.

S. Chandra Shekar, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Smart Grid and Energy Management Systems: A Global Perspective

The abstract summarizes a comprehensive exploration of smart gridGrid (SG) development and energy managementEnergy management systems (EMS) opportunities across different regions, focusing on the USA, China, Europe, and India. The USA, driven by the Electric PowerPower Research Institute (EPRI), emphasizes advanced technologies such as smart meters and carbon capture. In China, the emphasis is on diverse development and environmental protection through the efforts of the China Electric PowerPower Research Institute (CEPRI). Europe, through the European EnergyEnergy Research Alliance (EERA), pursues a 20:20:20 objective for renewable energyRenewable energy, emission reduction, and energyEnergy efficiencyEfficiency. In India, opportunities include gridGrid resilience, power quality improvementPower quality improvement, consumerConsumer engagement, and support for diverse energy sourcesEnergy source. The abstract further delves into the evolution of EMS from the 1960s to the present, highlighting its phasesPhase, objectives, and applications at various levels, including distribution. The EMS objectives span technical, economic, environmental, and social-economic dimensions, emphasizing efficiencyEfficiency, cost-effectiveness, environmental responsibility, and stakeholder engagement. The document explores EMS implementation factors such as uncertainty management and power qualityPower quality (PQ), followed by a discussion of solution approaches categorized into mathematical programming-based, heuristicHeuristic-based, metaheuristic-based, and alternative strategies. The real-world applications of EMS are examined, emphasizing the choice between centralized and decentralized control structures and the hierarchical nature of EMS.

Debani Prasad Mishra, Anubhav Prakash Gaur, Yash Kumar Rai, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Active Power Load and Electrical Energy Price Datasets for Load and Price Forecasting

Short term electric power load is an essential task for successful energy trading, smooth operation and planning of transmission andDistribution network distribution networksDistribution network. AccurateAccurate electrical energyElectrical Energy price forecasting is required for successful energy trading. Many deep learning based approaches are using for the accurateAccurate forecasting of load and price. Even consider the most popular deep learning model also some times not able to forecast the loadLoad and price accurately if it is trained with bad data. So, more focus is required on data preparation. In this paper, active powerActive power load dataset and electrical energy price datasets are presented along with various statistical features and other data pre-processing techniques. To prepare the active powerActive power load dataset and electrical energyElectrical Energy price dataset, practical hourly loadLoad and price data is collected from Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) for the period between 01-01-2021 and 31-08-2023.

Venkataramana Veeramsetty, Baddam Nikitha, Thallapalli Siddartha, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Design and Analysis of Digitally Operated PV Emulator with Resistive Load Using Newton–Raphson Method

Renewable sources areAnalysis beingEmulator introducedLoad into the energyEnergy systems with global alliances to cater to a part of our daily energyEnergy requirements. Lately, there has been a significant spotlight on the utilization of non-traditional wellsprings of energyEnergy e.g., sunlight which is discontinuous in nature because of the environmental conditions. It is very useful to use different kinds of maximum power point trackingMaximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques to get the highest powerPower from solarSolar panels. In any case, these calculations need thorough testing before applying on photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) panels which is problematic because of higher reliance on experimental sun-oriented irradianceIrradiance data, and huge space prerequisites according to the powerPower rating of solarSolar panels. In this proposition, a new imitated device has been proposed. The operational stage is used in such a way that its functionality relies on real PV. The full system depicts the PV design and its control and with the help of formulations, it mimics the real PV. This technique also provides the working place of the powerPower circuit utilizing a direct referring procedure. Controlled guidelines in environmental variables lead to more improvised MPPT regulators. In this chapter, a PV emulatorEmulator has been proposed with varying irradianceIrradiance.

Partha Sarathi Panuya, Surender Reddy Salkuti, Kuntal Mandal, Molay Roy, Seong-Cheol Kim
Design and Analysis of Digitally Controlled Newton–Raphson Method Based Hardware Integrated PV Emulator with Resistive Load

Due to the populationLoad growthAnalysis andEmulator to fulfil the energyEnergy needs common energy sourcesEnergy source are reducing day by day. In replacement of traditional sources, renewable energyRenewable energy must be very useful for future generations from economical and use aspects. To the investigation and experiment it is not possible to extract maximum useful energyEnergy from all renewable sources because of the non-availability of solar energySolar energy provides. Several hypothetical models are available to design and explore solar energySolar energy but due to climatic conditions, extracting useful energyEnergy is one of the difficult processes. Lately, to work against the environmental conditions system needs rapid calculation before applying to the photovoltaicPhotovoltaic (PV) panel because of its huge space requirement and solarSolar irradianceIrradiance. In the later stage, need to keep track of the maximum power point trackingMaximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to extract maximum powerMaximum Power from the panel. To avoid this condition, an emulated device is designed in such a manner that provides similar characteristicsCharacteristics to a real PV source. The whole structure followed the mathematical formula to replicate a real PV source and it also works on a direct control method to provide the working area of the powerPower circuit. MPPT techniques are used in such a way to work on any environmental condition. Variable irradianceIrradiance has been proposed to test the system's functionality.

Partha Sarathi Panuya, Surender Reddy Salkuti, Kuntal Mandal, Molay Roy, Seong-Cheol Kim
Optimal Location Selection of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations and Capacitors in Radial Distribution Networks Using GJO Algorithm

Electric vehiclesElectric vehicle (EVs) will beOptimal theCapacitor primary modeRadial distribution network ofAlgorithms transportation in the future due to their low greenhouse gas emissions and sustainability. It is also becoming more and more well-liked because of its reduced maintenance requirements, enhanced performance, and zero carbon footprint. After a set amount of driving, EVs must recharge or swap their batteriesBattery at electric vehicle charging stationsElectric vehicle charging station (EVCSs)/EV battery storage systemsBattery storage system (EVBSSs) because their batteriesBattery have a low specific energyEnergy. To overcome EV limitations, it is necessary to integrate the EVCS/EVBSSs at various locations in theRadial radial distribution networkRadial distribution network (RDN) with proper planning and good infrastructure. Since EVs draw powerPower from the RDN during batteryBattery charging and store the electrical energyElectrical energy as chemical energyEnergy, the EVCS is considered a loadLoad. Installation of EVCS causes variationVariation in powerPower flow in the RDN. RDN's performance is impacted as the use of electric vehiclesElectric vehicle grows. The primary issue is the deterioration of the RDN as a result of an inappropriate EVCS position. It leads to a rise in active power lossActive power loss, deterioration in voltage profileVoltage profile, poorer networkNetwork dependability, and a drop in voltageVoltage stabilityStability margin. The RDN has a connection to the charging station and collaborates with the distribution networkDistribution network reactive powerReactive power compensator to reduce the EVCS's impact. To discover the optimalOptimal location of capacitorsCapacitor and EVCS in 33-bus and 69-bus RDNs, a new nature-inspired Golden Jackal OptimizationOptimization (GJO) algorithmAlgorithms was used. The findings encourage researchers to incorporate reactive powerReactive power compensators in the RDN at the appropriate locations and sizes to reduce the impact of EVCS loadLoad on various execution parameters.

Rampreet Manjhi, Deepak Kumar Lal, Sandeep Biswal, Surender Reddy Salkuti
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Energy and Environmental Aspects of Emerging Technologies for Smart Grid
Editor
Surender Reddy Salkuti
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-18389-8
Print ISBN
978-3-031-18388-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18389-8