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About this book

This open access book presents papers displayed in the 2nd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Futures (ICESF 2020), co-organised by the University of Hertfordshire and the University Alliance DTA in Energy. The research included in this book covers a wide range of topics in the areas of energy and sustainability including:
• ICT and control of energy;• conventional energy sources;• energy governance;• materials in energy research;• renewable energy; and• energy storage.
The book offers a holistic view of topics related to energy and sustainability, making it of interest to experts in the field, from industry and academia.

Table of Contents


Energy Storage and Sources


Open Access

Chapter 1. Solute Driven Transient Convection in Layered Porous Media

CO2 geological sequestration has been proposed as a climate change mitigation strategy that can contribute towards meeting the Paris Agreement. A key process on which successful injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifer relies on is the dissolution of CO2 in brine. CO2 dissolution improves storage security and reduces risk of leakage by (i) removing the CO2 from a highly mobile fluid phase and (ii) triggering gravity-induced convective instability which accelerates the downward migration of dissolved CO2. Our understanding of CO2 density-driven convection in geologic media is limited. Studies on transient convective instability are mostly in homogeneous systems or in systems with heterogeneity in the form of random permeability distribution or dispersed impermeable barriers. However, layering which exist naturally in sedimentary geological formations has not received much research attention on transient convection. Therefore, we investigate the role of layering on the onset time of convective instability and on the flow pattern beyond the onset time during CO2 storage. We find that while layering has no significant effect on the onset time, it has an impact on the CO2 flux. Our findings suggest that detailed reservoir characterisation is required to forecast the ability of a formation to sequester CO2.

Emmanuel E. Luther, Seyed M. Shariatipour, Michael C. Dallaston, Ran Holtzman

Open Access

Chapter 2. Towards an Optimal Deep Neural Network for SOC Estimation of Electric-Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

This paper has identified a minimal configuration of a DNN architecture and hyperparameter settings to effectively estimate SOC of EV battery cells. The results from the experimental work has shown that a minimal configuration of hidden layers and neurons can reduce the computational cost and resources required without compromising the performance. This is further supported by the number of epochs taken to train the best DNN SOC estimations model. Hence, demonstrating that, the risk of overfitting estimation models to training datasets, can also be subsided. This is further supported by the generalisation capability of the best model demonstrated through the decrease in error metrics values from test phase to those in validation phase.

Muhammad Anjum, Moizzah Asif, Jonathan Williams

Open Access

Chapter 3. A Brief Review on Nano Phase Change Material-Based Polymer Encapsulation for Thermal Energy Storage Systems

In recent years, considerable attention has been given to phase change materials (PCMs) that is suggested as a possible medium for thermal energy storage. PCM encapsulation technology is an efficient method of enhancing thermal conductivity and solving problems of corrosion and leakage during a charging process. Moreover, nanoencapsulation of phase change materials with polymer has several benefits as a thermal energy storage media, such as small-scale, high heat transfer efficiency and large specific surface area. However, the lower thermal conductivity (TC) of PCMs hinders the thermal efficiency of the polymer based nano-capsules. This review covers the effect of polymer encapsulation on PCMs while concentrating on providing solutions related to improving the thermal efficiency of system.

Muhammad Aamer Hayat, Yong Chen

Open Access

Chapter 4. Exploring the Relationship Between Heat Absorption and Material Thermal Parameters for Thermal Energy Storage

Using thermal energy storage alongside renewables is a way of diminishing the energy lack that exists when renewable energies are unable to run. An in-depth understanding of the specific effect of material properties is needed to enhance the performance of thermal energy storage systems. In this paper, we used fitting models and regression analysis to quantify the effect that latent heat of melting and material density have on the overall heat absorption. A single tank system, with encapsulated phase change materials is analysed with materials properties tested in the range of values commonly found in the literature. These materials are, therefore, hypothetically constructed ones based on materials such as paraffin. The software used for the numerical analysis is COMSOL Mulitphysics. Results show that the relationship between the latent heat and density regarding heat absorbed is a positive linear function for this system.

Law Torres Sevilla, Jovana Radulovic

ICT and Control


Open Access

Chapter 5. A Novel Approach for U-Value Estimation of Buildings’ Multi-layer Walls Using Infrared Thermography and Artificial Intelligence

Estimating the U-value of walls of buildings is a key process to evaluate the overall thermal performance. Low U-value in buildings is desired in order to keep heat within the envelop and consume less energy in heating. Addressing the limitations in the currently used U-value estimation techniques, this paper proposes a novel approach for estimating the U-value of the envelop of buildings using infrared thermography and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with the application of a point heat source. The novel system is calibrated by training the ANN in a lab environment using a wide range of samples with multi-layers to be able to estimate the in situ U-value of walls in real buildings during field work with relatively high accuracy.

Arijit Sen, Amin Al-Habaibeh

Open Access

Chapter 6. Binary versus Multiclass Deep Learning Modelling in Energy Disaggregation

This paper compares two different deep-learning architectures for the use in energy disaggregation and Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring breaks down the aggregated energy consumption into individual appliance consumptions, thus detecting device operation. In detail, the “One versus All” approach, where one deep neural network per appliance is trained, and the “Multi-Output” approach, where the number of output nodes is equal to the number of appliances, are compared to each other. Evaluation is done on a state-of-the-art baseline system using standard performance measures and a set of publicly available datasets out of the REDD database.

Pascal A. Schirmer, Iosif Mporas

Open Access

Chapter 7. Review of Heat Demand Time Series Generation for Energy System Modelling

National heat demand time series are important inputs into national energy system models. Although time series for primary fuel such as gas might be available, heat demand is not and measuring heat demand is only possible for individual buildings. Four different methods are used in this work to generate daily heat demand time series for Great Britain for 2016–2018 from temperature and windspeed and are validated against heat demand derived from national grid gas demand. All seem to model heat demand well.

Malcolm Peacock, Aikaterini Fragaki, Bogdan J. Matuszewski

Open Access

Chapter 8. Detection of Patterns in Pressure Signal of Compressed Air System Using Wavelet Transform

This paper investigates detecting patterns in the pressure signal of a compressed air system (CAS) with a load/unload control using a wavelet transform. The pressure signal of a CAS carries useful information about operational events. These events form patterns that can be used as ‘signatures’ for event detection. Such patterns are not always apparent in the time domain and hence the signal was transformed to the time-frequency domain. Three different CAS operating modes were considered: idle, tool activation and faulty. The wavelet transforms of the CAS pressure signal reveal unique features to identify events within each mode. Future work will investigate creating machine learning tools for that utilize these features for fault detection in CAS.

Mohamad Thabet, David Sanders, Nils Bausch

Open Access

Chapter 9. The Impact of Data Segmentation in Predicting Monthly Building Energy Use with Support Vector Regression

Advances in metering technologies and machine learning methods provide both opportunities and challenges for predicting building energy usage in the both the short and long term. However, there are minimal studies on comparing machine learning techniques in predicting building energy usage on their rolling horizon, compared with comparisons based upon a singular forecast range. With the majority of forecasts ranges being within the range of one week, due to the significant increases in error beyond short term building energy prediction. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the accuracy of building energy predictions can be improved for long term predictions, in part of a larger study into which machine learning techniques predict more accuracy within different forecast ranges. In this case study the ‘Clarendon building’ of Teesside University was selected for use in using it’s BMS data (Building Management System) to predict the building’s overall energy usage with Support Vector Regression. Examining how altering what data is used to train the models, impacts their overall accuracy. Such as by segmenting the model by building modes (Active and dormant), or by days of the week (Weekdays and weekends). Of which it was observed that modelling building weekday and weekend energy usage, lead to a reduction of 11% MAPE on average compared with unsegmented predictions.

William Mounter, Huda Dawood, Nashwan Dawood

Open Access

Chapter 10. Development of an Advanced Solar Tracking Energy System

This paper describes the design of an advanced solar tracking system development that can be deployed for a range of applications. The work focused on the design and implementation of an advanced solar tracking system that follow the trajectory of the sun’s path to maximise the power capacity generated by the solar panel. The design concept focussed on reliability, cost effectiveness, and scalability. System performance is of course a key issue and is at the heart of influencing the hardware, software and mechanical design. The result ensured a better system performance achieved. Stability issues were also addressed, in relation to optimisation and reliability. The paper details the physical tracker device developed as a prototype, as well as the proposed advanced control system for optimising the tracking.

Samuel Davies, Sivagunalan Sivanathan, Ewen Constant, Kary Thanapalan

Open Access

Chapter 11. Integration of Building Information Modelling and Augmented Reality for Building Energy Systems Visualisation

Buildings consist of numerous energy systems, including heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and lighting systems. Typically, such systems are not fully visible in operational building environments, as some elements remain built into the walls, or hidden behind false ceilings. Fully visualising energy systems in buildings has the potential to improve understanding of the systems’ performance and enhance maintenance processes. For such purposes, this paper describes the process of integrating Building Information Modelling (BIM) models with Augmented Reality (AR) and identifies the current limitations associated with the visualisation of building energy systems in AR using BIM. Testing of the concept included creating and superimposing a BIM model of a room in its actual physical environment and performing a walk-in analysis. The experimentation concluded that the concept could result in effective visualisation of energy systems with further development on the establishment of near real-time information.

Vishak Dudhee, Vladimir Vukovic

Open Access

Chapter 12. GB Grid 9 August 2019 Power Outage and Grid Inertia

A power outage on 9 August 2019 raised questions about the ability of the GB electricity grid to withstand rapid changes in frequency caused by outages and surges on the network. Grid inertia has been changing in recent years due to the emergence of renewable energy generation as a significant contributor to the energy mix. Measures to mitigate this change need to be evaluated and the level of investment required to prevent a reoccurrence of such an event quantified. An outline is presented of a research programme towards this goal.

Christian Cooke

Open Access

Chapter 13. Analytical Model for Compressed Air System Analysis

This paper presents a simple analytical model for a compressed air system (CAS) supply side. The supply side contains components responsible for production, treatment and storage of compressed air such as a compressor, cooler and a storage tank. Simulation of system performance with different storage tank size and system pressure set-point were performed. Results showed that a properly sized tank volume reduces energy consumption while maintaining good system pressure stability. Moreover, results also showed that reducing system pressure reduced energy consumption, however a more detailed model that considers end-user equipment is required to study effect of pressure set-point on energy consumption. Future work will focus on developing a supply-demand side coupled model and on utilizing model in developing new control strategies for improved energy performance.

Mohamad Thabet, David Sanders, Victor Becerra

Open Access

Chapter 14. Design Improvement of Water-Cooled Data Centres Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Data centres are complex energy demanding environments. The number of data centres and thereby their energy consumption around the world is growing at a rapid rate. Cooling the servers in the form of air conditioning forms a major part of the total energy consumption in data centres and thus there is an urgent need to develop alternative energy efficient cooling technologies. Liquid cooling systems are one such solution which are in their early developmental stage. In this article, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to further improve the design of liquid-cooled systems is discussed by predicting temperature distribution and heat exchanger performance. A typical 40 kW rack cabinet with rear door fans and an intermediate air–liquid heat exchanger is used in the CFD simulations. Steady state Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes modelling approach with the RNG K-epsilon turbulence model and the Radiator boundary conditions were used in the simulations. Results predict that heat exchanger effectiveness and uniform airflow across the cabinet are key factors to achieve efficient cooling and to avoid hot spots. The fundamental advantages and limitations of CFD modelling in liquid-cooled data centre racks were also discussed. In additional, emerging technologies for data centre cooling have also been discussed.

Ramamoorthy Sethuramalingam, Abhishek Asthana



Open Access

Chapter 15. Enhancing Methane Production from Spring-Harvested Sargassum muticum

Sargassum muticum is a brown seaweed which is invasive to Europe and currently treated as waste. The use of S. muticum for biofuel production by anaerobic digestion (AD) is limited by low methane (CH4) yields. This study compares the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of S. muticum treated in three different approaches: aqueous methanol (70% MeOH) treated, washed, and untreated. Aqueous MeOH treatment of spring-harvested S. muticum was found to increase CH4 production potential by almost 50% relative to the untreated biomass. The MeOH treatment possibly extracts AD inhibitors which could be high-value compounds for use in the pharmaceutical industry, showing potential for the development of a biorefinery approach; ultimately exploiting this invasive seaweed species.

Supattra Maneein, John J. Milledge, Birthe V. Nielsen

Open Access

Chapter 16. Integration of Catalytic Biofuel Production and Anaerobic Digestion for Biogas Production

The drive towards a low carbon economy will lead to an increase in new lignocellulosic biorefinery activities. Integration of biorefinery waste products into established bioenergy technologies could lead to synergies for increased bioenergy production. In this study, we show that solid residue from the acid hydrolysis production of levulinic acid, has hydrochar properties and can be utilised as an Anaerobic Digestion (AD) supplement. The addition of 6 g/L solid residue to the AD of ammonia inhibited chicken manure improved methane yields by +14.1%. The co-digestion of biorefinery waste solids and manures could be a promising solution for improving biogas production from animal manures, sustainable waste management method and possible form of carbon sequestration.

G. Hurst, M. Peeters, S. Tedesco

Open Access

Chapter 17. Effects of CrN/TiN Coatings on Interfacial Contact Resistance of Stainless Steel 410 Bipolar Plates in Fuel Cells

Challenge on energy resources exists, especially when the fossil resources are limited. Fuel cells, as an alternative replacement, can be used. Fuel cells with coated bipolar plates are the interest of this paper. Current research is concerned with the effects of CrN/TiN coatings on interfacial contact resistance (ICR). Stainless steel 410 was selected as a base metal, and the coating process was performed using chromium nitride and titanium nitride by cathodic arc evaporation method. It was found that the surface roughness and ICR values of CrN-coated sample are lower than the TiN-coated sample. The concluded that the CrN layer could be replaced with the TiN layer for better performance of bipolar plates.

Mohsen Forouzanmehr, Kazem Reza Kashyzadeh, Amirhossein Borjali, Mosayeb Jafarnode, Mahmoud Chizari

Open Access

Chapter 18. Moisture Stable Soot Coated Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Photoelectrodes for Hydrogen Production in Water

Metal halide perovskites have triggered a quantum leap in the photovoltaic technology marked by a humongous improvement in the device performance in a matter of just a few years. Despite their promising optoelectronic properties, their use in the photovoltaic sector remains restricted due to their inherent instability towards moisture. Here, we report a simple, cost-effective and highly efficient protection strategy that enables their use as photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production while being immersed in water. A uniform coating of candle soot and silica is developed as an efficient hydrophobic coating that protects the perovskite from water while allowing the photogenerated electrons to reach the counter electrode. We achieve remarkable stability with photocurrent density above 1.5 mA cm−2 at 1 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) for ~1 h under constant illumination. These results indicate an efficient route for the development of stable perovskite photoelectrodes for solar water splitting.

Udit Tiwari, Sahab Dass

Open Access

Chapter 19. Low-Speed Aerodynamic Analysis Using Four Different Turbulent Models of Solver of a Wind Turbine Shroud

This study presents the effect of four different turbulent models of solver on the aerodynamic analysis of a shroud at wind speed below 6 m/s. The converting shroud uses a combination of a cylindrical case and an inverted circular wing base which captures the wind from a 360° direction. The CFD models used are: the SST (Menter) k-ω model, the Reynolds Stress Transport (RST) model, the Improved Delay Detached Eddies Simulation model (IDDES) SST k-ω model and the Large Eddies Simulation Wall Adaptive model. It was found that all models have predicted a convergent surface pressure. The RST, the IDDES and the WALE LES are the only models which have well described regions of pressure gradient. They have all predicted a pressure difference between the planes (1–5) which shows a movement of the air from the lower plane 1 (inlet) to the higher plane 5 (outlet). The RST and IDDES have predicted better vorticities on the plane 1 (inlet). It was also found that the model RST, IDDES, and WALE LES have captured properly the area of turbulences across the internal region of the case. All models have predicted the point of flow separation. They have also revealed that the IDDES and the WALE LES can capture and model the wake eddies at different planes. Thus, they are the most appropriate for such simulation although demanding in computational power. The movement of air predicted by almost all models could be used to drive a turbine.

M. M. Siewe Ngouani, Yong Kang Chen, R. Day, O. David-West

Open Access

Chapter 20. Design Procedure of a Hybrid Renewable Power Generation System

Electrification of small communities in districted off-grid area remains as a challenge for power generation industries. In the current study, various aspects of design of a standalone renewable power plant are examined and implemented in a case study of a rural area in Cape Town, South Africa. Estimating required electricity based on local demand profile, investment, operability, and maintenance costs of different generation technologies are studied in order to investigate their potential in an off-grid clean energy generation system. Several configurations of hybridization of solar system, wind, and micro gas turbine in combination with a battery are investigated. The Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and number of days with more than 3 h black out are compared.

Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Ali Izadi, Seyed Hossein Madani, Yong Chen, Mahmoud Chizari

Open Access

Chapter 21. Recycling Mine Tailings for a Sustainable Future Built Environment

The future sustainable built environment focuses mainly on environmental conservation and technological innovation and development. However, with infrastructure development, the consumption of raw materials such as cement, gypsum, sand, and stones increases. Therefore, use of industrial waste as raw material in construction shall be proposed as a sustainable and environment friendly alternative. Also, the higher demand for mineral commodities have led to increased mining and hence increased mining waste. The mine tailings being the wastes from rocks and minerals processing, are generally rich in Si, Ca, Al, Mg, and Fe, and also have considerable amounts of heavy metals and metalloids such as Pb, As, Co, Cu, Zn, V, and Cr. When tailings contain sulphide minerals, it may also lead to acid mine drainage. This makes the effective and efficient recycling and reuse of mine waste a major environmental concern. However, the physical, mineralogical and chemical composition of the mine tailings renders it a suitable material for use in civil engineering applications. This paper discusses the use of mine tailings of different origins for different civil engineering applications such as bricks, ceramics, fine aggregates, coarse aggregate and cementitious binders. This approach has a potential to reduce the demand on existing natural resources to face the demands of the exponentially developing infrastructure.

Surya Maruthupandian, Napoleana Anna Chaliasou, Antonios Kanellopoulos

Open Access

Chapter 22. Optimal Design of Environmental-Friendly Hybrid Power Generation System

Combination of both renewable and fuel-based generation systems is an advantageous approach to develop off-grid distributed power plants. This approach requires evaluation of the techno-economic potential of each source in a selected site as well as optimization of load sharing strategy between them. Development of a remote hybrid power plant in an off-grid area is the interest of this study. Defining all available combinations, characteristics of performance, cost and availability of them evaluated. Applying constraints, multi-objective target domain based on load following and Levelized Cost of Electricity is established in which by utilizing Pareto front approach, optimized scenarios is achieved.

SeyedVahid Hosseini, Ali Izadi, Afsaneh Sadat Boloorchi, Seyed Hossein Madani, Yong Chen, Mahmoud Chizari

Open Access

Chapter 23. Distributed Activation Energy Model for Thermal Decomposition of Polypropylene Waste

Thermal decomposition kinetics of Polypropylene (PP) waste is extremely important with respect to valorisation of waste plastics and production of utilizable components viz. chemicals, fuel oil & gas. The present research study focuses on pyrolysis kinetics of PP waste, which is present as a fraction of municipal plastic waste through distributed activation energy model (DAEM). The decomposition kinetics for PP follows a Gaussian distribution, where the normal distribution curves were centred corresponding to activation energy of 224 kJ/mol. The standard deviation of the distribution for the PP sample was found to be 22 kJ/mol indicating its wider distribution of decomposition range. The data validation has been carried out by comparing the rate parameter and extent of conversion values calculated through DAEM model with the Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments carried out for PP at various heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 40 °C/min.

S. Kartik, Hemant K. Balsora, Abhishek Sharma, Anand G. Chakinala, Abhishek Asthana, Mukesh Goel, Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi

Open Access

Chapter 24. Innovative Strategy for Addressing the Challenges of Monitoring Off-Shore Wind Turbines for Condition-Based Maintenance

Off-shore wind energy technology is considered to be one of the most important renewable energy source in the 21st century towards reducing carbon emission and providing the electricity needed to power our cities. However, due to being installed away from the shore, ensuring availability and performing maintenance procedures could be an expensive and time consuming task. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) could play an important role in enhancing the payback period on investment and avoiding unexpected failures that could reduce the available capacity and increase maintenance costs. Due to being at distance from the shore, it is difficult to transfer high frequency data in real time and because of this data transferring issue, only low frequency-average SCADA data (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) is available for condition monitoring. Another problem when monitoring wind energy is the massive variation in weather conditions (e.g. wind speed and direction), which could produce a wide range of operational alerts and warnings. This paper presents a novel case study of integrated event-based wind turbine alerts with time-based sensory data from the SCADA system to perform a condition monitoring strategy to categorise health conditions. The initial results presented in this paper, using vibration levels of the drive train, indicate that the suggested monitoring strategy could be implemented to develop an effective condition monitoring system.

Amin Al-Habaibeh, Ampea Boateng, Hyunjoo Lee

Electric Vehicles and Transportation Technology


Open Access

Chapter 25. Impact of Replacing Conventional Cars with Electric Vehicles on UK Electricity Grid and Carbon Emissions

This paper estimated the effect of electric vehicle transition on UK road and how it impacts on electricity supply and the reduction of carbon emissions. It used a scenario in which all cars that utilise internal combustion engines will be replaced by EVs in the UK. The methodology is based on speculating the future number of EVs in Great Britain, which helped in estimating the amount of additional electricity usage that would be required for the scenario. The results revealed that approximately 81 TWh of additional electricity must be produced annually to compensate for such expansion of EV. With that increase in electricity generation, the levels of carbon emissions from the electrical grid will rise slightly, by about 8.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. Given that combustion vehicles contribute to about 42% of the carbon emissions from the transport sector in the UK, it is concluded that the total amount of CO2 in the country will decrease by approximately 12% of all cars with internal combustion engines are replaced by electric vehicles.

George Milev, Amin Al-Habaibeh, Daniel Shin

Open Access

Chapter 26. The Effect of Temperature Variation on Bridges—A Literature Review

Bridges are commonly subjected to complex load scenarios in their lifetime. Understanding the response of bridges under such load scenarios is important to ensure their safety. While static and dynamic loads from vehicles and pedestrians influence the instantaneous response of bridges, studies show that thermal load from diurnal and seasonal temperature variation influences its long-term response and durability. This study addresses the effects of thermal load variation on bridges and briefly reviews methods of measuring such effects. The findings show that thermally induced deformations in bridges are of magnitude equal or larger than that induced by vehicle induced load. This study highlights the significance of measuring temperature responses of bridges for their robust structural health monitoring.

Sushmita Borah, Amin Al-Habaibeh, Rolands Kromanis

Open Access

Chapter 27. The Future of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Vehicles in the UK

This paper details the development of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and its integration into the UK market. The aim of this research was to explore the benefits and limitations of the HEV system which there are many. Government policies and incentives; both current and future as well as HEV technologies are also summarised. The HEV is an excellent short to medium term solution for making travel more sustainable. However, in the long term, push for electric vehicles (EVs) will significantly increase from the Government in its aim to meet stringent emissions policies and there will likely be legislation to phase out HEVs that cannot be plugged in.

Greg Last, David E. Agbro, Abhishek Asthana

Energy Governance, Policy, and Sustainability


Open Access

Chapter 28. First Step Towards a System Dynamic Sustainability Assessment Model for Urban Energy Transition

This paper presents a conceptual model that describes the correlation between an urban energy system and sustainability. The model captures the complexity of the urban energy transition, and the task of achieving sustainable development needs to embrace all aspects of sustainability. This paper portrays the aspects of sustainability as four-dimensional—Environment, Economic, Society, and Technology. The relationship between these four dimensions and the urban energy system is presented in a simplified and aggregated-qualitative based causal-loop diagram. The causal-loop diagram illustrates the causal and interconnective relationships between the four dimensions and their different variables. The causal-loop diagram describes the complex dynamic relationships within a simple urban energy system. The paper also provides a brief description of balancing and reinforcing loops, with the causal-loop diagram present. The conceptual model along with the causal-loop diagrams visually illustrate the dynamic relationship between the four dimensions as well as highlights the complexity and challenging problems that decision-makers are facing today when it comes energy planning and energy system development.

Bjarnhedinn Gudlaugsson, Huda Dawood, Gobind Pillai, Michael Short

Open Access

Chapter 29. How Often Do You Open Your House Windows When Heating is ON? An Investigation of the Impact of Occupants’ Behaviour on Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings

Currently, there are many initiatives to thermally insulate buildings on the assumption that the more insulated the building is, the more efficient in terms of energy conservation it will perform. Many assessment systems assume a linear relationship between building insulation and energy conservation. The drawback of such hypotheses is that they ignore the effect of occupants’ behaviour in their conclusions. In this study, the authors will examine the effect of people’s behaviour, particularly windows’ opening, as a behavioural pattern of occupants. It aims to study the impact of occupant’s behaviour on energy consumption of residential buildings and to identify the key factors that influence occupants’ behaviour; thus, providing ideas for improving energy efficiency by suggesting enhanced policies, approaches and techniques. The findings suggest that occupants’ behaviour could have a greater influence on the energy efficiency of buildings in some cases when compared with their thermal insulation due to opening of windows in cold weather which causes air infiltration.

Sherna Salim, Amin Al-Habaibeh

Open Access

Chapter 30. Fuel Poverty and Health Implications of Elderly People Living in the UK

Fuel poverty is widely recognised as distinct form of injustice and social inequality and a front burner issue in the last three decades in the UK. The crisis affects 4.5 million households in the UK, and it is a major high-risk contributor to health of elderly people (NEA in Effects of Living in Fuel Poverty, NEA.ORG, London, 2020, [1]). Thus, the consequences of fuel poverty range from psychological stress, worry and isolation to serious health conditions such as respiratory and circulatory diseases. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of fuel poverty on reoccurring health risks of elderly people. The study adopted quantitative research methods with participants drawn from West Midlands region of England - UK; an area with high population of elderly people, carers, health professionals and energy professionals. Findings from the survey indicate that fuel poverty is one of the major aspects that contributes to health implications among elderly people in the UK.

Ali Mohamed Abdi, Andrew Arewa, Mark Tyrer

Open Access

Chapter 31. How Clean Is the Air You Breathe? Air Quality During Commuting Using Various Transport Modes in Nottingham

Air quality has developed into a significant global issue and its negative effect on human health, wellbeing and ultimately the effect of shortening of life expectancy is becoming a pressing concern. Such concerns are most acute in cities in the UK. Although many cities, including Nottingham, are taking significant measures to enhance air quality, there was limited work focusing on the individual’s experience during commuting. This paper suggests a novel approach for measuring commuting air quality through quantifying particulate matters PM2.5 and PM10, using the city of Nottingham as a case study. Portable low-cost systems comprising of a GPS sensor and an Aeroqual pollution data logger were used to capture data and develop the sensor fusion via newly developed software. Data was collected from a variety of transport modes comprising bike, bus, car, tram and walking to provide evidence on relative particulate levels and 2D and 3D data maps were produced to communicate the relative pollution levels in a publicly accessible manner. The study found as expected particulate pollution to be higher during peak hours and typically closer to the city. However whilst the lowest particulate concentrations were found on the Tram the highest were for cyclists contrary to the literature. The project encompasses a democratic crowd sourced approach to data collection by enabling the public to gather data via their daily commute, increasing people’s awareness of the air quality in their locality. The acquired data permitted a range of comparisons considering differing times of day and zones such as the city centre and surrounding residential areas in the City council boundary.

Bubaker Shakmak, Matthew Watkins, Amin Al-Habaibeh



Open Access

Chapter 32. Reformulating Ceramic Body Composition to Improve Energy Efficiency in Brick Manufacture

The influence of inorganic minerals (colemanite and nepheline syenite) as additives for sustainable clay brick manufacture has been examined. Each additive was added at 4 wt% to 96 wt% brick clay and samples were fired to 950 °C and 1040 °C and then compared with samples of 100% brick clay. Multiple analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence, dilatometry, boiling water absorption, volumetric shrinkage, and mercury porosimetry) were used for analysis. Dilatometry shows that the additives influenced the temperature at which shrinkage began and the extent of that shrinkage. The use of colemanite reduced the temperature at which the shrinkage began by 120 °C and nepheline syenite reduced it by 20 °C. A linear shrinkage in dilatometry of 1% (from the maximum expanded length) was achieved at 1000 °C for 100% clay, 875 °C for colemanite additions and 970 °C for nepheline syenite additions. However, for samples fired at 1040 °C for 2 h colemanite containing samples had significantly lower volumetric shrinkage and higher water absorption than 100% clay and nepheline syenite samples, suggesting the presence of higher amounts of open porosity caused by the decomposition of the colemanite on heating. Samples containing nepheline syenite had a lower volumetric shrinkage but also a marginally lower water absorption than the 100% clay. The further optimisation of these or similar additives could potentially provide energy saving opportunities and reductions in CO2 emissions for brick manufacturers.

G. Wie-Addo, A. H. Jones, S. Palmer, V. Starinieri, J. Renshaw, P. A. Bingham

Open Access

Chapter 33. Mechanical Strength of Poly Nanofiber Patch Under a Biaxial Tensile Loading

Most conventional material testing apparatuses are unable to assess poly-nanofibers sheets in biaxial directions. This study reports the design and prototyping of a biaxial tensile apparatus which can measure the mechanical property of a poly nanofibers patch. Several samples were assessed using the designed biaxial tensile testing machine and results recorded. Function of the apparatus was validated versus convention methods and outcome confirmed that it is accurate and reliable for testing poly nanofibers patch.

Elif Sensoy, Mahmoud Chizari

Open Access

Chapter 34. Damage Characterisation in Composite Laminates Using Vibro-Acoustic Technique

The need to characterise in-service damage in composite structures is increasingly becoming important as composites find higher utilisation in wind turbines, aerospace, automotive, marine, among others. This paper investigates the feasibility of simplifying the conventional acousto-ultrasonic technique set-up for quick and economic one-sided in-service inspection of composite structures. Acousto-ultrasonic technique refers to the approach of using ultrasonic transducer for local excitation while sensing the material response with an acoustic emission sensor. However, this involves transducers with several auxiliaries. The approach proposed herewith, referred to as vibro-acoustic testing, involves a low level of vibration impact excitation and acoustic emission sensing for damage characterisation. To test the robustness of this approach, first, a quasi-static test was carried out to impute low-velocity impact damage on three groups of test samples with different ply stacking sequences. Next, the vibro-acoustic testing was performed on all test samples with the acoustic emission response for the samples acquired. Using the acoustic emission test sample response for all groups, the stress wave factor was determined using the peak voltage stress wave factor method. The stress wave factor results showed an inverse correlation between the level of impact damage and stress wave factor across all the test sample groups. This corresponds with what has been reported in literature for acousto-ultrasonic technique; thus demonstrating the robustness of the proposed vibro-acoustic set-up. Structural health monitoring, impact damage, acousto-ultrasonic testing, non-destructive testing.

Kristian Gjerrestad Andersen, Gbanaibolou Jombo, Sikiru Oluwarotimi Ismail, Yong Kang Chen, Hom Nath Dhakal, Yu Zhang
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