Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

This thesis focuses on the energy, chemical and carbon implications of diverse wastewater treatment alternatives, and offers effective solutions for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to achieve sustainability goals. The author first uses the life cycle philosophy to explore the environmental performance of several representative wastewater treatment systems, and then proposes a refined assessment framework, accompanying analytical toolkit and case study for further quantifying the environmental sustainability of various wastewater management scenarios. Allowing readers to gain a better understanding of the existing wastewater treatment technologies from a sustainability perspective, this book helps decision makers identify promising approaches to the environmentally friendly operation of WWTPs and make infrastructure investments that are appropriate for future changing conditions.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Secondary biological processes, which are currently widely used for the treatment of municipal wastewater, effectively remove substances, such as organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus, from wastewater, thereby satisfying certain discharge standards.
Xu Wang

Chapter 2. Systematic Literature Review

Abstract
Secondary biological processes are currently widely used in the treatment of municipal wastewater, and they effectively remove substances (such as organic matter (OM), nitrogen, and phosphorus) from the wastewater, thereby satisfying certain discharge standards (Daigger et al. in Water Sci Technol 38(11):23–30, 2017).
Xu Wang

Chapter 3. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Typical Wastewater Treatment Chains

Abstract
It is widely known that the purpose of constructing and commissioning municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is to reduce the pollution and eutrophication of receiving waters caused by wastewater discharge. The recent rapid growth of the world population and increasingly stringent demand for water quality have become new driving forces in the research and development of new municipal wastewater treatment processes and the upgrade and reconstruction of existing processes.
Xu Wang

Chapter 4. A Refined Assessment Methodology for Wastewater Treatment Alternatives

Abstract
The environmental quality of receiving waters will no longer be the sole objective of sustained management in future wastewater treatment. In addition to the protection of water resources and environments, considerable attention must be paid to other resources, such as energy and nutrient resources, for long-term sustained development. It is certain that the reduction of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and resource recovery will become key focus areas in the development of new wastewater treatment technologies and processes in the future. The exploration of methods to construct novel ensemble-type wastewater treatment technologies and processes aiming at energy conservation, reduced carbon emissions, and resource recovery based on existing technologies and processes is the future trend in the development of the wastewater industry. As described in Sect. 2.​3, comprehensive assessment systems of wastewater treatment processes were established based on the assurance of environmental benefits such as the water quality. In Chap. 3, the sources and key links of the environmental impact of typical wastewater treatment processes were preliminarily analyzed from the life cycle perspective. However, there is a lack of consideration of the recovery and utilization of usable materials in wastewater and sludge and relevant scenario settings and analysis. Therefore, regardless of the research and development of new technologies and new processes in the future or the upgrade and reconstruction of existing processes, a scientific, systematic, and comprehensive wastewater treatment assessment system is required. Such a system should consider the technological levels of existing wastewater treatment processes and the main environmental effects of the wastewater treatment and resource recovery potential of materials produced during the treatment.
Xu Wang

Chapter 5. Determination of the Weighting Element of Assessment Indicators

Abstract
The assessment system for multi-objective management of wastewater treatment is a comprehensive system that involves multiple scenarios and objectives. Since the various indicators in the indicator system have different roles and levels of importance, different weighting coefficients must be assigned to the different assessment indicators. Indicator weights, which reflect the different levels of importance of the indicators in an assessment system, are comprehensive measures of the subjective assessment and objective reflections of the relative importance of indicators in an assessment or decision-making process. The determination of the weighting system and the reasonableness of the assigned weights are critical in determining the scientific reasonableness of the assessment conclusions. A change in the weight of a certain indicator will influence all assessment conclusions. In addition, under different spatial, temporal, and geographical conditions, the level of importance of the same assessment indicator for the same assessed subject may be different; therefore, the weights of the respective assessment indicators must be determined based on actual circumstances.
Xu Wang

Chapter 6. Scenario Analysis for the Multi-objective Management of Municipal Wastewater

Abstract
The ultimate purpose of model construction and simulation is not merely prediction; more importantly, they enable the simulation and assessment of policies formulated by policymakers. Within this context, a scenario analysis method has been proposed. A scenario is not a single prophecy or prediction; it provides plausible directions and trends for future development. During scenario design, each designer conceives and envisages the future blueprint, or more precisely, develops a future development concept. Therefore, a retrospective analysis of the objective development history is required before scenario definition and construction. Subsequently, a set of reasonable, generally accepted, and justifiable assumptions or confirmed future prospects should be developed. Finally, the possibilities of achieving the prospects and measures that must be adopted are analyzed (Khan et al. 2017). The greatest difference between scenario analysis and conventional prediction methods is that the scenario analysis involves the investigation of future situations that may occur under certain presuppositions and the conditions that lead to these situations, while prediction merely attempts to describe situations that are most likely to occur in the future (Wang et al. 2018).
Xu Wang

Chapter 7. Preliminary Exploration of Sustainability Solutions for Wastewater Management Services: A Case Study of Organic Carbon Regulation

Abstract
In Chap. 3, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to perform an environmental impact inventory analysis of typical wastewater treatment processes. On this basis, assessment elements, such as the recovery potential of usable matter in wastewater and sludge, were incorporated for the construction of a novel assessment system for multi-objective management of municipal wastewater treatment in Chap. 4, and a method for the determination of an indicator weighting system was subsequently proposed in Chap. 5. In the following chapter, the time series prediction method was adopted to perform scenario analysis and predictions for the multi-objective management of municipal wastewater treatment in developed and developing countries.
Xu Wang

Chapter 8. Conclusions and Prospects for the Future

Abstract
In the present work, the inadequacies of wastewater treatment processes were assessed using the life cycle assessment method, which has been widely applied in many fields.
Xu Wang
Additional information