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About this book

This book highlights a diverse range of initiatives that have been launched to attain sustainable mobility systems, in particular regarding the energy efficiency aspect. It offers a valuable reference for various stakeholders in transportation systems, while also sharing new ideas on how transportation can meet the challenges of tomorrow.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Mobility Systems

Abstract
Mobility systems explore the movement of people, things, and ideas. This book is intended to delve into the first two. In many cases, they are referred to as the transportation systems. They are complicated issues nowadays primarily due to the drastic increase in human population and the related consequences. The differences in geographical locations, culture, socioeconomic backgrounds, politics, and many other factors make mobility systems far more complex.
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman

Chapter 2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell in Vehicle Propulsion: Performance, Efficiency, and Challenge

Abstract
This chapter provides comprehensive review on the current development of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in automotive application to assist further development of hydrogen fuel cell and expedite its wide adoption on a commercial scale. Special attention is devoted to the performance and efficiency of PEMFC especially on vehicular application and key issues hindering further development of PEMFC to achieve its commercialization stage. Subsequently, various mitigation strategies proposed to address the aforementioned issues are outlined and discussed. Lastly, further research and development needs of the field are highlighted and discussed.
Jundika Candra Kurnia, Agus Pulung Sasmito

Chapter 3. Prospect of Composite Tubes Based on Bi-materials for Weight Reduction of Vehicles

Abstract
This chapter provides a study related to energy absorption and failure modes of thin-walled tubes under axial compression. The study was to focuses on partial wrapping of light-weight thin-walled aluminium tube with glass/epoxy, which is very significant to enhance the safety of automobiles. Partially wrapped aluminium tube samples have been prepared according to the L9 Taguchi design orthogonal array, by applying various fiber orientations, composite layers and partially wrapped area via filament winding process. The study revealed that the optimum combination of fiber orientation, composite layers, and the partially wrapped area was ±55°, 6, and 30% respectively. This combination was achieved via the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main plot effect analysis. Moreover, this combination also has 81.92, and 62.08% higher values of specific energy absorption (SEA), and 47.67 and 1.54% more values of crush force efficiency (CFE) as compared to the simple aluminium tube and its predecessor the steel tube, respectively. The results show the two-lobe diamond failure mode of this combination (±55°, 6, and 30%). The findings demonstrate the ability of the approach as a reliable and light-weight solution for energy absorbers with a high value of SEA and CFE.
Tahir Abbas, Hamdan Haji Ya, M. Zaki Abdullah, Suhaimi Hassan, Muhammad Yasar Javaid

Chapter 4. Mobility and Health: The Interaction of Activity-Travel Patterns, Overall Well-Being, Transport-Related Social Exclusion on Health Parameters

Abstract
This chapter provides a descriptive analysis of research development in mobility and health. The relationship between daily activity-travel participations and health parameters is not straightforward. It seems that overall well-being and transport-related social exclusion can mediate the relationship between daily activity-travel patterns and health conditions. More advanced model such as a hierarchical SEM can be used for further analysis.
Dimas B. E. Dharmowijoyo, Tri Basuki Joewono

Chapter 5. Water in Diesel Emulsion Behavior in High-Pressure Direct Injection System

Abstract
This chapter describes the approaches used in micro-explosion studies, fundamentals of the micro-explosion processes, and the main factors influencing the micro-explosion behavior. Moreover, this chapter briefly discussed the effect of injection equipment on the dispersed water droplets size and the results related to their micro-explosion behavior.
A. Rashid A. Aziz, Mhadi A. Ismael, Morgan Heikal, Firmansyah, Ibrahim B. Dalha, Ezrann Zharif Zainal Abidin

Chapter 6. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition: An Advanced Combustion Mode for Improved Energy Efficiency

Abstract
This chapter reviews reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), which is an advanced combustion mode. RCCI is capable of improving thermal efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emission. However, it has high specific fuel consumption, unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and thus requiring appropriate strategies. The effects of some strategies were found to influence advanced combustion phase and reduced UHC and CO emissions to a certain extent while maintaining RCCI reputability or otherwise. The use of bio-based low reactivity fuels (LRF) in RCCI combustion serves as a substitute for gasoline in reactivity stratification. Depending on the LRF used, utilization of biodiesel enables controlled combustion phase, extended load and significantly reduce soot and CO emissions, but it increases NOx and UHC emissions through NOx is compromised with biodiesel blends. The use of biodiesel can serve a greater advantage over conventional diesel when appropriate LRF and strategy are used especially for medium to higher blends or pure biodiesel.
Ibrahim B. Dalha, Mior A. Said, Z. A. Abdul Karim, A. Rashid A. Aziz, Firmansyah, Ezrann Zharif Zainal Abidin, Mhadi A. Ismael

Chapter 7. Principal, Design and Characteristics of a Free Piston Linear Generator

Abstract
This chapter introduces the working principle, potential applications and current developments of free-piston engines (FPE) used for electricity generation. FPE is essentially a type of internal combustion engine (ICE) with its crankshaft mechanism removed to reduce total weightage and friction loses. However, since engine control conventionally relies heavily on crankshaft, an alternative control system is required for FPE. Therefore, studies are conducted on a free-piston linear generator (FPLG) prototype evaluating the optimum control and operation parameters to obtain best performance.
A. Rashid A. Aziz, M. B. Baharom, Ezrann Zharif Zainal Abidin, Firmansyah, Salah E. Mohammed, W. N. Azleen W. Nadhari, Evelyn, M. Noraiman M. Jaffry

Chapter 8. Efficient Visualization of Scattered Energy Distribution Data by Using Cubic Timmer Triangular Patches

Abstract
This chapter discusses the application of the new cubic Timmer triangular patches constructed by Ali et al. [1] to interpolate the irregularly scattered data with C1 continuity. In order to apply the cubic Timmer triangular patches for scattered data interpolation, the data is first triangulated by using the Delaunay algorithm, and then the sufficient condition for C1 continuity is derived along the adjacent triangles. Two methods are used to calculate the cubic Timmer ordinates on each triangle. The convex combination between three local schemes Ti, i  = 1, 2, 3 is used to produce the C1 surface everywhere. The proposed scheme will be tested to visualize three types of energy data sets with irregular shape properties. Numerical and graphical results are presented using MATLAB. Comparisons of the proposed scheme with some existing procedures such as cubic Ball and cubic Bézier triangular patches are also carried out. The resulting surface produced by cubic Timmer triangular patch is better than that produced using cubic Ball and cubic Bezier triangular patches with an overall coefficient of determination R2 value obtained to be larger than 0.8359.
Fatin Amani Mohd Ali, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim, Sarat Chandra Dass, Vaclav Skala, Mohammad Khatim Hasan, Ishak Hashim

Chapter 9. Biodiesel-Fuelled Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

Abstract
This chapter presents a research that was carried out mainly to partly solve the problem that comes up from the depletion of fossil fuel, through the use of biodiesel. Biodiesel is easily attained because of its renewable nature. This chapter discusses the feasibility of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in a compression ignition(diesel) engine; under certain engine’s operating condition. The engine behaviour under the influence of different fractions of biodiesel (B0, B7, B10 and B20) is demonstrated.
Saheed Wasiu

Chapter 10. A Study on Handling of Stranded Motorcycles in Malaysia

Abstract
In Malaysia, motorcycles are well known as vehicles with significantly low fuel consumption due to its low weight. Nevertheless, motorcycles also contribute to many issues such as emission, noise, traffic, and a few others. On top of that, motorcycle riders are exposed to various situations such as exposure to harsh weather, tendency of being hit by larger vehicles, and unexpected breakdown. This chapter discusses a study on the handling of motorcycles in the event when they are stranded. The primary concern here is on the safety of the riders and other road users. Although this chapter is not directly related to energy efficiency, it looks into an important aspect of a transport system that has a significant feature of low fuel consumption. The study was conducted through a survey and also via an interview with the local authority.
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman, Choo Sin Keat, Bong Hong Seng, M. Syahir Sazali, M. Ashraf Azhar
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